Blends Dyeing by John Shore

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Blends Dyeing
By John Shore
Blends Dyeing by John Shore

Contents
Preface ix
CHAPTER 1 Why blending is necessary 1
1.1 Blending from the dyer’s viewpoint 1
1.2 The composition of blend fabrics 2
1.3 The relative importance of individual blends 3
1.4 Reasons for the development of fibre blends 5
1.5 Colour effects achieved by blending 10
1.6 Sighting colours for identification purposes 19
1.7 References 20
CHAPTER 2 Classification of fibre types and their blends 21
2.1 Classification of fibre types in terms of dyeability 21
2.2 Colour distribution attainable on binary blends 22
2.3 References 25
CHAPTER 3 Dynamic competition between fibre types in the dyeing of blends 26
3.1 Introduction 26
3.2 The distribution of acid dyes on nylon/wool blends 29
3.3 The distribution of acid dyes on nylon/polyurethane blends 35
3.4 The cross-staining of wool by disperse dyes 36
3.5 The cross-staining of wool by basic dyes 41
3.6 The transfer of disperse dyes during thermofixation of polyester/cellulosic blends 44
3.7 References 45
CHAPTER 4 Minimising incompatibility between dyes from different classes 46
4.1 Interaction between disperse dyes and reactive dyes 46
4.2 Interaction between disperse or vat dyes and basic dyes 47
4.3 Interaction between anionic dyes and basic dyes 48
4.4 References 52
CHAPTER 5 Principles of design and colouring of differential-dyeing blends 53
5.1 Design of differential-dyeing variant synthetic-polymer yarns 53
5.2 Dyeing of acid-dyeable nylon variants 57
5.3 Dyeing of acid-dyeable/basic-dyeable nylon variants 61
5.4 Design of differential-dyeing cellulosic fabrics 63
5.5 Design of differential-dyeing wool keratin derivatives 71
5.6 References 76
CHAPTER 6 Nylon/wool and other AA blends 77
6.1 Dyeing of nylon/wool blends 77
6.2 Blends of wool with other acid-dyeable fibres 79
6.3 Blends of nylon with other acid-dyeable fibres 82
6.4 Dyeing methods and dye selection for AA blends 84
6.5 References 85
CHAPTER 7 Wool/acrylic and other AB blends 86
7.1 Dyeing of wool/acrylic blends 86
7.2 Dyeing of nylon/acrylic blends 90
7.3 Blends of acid-dyeable and basic-dyeable acrylicvariants 91
7.4 Blends of modacrylic and acrylic fibres 93
7.5 Blends of amide fibres with modacrylic or acid-dyeableacrylic variants 94
7.6 Blends of basic-dyeable polyester with wool or nylon 96
7.7 Dyeing methods and dye selection for AB blends 99
7.8 References 99
CHAPTER 8 Wool/cellulosic and other AC blends 100
8.1 Dyeing of wool/cellulosic blends 100
8.2 Exhaust dyeing of nylon/cellulosic blends 108
8.3 Continuous dyeing of nylon/cellulosic blends 113
8.4 Dyeing methods and dye selection for AC blends 115
8.5 References 118
CHAPTER 9 Cellulosic/acrylic and other CB blends 119
9.1 Exhaust dyeing of cellulosic/acrylic blends 119
9.2 Continuous dyeing of cellulosic/acrylic blends 122
9.3 Blends of cellulosic fibres with modacrylic or acid-dyeable acrylic variants 124
9.4 Blends of basic-dyeable polyester with cotton 126
9.5 Dyeing methods and dye selection for CB blends 126
9.6 References 128
CHAPTER 10 Cotton/viscose and other CC blends 129
10.1 Properties and performance of cellulosic fibres in their blends 129
10.2 Dyeing behaviour of cellulosic fibres in their blends 133
10.3 Dyeing methods and dye selection for CC blends 136
10.4 References 137
CHAPTER 11 Polyester/wool and other DA blends 138
11.1 Dyeing of polyester/wool blends 138
11.2 Blends of cellulose acetate or triacetate with wool 149
11.3 Dyeing of polyester/nylon blends 152
11.4 Blends of cellulose acetate or triacetate with nylon 154
11.5 Blends of poly(vinyl chloride) fibres with wool or nylon 157
11.6 Dyeing methods and dye selection for DA blends 160
11.7 References 160
CHAPTER 12 Polyester/acrylic and other DB blends 161
12.1 Dyeing of polyester/acrylic blends 161
12.2 Blends of cellulose acetate or triacetate with acrylic fibres 163
12.3 Dyeing of normal/basic-dyeable polyester blends 165
12.4 Dyeing methods and dye selection for DB blends 168
12.5 References 168
CHAPTER 13 Polyester/cellulosic and other DC blends 169
13.1 Exhaust dyeing of polyester/cellulosic blends 169
13.2 Continuous dyeing of polyester/cellulosic blends 187
13.3 Blends of cellulose acetate or triacetate with cellulosic fibres 197
13.4 Blends of poly(vinyl chloride) fibres with cellulosic fibres 201
13.5 Dyeing methods and dye selection for DC blends 201
13.6 References 204
CHAPTER 14 Triacetate/polyester and other DD blends 206
14.1 Dyeing properties of disperse-dyeable fibre blends 206
14.2 Dyeing methods and dye selection for DD blends 210
14.3 References 211
CHAPTER 15 Dyeing properties of three-component blends 212
15.1 Introduction 212
15.2 Dyeing of AAA blends 213
15.3 Dyeing of AAB blends 215
15.4 Dyeing of AAC blends 216
15.5 Dyeing of CBA blends 217
15.6 Dyeing of DAA blends 217
15.7 Dyeing of DAC blends 218
15.8 Dyeing of DBA blends 219
15.9 Dyeing of DBC blends 220
15.10 Dyeing of DDA blends 221
15.11 Dyeing of DDC blends 222
15.12 Dyeing methods and dye selection for three-component blends 222
15.13 References 225

