Requirements of a Perfect Steam Boiler ix
Tables and Spreadsheets xi
1 Experience 1
2 General Data 29
3 Gas and Oil Fuels 81
4 Solid Fuels 101
5 Steam Boiler Feedwater 145
6 Boiler Feedwater Pumps 161
7 Stack Gases 181
8 Flows 205
9 Boiler Energy Conservation 267
10 Electricity Generation and Cogeneration 293
Much time was spent in researching data in the 35-plus years of my involvement in boiler house work. This text is a compilation of most of that data and information. The purpose of this book is to make the day-to-day boiler house work easier for the power engineer, the operators, and the maintenance people, by supplying a single source for hard-to-find information.
Nontechnical people with an interest in boiler house operation include plant management personnel, safety personnel, and supervisory personnel in government and industry. The technical material in this book, including the spreadsheet calculations and formulas, should be of interest to the boiler engineer, boiler designer, boiler operator, and the power engineering student.
Requirements of a Perfect Steam Boiler
1. Proper workmanship and simple construction, using materials which experience has shown to be the best, thus avoiding the necessity of early repairs.
2. A mud drum to receive all impurities deposited from the water, and so placed as to be removed from the action of the fire.
3. A steam and water capacity sufficient to prevent any fluctuation in steam pressure or water level.
4. A water surface for the disengagement of the steam from the water, of sufficient extent to prevent foaming.
5. A constant and thorough circulation of water throughout the boiler, so as to maintain all parts at the same temperature.
6. The water space divided into sections so arranged that, should any section fail, no general explosion can occur and the destructive effects will be confined to the escape of the contents. Large and free passages between the different sections to equalize the water line and pressure in all.
7. A great excess of strength over any legitimate strain, the boiler being so constructed as to be free from strains due to unequal expansion, and, if possible, to avoid joints exposed to the direct action of the fire.
8. A combustion chamber so arranged that the combustion of the gases started in the furnace may be completed before the gases escape to the chimney.
9. The heating surface as nearly as possible at right angles to the currents of heated gases, so as to break up the currents and extract the entire available heat from the gases.
10. All parts readily accessible for cleaning and repairs. This is a point of the greatest importance as regards safety and economy.
11. Proportioned for the work to be done, and capable of working to its full rated capacity with the highest economy.
12. Equipped with the very best gauges, safety valves, and other fixtures.
Tables and Spreadsheets
Title Page number
2.1 Boiler Horsepower 40
Horizontal Return Tube Boiler Ratings 41
2.2 Theoretical Air Required for Various Fuels 44
2.3 Cost of Energy 45
2.4 Steam Boiler Tubing and Drum Materials 53
2.5 U.S. Sieve Series and Tyler Equivalents 74
2.6 Horsepower Worth: Present Worth Analysis 77
2.7 Surface Emittances of Metals and their Oxides 78
2.8 Normal Emissivities for Various Surfaces 78
2.9 Properties of Rubber 80
3.1 Scotch Marine Boiler Tube Data 87, 88, 89
3.3 Fuels: Oil and Gas Analysis 93
3.4 Combustion Constants 94
3.5 Minimum Auto-Ignition Temperatures 95
3.6 Natural Gas Combustion 96
3.7 Natural Gas Combustion—Formulas 97
3.8 Fuel Oil Combustion 98
3.9 Fuel Oil Combustion—Formulas 99
4.1 Biomass Fuel Combustion 113
4.2 Biomass Fuel Combustion—Formulas 114
4.3 Typical Biomass fired Boiler Performance 115
4.4 Municipal Solid Waste Combustion 116, 117
4.5 Btu in Wet Biomass Fuel 120
4.6 Table of Moisture Content 121
4.7 Types of Pulverizers for Various Materials 134
4.8 Thermochemical Properties of Biomass Fuels 135, 136, 137
4.9 Data: Southern Hardwoods 138
4.10 Thermochemical Analysis: Miscellaneous Fuels 139
4.11 Thermochemical Analysis of Rubber Tires 140
4.12 Stages: Vegetal Matter in Coal 141
4.13 Properties: U.S. Coals & Low-Rank World Coals 142
5.1 Properties of Water 151
5.2 Boiler Feedwater Btu 152
7.1 Characteristics of Air & Gas Cleaning Devices 199
7.2 Gas Particles 200, 201
7.3 Gas Property: Cp 202
7.4 Heat Content of Combustion Gases: Btu/lb. 203
8.1 Viscosities of Miscellaneous Fluids 210
8.2 Losses in Equivalent Feet of Pipe—Valves, etc. 212
8.3 Losses in Equivalent Feet of Pipe—Sch. 80/0.5″ wall 215
8.4 Estimated Piping Heat Loss 217
8.5 Estimated Piping Heat Loss 219
8.6 Thermal Conductivity of Pipe Insulation 220
8.7 Linear Thermal Expansion—Metals 221
8.8 Saturated Steam Properties w/Piping Loss 227
8.9 Saturated Steam Properties w/piping Loss—Formulas 229
8.10 Superheated Steam Properties w/Piping Loss 232
8.11 Superheated Steam Properties w/Piping Loss—Formulas 234
8.12 Steam Desuperheater Water Requirements 236
8.13 Pneumatic Conveying of Materials 239
8.14 Compressed Air Flow—Orifice or Leak 242
8.15 Theoretical Adiabatic Discharge Temperature for Air Compression 249
8.16 Boiler Tubing Properties 250
8.17 Boiler Tubing Properties—2″ od and larger 251
8.18 Properties of Pipe 252
8.19 Pipe Fitting Dimensions 258
8.20 Pipe Flange Dimensions 259
8.21 Length of Alloy Steel Stud Bolts 261
8.22 Pipe Flange Facings 263
9.1 Economizer Extended Surface Effect 273
9.2 Various Economizer Designs 276
9.3 Excess Air Requirements 280
9.4 Natural Gas Combustion Losses 282
9.5 Fuel Oil Combustion Losses 282
9.6 Boiler Steam Energy Cost 292
10.1 Estimated Steam Turbine/Generator Output 315
10.2 Theoretical Turbine Steam Rates 316
10.3 Steam Turbine—Generator Sets: Actual Prices 317
10.4 Gas Turbines—Partial Current List 318
10.5a Gas Turbine Data 319
10.5b Gas Turbine Data 320
10.6 Gas Engines 321
10.7 Cogeneration in Texas—Results 324