Steps to Compliance with International Labour Standards: The International Labour Organization (ILO) and the Abolition of Forced Labour by Lars Thomann

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Steps to Compliance with International Labour Standards: The International Labour Organization (ILO) and the Abolition of Forced Labour
By Lars Thomann
Steps to Compliance with International Labour Standards

Table of contents
1 Introduction.......................................................................................... 11
2 Compliance................................................................................... 21
2.1 Procedural compliance ..........................................................................................25
2.2 Substantive compliance .........................................................................................26
2.3 Rational institutionalism........................................................................................28
2.3.1 The source of compliance ............................................................................................. 28
2.3.2 Mechanisms...................................................................................................................... 29
2.3.3 Actors................................................................................................................................ 32
2.4 Legitimacy school ..................................................................................................32
2.4.1 The source of compliance ............................................................................................. 32
2.4.2 Mechanisms...................................................................................................................... 33
2.4.3 Actors................................................................................................................................ 35
2.5 Management school...............................................................................................36
2.5.1 The source of compliance ............................................................................................. 36
2.5.2 Mechanisms...................................................................................................................... 37
2.5.3 Actors................................................................................................................................ 38
2.6 Legalization school ................................................................................................39
2.6.1 The source of compliance ............................................................................................. 39
2.6.2 Mechanisms...................................................................................................................... 39
2.6.3 Actors................................................................................................................................ 41
2.7 Summary ................................................................................................................42
3 The ILO and international labour standards ....................................................................45
3.1 Mandate and structure of the ILO.........................................................................47
3.2 Norm setting activities........................................................................................... 51
3.3 Norm supervision and implementation.................................................................58
3.4 Technical cooperation ........................................................................................... 61
3.5 Summary ................................................................................................................62
4 The ILO and compliance ..................................................................................................65
4.1 Rational institutionalism........................................................................................66
4.1.1 Monitoring........................................................................................................................ 67
4.1.1.1 Regular reporting on ratified Conventions under Article 22 .............................67
4.1.1.2 Reporting on unratified Conventions and Recommendations..........................73
4.1.1.3 Submission of instruments to the competent authorities...................................75
4.1.1.4 Monitoring and reporting under the 1998 Declaration ......................................77
4.1.1.5 Summary.....................................................................................................................80
4.1.2 Sanctioning....................................................................................................................... 81
4.1.2.1 The sanctioning procedure under Article 33 ........................................................82
4.1.2.2 The Conference Committee and the special paragraph......................................91
4.1.2.3 Loss of membership rights due to arrears in budgetary contributions ..........101
4.1.3 Summary......................................................................................................................... 102
4.2 Legalization ......................................................................................................... 103
4.2.1 The regular supervisory procedure under Article 22 – the CEACR .................... 104
4.2.2 The Article 24 representation procedure .................................................................. 117
4.2.3 The Article 26 complaint procedure.......................................................................... 121
4.2.4 The Freedom of Association procedures.................................................................. 124
4.2.5 Summary......................................................................................................................... 132
4.3 Management ........................................................................................................ 134
4.3.1 Capacity building and technical cooperation............................................................ 135
4.3.2 Reflexivity and flexibility.............................................................................................. 140
4.3.2.1 Adoption of flexible standards..............................................................................140
4.3.2.2 Adaptation to changing circumstances................................................................143
4.3.2.3 Discussions in the Conference Committee ........................................................144
4.3.2.4 Direct contacts.........................................................................................................151
4.3.3 Summary......................................................................................................................... 154
4.4 Legitimacy ........................................................................................................... 156
4.4.1 Input legitimacy ............................................................................................................. 157
4.4.1.1 Tripartism .................................................................................................................157
4.4.1.2 The inclusion of other non-governmental actors ..............................................159
4.4.2 Output legitimacy.......................................................................................................... 163
4.4.3 Summary......................................................................................................................... 171
4.5 Steps to compliance with international labour standards.................................... 172
5 The Abolition of forced and compulsory labour ............................................................. 185
5.1 Abolishing forced labour in international law ..................................................... 187
5.2 The Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) ....................................................191
5.3 The Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105).............................. 195
5.4 Other international instruments .......................................................................... 200
5.5 Contemporary practices of forced labour............................................................. 205
5.5.1 Forced labour imposed by the state........................................................................... 210
5.5.2 Forced labour imposed by private agents ................................................................. 217
5.5.2.1 Slavery and abductions...........................................................................................217
5.5.2.2 Debt bondage and coercive recruitment systems ..............................................221
5.5.3 Forced labour, migration and trafficking .................................................................. 228
5.6 Summary .............................................................................................................. 238
6 The ILO and forced labour in Latin America ................................................................. 243
6.1 Peru ...................................................................................................................... 246
6.1.1 Peru and the ILO .......................................................................................................... 251
6.1.2 Procedural compliance................................................................................................. 253
6.1.2.1 Submission of instruments to the competent authorities.................................253
6.1.2.2 Reporting obligations under Article 22 on ratified Conventions....................254
6.1.2.3 Reporting obligations under Article 19 regarding unratified Conventions ...258
6.1.2.4 Reporting obligations under the 1998 Declaration ...........................................258
6.1.3 Substantive compliance................................................................................................ 259
6.1.3.1 Comments of the supervisory bodies in general................................................259
6.1.3.2 Compliance with forced labour instruments ......................................................262
6.1.4 Summary......................................................................................................................... 285
6.2 Brazil .................................................................................................................... 292
6.2.1 Brazil and the ILO........................................................................................................ 297
6.2.2 Procedural compliance................................................................................................. 299
6.2.2.1 Submission to the competent authorities............................................................299
6.2.2.2 Reporting obligations under Article 22 on ratified Conventions....................300
6.2.2.3 Reporting obligations under Article 19 on unratified Conventions ...............302
6.2.2.4 Reporting obligations under the 1998 Declaration ...........................................302
6.2.3 Substantive compliance................................................................................................ 303
6.2.3.1 Comments of the ILO supervisory bodies in general.......................................303
6.2.3.2 Compliance with forced labour instruments ......................................................306
6.2.4 Summary............................................................................................ 329
6.3 Forced labour, the ILO and compliance ............................................................. 335
7 Conclusions ............................................................................................ 339
Bibliography ........................................................................................... 363

