Bioactive Compounds: Health Benefits and Potential Applications PDF by Maira Rubi Segura Campos

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Bioactive Compounds: Health Benefits and Potential Applications
Edited by Maira Rubi Segura Campos
Bioactive Compounds: Health Benefits and Potential Applications

Contents
L1. st of C ontr1" b utors .......................... x1.1.1.
PART 1: Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds
Chapter 1: Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Biosynthesized by
Plants and Its Relationship With Prevention of
Neurodegenerative Diseases ................................................................. 3
Janne Rojas, Alexis Buitrago
1.1 Introduction ......... .......... ................ ... ...... ......................... ......... 3
1.2 Free Radicals and Their Relationship to Several Ailments ....... .... ........ ................ .4
1.3 Natural Products and Antioxidant Activity .. ... ... ................................................ .. ... 5
1.4 Ascorbic Acid and Tocopherols .... .... ..... .... ... ... ....... ... .. ......... .... ... 5
1.5 Carotenoids ................ ......... ............. ... ........ .. .............. ..... .. ....... 5
1.6 Phenolic Compounds ... ........ ...... ... ......... .. ........ .. ................ .... ... 5
1. 7 In vivo and in vitro Antioxidant Activity Assessment Methods
for Natural Products ....... ...... ........... ... ... .. ..... ...... ... ....... 7
1.8 In vitro Methods .......... ............. ..... .. ..................... .... ... 8
1.8.1 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl Radical (DPPH) Assay ............ ....................... 8
1.8.2 2,2' -Azinobis(3-Ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic Acid)
Method, ABTS+ .... .......... ....... ..... ......... ............................... ........................ ...... 9
1.8.3 ~-Carotene Test ............ .. ....... ........... ....... ....... ............. .............. ............ ...... ... 10
1.8.4 Total Radical Trapping Antioxidant Parameter (TRAP) Method ........... ........ 10
1.8.5 Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity Assay (ORAC) ......................... .. ..... .. 11
1.8.6 Reducing Power Assay ... ....... ....... .................. ............. ............ ......... .............. 11
1.8.7 Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenging (H20 2) Assay ........... ........ .... .... .......... ......... 12
1.8.8 Nitric Oxide (NO) Scavenging Activity .... ..... ... ................. ..... .. ............ .. .... ... 12
1.8.9 Superoxide Anion Scavenging Assay ............. ......................................... .... ... 13
1.8.10 Peroxynitrite Radical (ONOO·) Scavenging Activity ........................... .... ... .. 13
1.8.11 Ferric Reducing-Antioxidant Power (FRAP) Assay .... ....... ................. ... .... ... 14
1.8.12 Superoxide Radical Scavenging Activity (SOD) .......... .......... .... ........... ........ 14
1.8.13 Determination of Phenol Content by the Folin- Ciocalteu Method ............... 14
1.8.14 Total Flavonoid Content.. ...... ........... ... ....... .... ....... ...... ..................... .......... .... 15
1.9 In vivo Methods ..... .... ................ .... ..... .... .. ... .... ........ .. ...... .. ........ .. ............. .... ..... ... 15
1.9.1 Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) Assay ...... ............ .. ..... ......... ....... 16
1.9.2 Reduced Glutathione (GSH) Assay ......... ....... .................... ....... ........... ....... ... 17
1.9.3 Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) Assay ........... ..... ........ ............ .............. ... ........ 17
1.9.4 Glutathione-S-Transferase (GSt) Assay ..... ....... .. ...... ........... .. ................ .... .... 18
1.9.5 Glutathione Reductase (GR) Assay ...... ........ ..... ....... ...... ... .... .............. ... .. ...... 18
1.9.6 Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Assay .................... ....... ........ .......................... 19
1.9.7 Antioxidant Activity Studies Reported for Extract and Isolated
Compounds From Different Plant Species in the Last lOYears ... ........... ....... 19
1.10 Conclusions ....... .... ............ ......... ....... ...... .. .... ...... .... .... .... ............ ... .... ..... .............. 19
References ....... ....... ... ...... ......... ....... ... .......... ......... ... .. ..... ......... ....... .... .... ..... .... .... 28
Further Reading ................................ ........ ............ ................ ... ...... ............ ...... ..... 31