Preface
This book is an addition to the series on coloration technology issued by the Textbooks Committee of the Society of Dyers and Colourists under the aegis of the Dyers’ Company Publications Trust Management Committee, which administers the fund generously provided by the Worshipful Company of Dyers.

Earlier books on dyeing technology in this series, namely The dyeing of synthetic-polymer and acetate fibres (1979), The dyeing of cellulosics fibres (1986) and Wool dyeing (1992), each contained a chapter on the dyeing of those fibre blends most relevant to their respective titles. Inevitably, this approach lacked balance, and material on specific blends was either partially duplicated or, more often, entirely overlooked. When replacements for the 1979 and 1986 books were under consideration in the early 1990s, the decision was taken to produce a separate volume dedicated to the dyeing of fibre blends. This book is the result of that change of approach.

Very few books have been devoted solely to this subject. The best known is undoubtedly the ‘classic’ Dyeing of fibre blends (1966), written by Roy Cheetham of Courtaulds. Invaluable in its time, Cheetham’s book was a mine of practical information and detailed recommendations for every conceivable blend. The treatment in this present book is intended to provide only general guidelines in this respect, since a dyer encountering an unfamiliar blend for the first time cannot avoid undertaking preliminary development work. An attempt is made in the first five chapters of this book to express some general principles applicable to the theme. A classification of blends according to the dyeing properties of their component fibres is introduced in Chapter 2. These categories form the respective topics of the remaining ten chapters on dyeing methods.

The author is indebted to the referee of this book and to Jim Park for valuable comments and suggestions for improvement of the text. Grateful thanks are due to Paul Dinsdale (the editor of the Society), Gina Walker (copy editing and proof reading) and Sue Petherbridge (typesetting and layout).

JOHN SHORE


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