List of figures

Figure 1 - Compliance, implementation and effectiveness.................................................................................24
Figure 2 – ILO membership 1919 – 2011 (as of 31 May 2011) ........................................................................51
Figure 3 - Double-discussion procedure for adopting ILS ................................................................................53
Figure 4 - Adoption of ILO Conventions and Recommendations 1919 - 2010 (by decade).......................54
Figure 5 - Ratification of ILO Conventions 1919 – 2010 (as of 31 December 2010)...................................57
Figure 6 - Reporting on ratified Conventions (1957 - 2010)..............................................................................69
Figure 7 - Comparative reporting CEACR and ILC (1957 - 2010) ..................................................................72
Figure 8 - Comparative reporting CEACR and ILC (1957 - 2010) ..................................................................74
Figure 9 - Submission of instruments to the competent authorities 1967 – 2007 (as of December 2009)76
Figure 10 - Reporting under the 1998 Declaration (2000 - 2009) .....................................................................79
Figure 11 - Special paragraph: Cases under 'Application of Ratified Conventions' (1957-2007).................95
Figure 12 - Regional distribution of special paragraph for failure of application (1975 – 2007) .................96
Figure 13 - Special paragraph: automatic cases I (1957 - 2010).........................................................................99
Figure 14 - Special paragraph: automatic cases II (1957 - 2010) .....................................................................100
Figure 15 - Number of observations, direct requests and ratifications (1975-2010)....................................106
Figure 16 - Comments of the CEACR as ratio of total ratifications (1975-2010)........................................107
Figure 17 - Observations received by workers' and employers' organizations (1963-2007).......................112
Figure 18 - Failure of ILO members to reply to comments of the CEACR (1974-2007) ..........................115
Figure 19 - Allegations examined by the CFA by type of restriction (1995-2003).......................................129
Figure 20 - CFA cases by decade (1950-2007) ...................................................................................................130
Figure 21 - Failure to participate in the discussions of the Conference Committee (1975-2007) .............146
Figure 22 - Discussion of individual cases in the Conference Committee by region (1987-2007)............148
Figure 23 - Number of occasions countries discussed in the Conference Committee (1987-2007) .........151
Figure 24 - Ratification of ILO Conventions adopted since 1980 by subject area (as of 2007) ................165
Figure 25 - Ratification of fundamental Conventions 1920-2011 (as of 30 March 2011)...........................166
Figure 26 - Ratifications of fundamental Conventions before and after the 1998 Declaration.................167
Figure 27 - Ratifications of ILO Conventions by Peru (1945-2011) ..............................................................252
Figure 28 - Reporting compliance on ratified Conventions for Peru (1958-2011) ......................................255
Figure 29 - Comparative reporting compliance of Peru (1975-2007).............................................................257
Figure 30 - CEACR observations and direct requests for Peru (1975-2007)................................................259
Figure 31 - CEACR observations and direct requests for Peru as ratio of ratifications (1976 - 2007).....260
Figure 32 - Cases of progress: notes with interest and satisfaction for Peru 1987 – 2007..........................262
Figure 33 - Ratifications of ILO Conventions by Brazil (1934-2011) ............................................................298
Figure 34 - Reporting compliance on ratified Conventions for Brazil (1961-2011) ....................................300
Figure 35 - Comparative reporting compliance Brazil (1975-2007)................................................................301
Figure 36 - CEACR observations and direct requests for Brazil (1975-2011)..............................................303
Figure 37 - CEACR observations and direct requests for Brazil as ratio of ratifications (1976-2007).....304
Figure 38 - Cases of progress: notes with interest and satisfaction for Brazil 1987 – 2007........................305

List of tables

Table 1 - Two dimensions of compliance .............................................................................................................27
Table 2 - Average number of cases of progress as ratio of CEACR observations received (1987-2007)117
Table 3 - ILO members discussed ten or more times in the Conference Committee (1987-2007) ..........149
Table 4- Ratification of fundamental Conventions by region (as of May 2011)...........................................170
Table 5 - Compliance mechanisms in the ILO ..................................................................................................183
Table 6 - Victims of forced labour by region (as of March 2005)...................................................................208
Table 7 - Victims of trafficking by region (as of March 2005) ........................................................................209
Table 8 - Operations of the Special Mobile Inspection Unit (1995 - 2006) ..................................................319


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