Chapter 2: Phenolic Compounds: Structure, Classification,
and Antioxidant Power .............................................. ......................... 33
Milena Morandi Vuolo, Verena Silva Lima,
Mario Roberto Mar6stica Junior
2.1 Introduction ........... ..... ................ ......... ............. ..... ................... ...... ... .................... 33
2.2 Phenolic Compounds: Definition and Classification .. ... .. ..... ........... .......... ...... ..... 34
2.3 Phenolic Compounds: Correlation Between Structure and Antioxidant
Power ...................................... ... ...... ............ ....... ... ............... .................. .............. 39
2.4 Methods to Evaluate Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds ... ... .. ....... .... .41
2.4.1 In Vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds:
Single Electron Transfer Reaction ...... ........................... .............. .............. ... .42
2.4.2 In Vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds:
Single Hydrogen Atom Transfer Reaction ... .............. ............ ................. ....... 44
2.5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives .... ..... ..... ..... ... .............. .. ........ ... ......... .......... .46
References ................. .. ....................... .................... ............... .. ... ... ... .................... 47

PART 2: Antidiabetic Activity of Bioactive Compounds
Chapter 3: Antihyperglycemic, Hypoglycemic, and Lipid-Lowering Effect
of Peptide Fractions ofM. pruriens L. in an Obese Rat Model ............... 53
Armando M. Martin Ortega, Edwin Eenrique Martinez Leo,
Juan Jose Acevedo Fernandez, Maira Rubi Segura Campos
3.1 Introduction ..... ...... ........... ... ..... ......... ........ .............. ....... ......... ......... .......... ........... 53
3.2 Beyond Conventional Feeding ......... .. ....... .... ...... .... .............. .. .......... .......... .. ........ 54
3.3 Bioactivity of Peptides Derived From Food Proteins ........ .. .... ......... ..... ... ............ 55
3.4 Peptides Derived From M. pruriens L. (Velvet Bean), as a Potential
Functional Ingredient ...... ........ ............ ...... ... .. ...... .. ............ .... .. ......... ....... .......... ... 56
3.5 Materials and Methods .................................. ....................... ... ........ ..................... 58
3.5.1 Grains ...... ....... .... .. .. ..... .. ........... ............ ............... .............................. .. ..... ...... 58
3.5.2 Reactives .................................................................... ............ ...... .................. 58
3.5.3 Obtaining Flour From M. pruriens L. .. .......................................................... 58
3.5.4 Obtaining the Protein Concentrate of M. pruriens L. .............. ...................... 58
3.5.5 Enzymatic Hydrolysis ..... .......... ............ ....... ..... ....... ..... .... .. .. ..... ......... .... ....... 59
3.5.6 Fractionation by Ultrafiltration .............................................. ...... ....... ....... .... 59
3.5.7 Animals .... ..... ....... ..... .... ....... ........ ....... ....... .............. ................ ........... ........... 60
3.5.8 Preparation and Administration of Treatments .......................... .......... ... .... ... 60
3.5.9 Antihyperglycemic, Hypoglycemic, and Lipid-Lowering Activity .......... ... .. 60
3.5.10 StatisticAnalysis ............ .................. ....... ....... ............. ........ ....... .......... .......... 61
3.6 Results and Discussion .............. .. ............ ......... ................ ........ .. ...... ............... ..... 61
3.6.1 Evaluation of Antihyperglycemic Activity ..... ....... .................. ... .................. .. 61
3.6.2 Evaluation of Hypoglycemic Activity ..... ....... ............. ............................... .. .. 62
3.6.3 Evaluation of Lipid-Lowering Activity ... ....... ..................... ...... .................. ... 64
3.7 Conclusion ............ .............. ....... .. ....... ... .......... .. ... ......... ............ ...... ....... .............. 65
Acknowledgments ............... .. ....... ... ... ....................... ........................................... 65
References .......................................... ... .. .... .... .. ......... ... .. ......... .. .......................... 65

