Cellulosics Dyeing Edited by John Shore

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Cellulosics Dyeing
Edited by John Shore
Cellulosics Dyeing Edited by John Shore

Contents
Contributors viii
Preface ix
CHAPTER 1 Cellulose: structure, properties and behaviour in the dyeing process
by Thomas P Nevell 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Cellulosic textile fibres 1
1.3 Molecular structure 14
1.4 Supramolecular structure 16
1.5 Degradation of cellulose 26
1.6 Derivatives 41
1.7 Affinity for water and organic liquids 48
1.8 Solvents for cellulose 52
1.9 Swelling 57
1.10 Structure of cotton in relation to dyeing 65
1.11 Structure of regenerated cellulosic fibres in relation to dyeing 70
1.12 References 73
CHAPTER 2 Preparation by William S Hickman 81
2.1 Introduction 81
2.2 Impurities present in cellulosic fibres 82
2.3 Chemicals for preparation 83
2.4 Water 90
2.5 Preparation machinery 91
2.6 Cotton preparation 106
2.7 Bleaching 117
2.8 Preparation of regenerated cellulosic fibres 136
2.9 Preparation of bast fibres 138
2.10 Monitoring the process liquors 140
2.11 Monitoring the results 142
2.12 Final comments 148
2.13 References 149
CHAPTER 3 Dyeing with direct dyes by John Shore 152
3.1 Introduction 152
3.2 Structure and properties of direct dyes for cellulose 153
3.3 Dye structure and dyeability of cellulosic fibres 162
3.4 Application properties of direct dyes 171
3.5 Batchwise application of direct dyes to cellulosic textiles 175
3.6 Semi- and fully continuous dyeing processes for direct dyes 177
3.7 Aftertreatment processes for direct dyeings 177
3.8 Significance of finishing for direct dyes on cellulosic fabrics 182
3.9 References 186
CHAPTER 4 Dyeing with reactive dyes by John Shore 189
4.1 Introduction 189
4.2 Historical background 190
4.3 Reactive systems 192
4.4 Structure and properties 209
4.5 Batchwise application 214
4.6 Semi- and fully continuous application 225
4.7 Washing-off and aftertreatment 232
4.8 Stability of dye–fibre bonds 237
4.9 Reactive dyeing residues in waste liquors 241
4.10 References 242
CHAPTER 5 Dyeing with vat dyes
by Francis R Latham 246
5.1 Introduction 246
5.2 Fundamental principles 247
5.3 Fundamental processes of vat dyeing 263
5.4 Dyeing methods 267
5.5 References 278
CHAPTER 6 Dyeing with sulphur dyes
by Colin Senior 280
6.1 Commercial position 280
6.2 Constitution of sulphur dyes 281
6.3 Classification and commercial forms 282
6.4 Auxiliaries 285
6.5 Application methods 294
6.6 Effluent treatment 311
6.7 Fastness performance 313
6.8 Common faults 316
6.9 References 319
CHAPTER 7 Dyeing with azoic components
by John Shore 321
7.1 Introduction 321
7.2 Chemical constitution and hues obtainable 322
7.3 Treatment with naphthols 326
7.4 Intermediate treatments 331
7.5 Development 333
7.6 Aftertreatment 340
7.7 Dyeing of mercerised cotton and other cellulosic fibres 342
7.8 Equipment for azoic dyeing 344
7.9 Fastness of azoic dyeings 349
7.10 Stripping of azoic dyeings 350
7.11 References 350
CHAPTER 8 Selection of dyes for dyeing cellulosic fibres
by John Shore 352
8.1 Introduction 352
8.2 Principles of evaluation and testing of dyes 356
8.3 Influence of colour and dyeing properties on selection between dye classes 360
8.4 Selection between dye classes according to substrate and fastness requirements 376
8.5 Factors governing choice between sub-classes within the major dye classes 388
8.6 References 395

Preface
This book is another in the series on colour and coloration technology initiated by the Textbooks Committee of the Society of Dyers and Colourists under the aegis of the Dyers’ Company Publications Trust Management Committee, which administers the trust fund generously provided by the Worshipful Company of Dyers.

It has been written to replace the previous work in this series entitled The dyeing of cellulosic fibres, which is now out of print. Assembled mainly about fifteen years ago under the editorship of Cliff Preston and eventually published in 1986, that multi-author book had become somewhat outdated. Rather than prepare a formal second edition, Textbooks Committee decided to go for a modified approach. A smaller team of authors was appointed with a view to completing the update more quickly and achieving a more coherent presentation of the contents.

To take due account of technological changes in the dyeing of cellulosic materials over recent years, at least half of the book has been completely rewritten and the remaining less active topics have been updated and rearranged considerably. Much new illustrative material has been added and the presentation of those illustrations retained from the 1986 book has been much improved. Discussion of the preparation and dyeing of cellulosic blend materials has been deliberately omitted, in view of the decision by Textbooks Committee to produce a separate publication on the dyeing of fibre blends. This present work has been completely re-indexed and the lists of references at the end of each chapter have been revised, extended and updated throughout.

In many of the areas covered, of course, we have retained material or ideas originated by our fellow authors of the chapters in the 1986 book and we should like to record our sincere thanks to them for helping us in this way to build on their contributions. These individuals are: Ulrich Baumgarte, David Clarke, Ken Dickinson, Maurice Fox, Hans Herzog, Ian Holme, Bernard Kramrisch, Bill Marshall and Harry Sumner.

The authors and editor of this book are indebted to our referees for valuable comments and suggestions for improvement. Our grateful thanks are due to Paul Dinsdale (the editor of the Society), Ros Amery (copy editing and proof reading), Carol Davies (artwork and layout) and Sue Bailey (typing). We are particularly impressed by the quality of the illustrations, which are a notable improvement on those in the 1986 book on this subject.

JOHN SHORE


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