PART 3: Anti-inflammatory Effect of Medicinal Plants
Chapter 4: Protein Derivatives From Commercial Grains and
Their Antiinflammatory Activity .......................................................... 71
Ivan Chan Zapata, Victor Ermilo Arana Argaez,
Maira Rubi Segura Campos
4.1 Introduction ..................... ......................... ...................... ... ........ .. ....... ................... 71
4.2 Mechanism of the Inflammatory Process .......... ...... .. .............. .... .... ............ ......... 71
4.3 Antiinfiammatory Treatments ...... .......... .. .. ........ ..... ....... .............. ...... ... .. ......... ..... 73
4.4 Protein Hydrolysates and Bioactive Peptides ....................................................... 74
4.5 Generalities About Commercial Grains ... ........... ..... ......... .......... ....... ... ................ 75
4.6 Antiinfiammatory Activity of Protein Derivatives From Cereals ........ ................. 75
4.7 Antiinfiammatory Activity of Protein Derivatives From Pseudocereals ............... 77
4.8 Antiinfiammatory Activity of Protein Derivatives From Legumes ................ ....... 77
4.9 Conclusions .... ...... ......... .... ..... ....... ... ...... .. ................................. .. ..................... ..... 79
References ................. ................ ........... .................................... .. ....... ................... 79
PART 4: Anticancer Activity of Plants Metabolites
Chapter 5: Medicinal Plants and Their Bioactive Metabolites in
Cancer Prevention and Treatment ....................................................... 85
Armando M. Martin Ortega, Maira Rubi Segura Campos
5 .1 Introduction .... ... ............ ...... ........... .. ...... .. ...... .... ........ ................ ... ....... ... ....... ....... 85
5.2 Carcinogenesis .... ........... ..... ... ........ .. ....... ......... .. ........ .... ... ........ ... ........ ... .............. 86
5 .2.1 Initiation ... .. ........................... .. ......... ........ .... ... ..................... ............ .......... .... 86
5.2.2 Promotion ......................................... ....... ..... ......................................... ...... ... 87
5.2.3 Progression ...... ..... ........ ....... .. ......... ............ ....... .................. .... ......... .... .......... 87
5.3 Angiogenesis ................ ........................... .. ..... ............ .... .... ....... .. .............. ....... ..... 88
5.4 Molecular Alterations of Cancer Cells ............ .. ... ..... .. .. .. .......... ...... ................ ..... 89
5.4.1 Molecular Alterations at the Chromosomal Level .............. ...... ........... ....... ... 89
5.4.2 Molecular Alterations at DNA Level and Gene Expression ...... .... ......... ....... 90
5.4.3 Epigenetic Alterations .......... ...................... ..... ........... ................ .......... ..... .. ... 90
5.5 Medicinal Plants in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.. ....... ... ...... .... ................... 91
5.5.1 Brief History ................. .................................... ....... .............. ........................ 91
5.5.2 Inhibition of the Nuclear Factor K~ (NF-K~) .............. ..... ....... ................. ....... 93
5.5.3 Inhibition of Activating Protein-I Transcription Factor (AP-1) ..................... 94
5.5.4 Activation of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor
Gamma (PPAR) ................................................... ..... ..... ................................. 94
5.5.5 Epigenetic Regulation .................................................................................... 95
5.5.6 Human Studies ....... .......... ...... ....... ........ ....... ..... ....... ............ .. ......... ............... 95
5.5.7 10-Gingerol ....... ..................... ..... ......... ...... ................ ..... ....... ........................ 97
5.5.8 6-Gingerol ..... .... ............ .... .... ... ............ ....... ...... ........... .............. .. ...... ..... ... .... 98
5.5.9 Human Studies .......... .... ........... .................... ........................................... ....... 99
5.5.10 Neem Extracts ............... .......... .......................... .. ....................................... .. 102
5.5.11 Nimbolide ........ ....... ....... ... .... ... .............. ........................ ............................... 103
5.5.12 Human Studies ..... ..... .... ............ ................................... ..... ........................... 104
5.6 Conclusion ...... .. ......................... ............................. ........... ... ......... ... .................. 104
References ............................................................................ .............................. 104
PART 5: Bioavailability ofBioactive Compounds In Vitro
and In Vivo Models
Chapter 6: Phenolic Compound Bioavailability Using In Vitro and
In Vivo Models ................................................................................ 113
Helena Dias de Freitas Queiroz Barros,
Mario Roberto Marostica Junior
6.1 Introduction ..... ........ ................ ............................................................................ 113
6.2 Bioaccessibility x Bioavailability ......... ............ ......... ... ......... ........... ............... .. .. 114
6.3 Mechanisms Associated With Bioavailability of Polyphenols ...... ...... ............ ... 115
6.3.1 Release and Absorption of Polyphenols ....... ..... ..................... ...................... 115
6.3.2 Metabolism and Elimination of Polyphenols ............................................... 116
6.3.3 Effect of Polyphenols in Microbiota ............................................ ................ 118
6.3.4 Interactions Between Polyphenols and Other Compounds ... .............. ......... 120
6.4 In vitro x in vivo Bioavailability Methods .. ... ................... ..... ... ......... .................. 122
6.5 Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 123
References ...... .. ...... ... ............. ... ...... .. ... ...................... .......... ... ................ .. ....... .. 124
PART 6: Bioactive Compounds as Ingredients of Functional Foods
Chapter 7: Bioactive Compounds as Ingredients of Functional Foods:
Polyphenols, Carotenoids, Peptides From Animal and Plant
Sources New ................................................................................... 129
Sibele Santos Fernandes, Michele Silveira Coelho,
Myriam de las Mercedes Salas-Mellado
7 .1 Introduction .. .............. ............. ..... ........ .............. ............ ..... .... .......... ............ .. .... 129
7.2 Bioactive Ingredients ................................ .......................................................... 130
7 .3 Identification of Bioactive Ingredients ............................................................... 131
7.3.1 Of Natural Origin .............................. .. ......................................................... 131
7.3.2 From Byproducts ................................................. ....................... .................. 132
7.4 Claims of Bioactive Ingredients .. .......... .. ......................... .................................. 134
7 .5 Preservation of Bioactive Ingredients ................................................ .. ............... 135
7.6 Development of Products With Bioactive lngredients ........................................ 136
7 .7 Bioactive Ingredients and Their Market Insertion ........................................... ... 138
7.8 New Bioactive lngredients ......... ............. ............................................. ............... 139
References ........................... .. ........ .. .......... .. ....... ...................... .. ....... .. ............... 140
Chapter 8: Bioactive Compounds and Their Potential Use as Ingredients
for Food and Its Application in Food Packaging ................................... 143
Betty J arma Arroyo, Andrelina Pinheiro Santos,
Enayde de Almeida de Melo, Anderson Campos,
Lara Lins, Luis Carlos Boyano-Orozco
8 .1 Introduction ................ ............................ .. .. ................................. ..................... ... 143
8.2 Utilization of Phenolic Compounds as Ingredients in the Development of
Functional Foods ....... .............................. .. ........... .. ......................................... ... 144
8.3 The Food Packaging Industry and Current Challenges ...................................... 146
8.4 Biopolymer Packaging: Edible Films and Coatings ........ .. .............................. ... 147
8.5 Antioxidant Properties in Biopolymer Packages ................................................ 149
8.6 Nanotechnology and the Food Packaging Industry ............................................ 151
References ................. ......................... ..... .......... ......................... .. ...................... 152
Further Reading ......... .................. .. ......... ............................................................ 156
PART 7: Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds
Chapter 9: Association Between Diet, Health, and the Presence of Bioactive
Compounds in Foods ........................................................................ 159
Michele Silveira Coelho, Sibele Santos Fernandes,
Myriam de las Mercedes Salas-Mellado
9.1 Fruits ........... ........................................................................................................ 159
9.2 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) .. ..... ........ .. ............... ........ .. ..................... ... 162
9 .3 Polysaccharides ............................................... .......................... .. ......... ............... 165
9.4 Bioactive Peptides ............................................ .. ................................................. 167
9.4.1 Antioxidant Capacities ............... .................................................................. 170
9.4.2 Antimicrobial Activity ................................................................................. 171
9.4.3 Immunomodulatory Activity ............... ......................................................... 172
9.4.4 Antihypertensive Activity ........... ................................. .......................... .. ... .. 173
9.4.5 Antiobesity Activity ............................ .................................... ... ........... ....... 173
9.4.6 Hypocholesterolemic Activity .......... ................. .......... ................................. 174
References ....................................................................................................... ... 17 5

Chapter 10: Health Benefits of Flavonoids ......................................................... 185
Cfntia Reis Ballard, Mario Roberto Mar6stica Junior
10.1 Introduction ............. ........................... ... .............. ......... ......... .... ..... .... ................. 185
10.2 Flavonoids: Chemistry, Food Sources, Estimated Food Intake .......................... 186
10.3 Flavonoid Intake and Prevention of Diseases ..... .. .............................................. 187
10.4 Flavonoids: General Mechanism of Action ....... ... ................ ... ................ ..... .. .... 188
10.5 Flavonoids and Cardiovascular Diseases .. .... ...................................................... 189
10.6 Flavonoids, Insulin Resistance, and Type II Diabetes Mellitus ................. ...... ... 191
10. 7 Flavonoids and Obesity ........... ........... .. ......... ......... ..... .. ......... ....... ... ......... ...... ... 192
10.8 Flavonoids and Cancer. ... ... .............. .... .................. .......................... ............. ...... 193
10.9 Conclusion ..... ......... ................... .. ............. .............. ....................... ... .................. 194
References ....... ....... ............................ ....... ............. ............................................ 19 5

PART 8: Health Benefits of Functional Foods
Chapter 11: Functional Food Consumption and Its Physiological Effects ................. 205
Lafs Marinho Aguiar, Marina Vilar Geraldi,
Cfnthia Bau Betim Cazarin, Mario Roberto Mar6stica Junior
11.1 Introduction ....... ....... ........ .. ........................... ........................ ............. ........ ... .... .. 205
11.2 Potential Health Areas oflnterest for Functional Food ........ ... ......... ....... ........ ... 206
11.2.1 Functional Foods and Gut Health .......................................... ...................... 207
11.2.2 Functional Foods in Cancer Prevention ................... ......... ... ................... ..... 209
11.2.3 Functional Foods and Cardiometabolic Syndrome ...... .............................. .. 211
11.2.4 Cognition and Neurodegenerative Diseases .......... ............ ... ........................ 215
11.3 Conclusion ................................. .................. ......................... .............................. 216
References ... ..... .................. .. ... .. ......... ................. .......... .......... ...... ... .............. .. .. 217
Further Reading ...... ................ .. ... .. ... ... .................. ...... ........ .... .......... ...... ........... 225

Chapter 12: Bee Propolis: Properties, Chemical Composition,
Applications, and Potential Health Effects ....................................... 227
Roger Cauich-Kumul, Maira Rubi Segura Campos
12.1 Introduction .. ..................................... ........ .......... ... ...... ......... ... ..... ............. ....... .. 227
12.2 Chemical Composition of Propolis ..................................................................... 228
12.2.1 Phenols and Flavonoids Present in Pro polis ..... ..................... ............. ......... 229
12.2.2 Total Phenol Content.. ... ........................................... .............. ...................... 230
12.2.3 Total Flavonoid Content.. ... ..... .. ................. .. ................................................ 231
12.3 Bioactivities ............ ................................... ... .......... .............. ... ......................... .. 232
12.3.1 Biological and Pharmacological Activities of Propolis .. ............. ..... ........... 232
12.3.2 Propolis With Antioxidant Activity and Mechanism of Action .................... 232
12.3.3 Propolis With Antiinfiammatory Activity and Mechanism of Action .......... 233
12.3.4 Propolis With Activity on the Cardiovascular System ... ... .... .............. .... ..... 234
12.3.5 Propolis With Antihypertensive Activity ...................................................... 235
12.3.6 Propolis With Antidiabetic Activity ........................................... .................. 236
12.3.7 Potential Healthy and Biological Effects of Propolis of
Apis mellifera From Southeast Mexico ....................... ............... .......... ........ 237
12.4 Conclusion ..................... ................ .. ....... .................................. .. ..................... ... 239
References ....................................................................... .. ....... .. .. ...................... 239

PART 9: Bioactive Compounds and Functional Foods as
Therapeutic Alternative
Chapter 13: Bioactive Compounds as Therapeutic Alternatives ..............•.............. 247
Armando M. Martfn Ortega, Maira Rubi Segura Campos
13.1 Introduction .... ................................ .. ...... .. .. ...... .. .............................................. ... 247
13 .2 Bioactive Coin pounds .. ... ..... .. ............. ....... .. ................................................ ....... 248
13.3 Health Benefits ..... .............................................. .................. ................. .............. 249
13.3.1 Antiaging .................................... ................................................ .................. 249
13.3.2 Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases .............................. ............ .......... .... 252
13.3.3 Prevention of Chronic Diseases ................................... .............. ........ .......... 254
13.4 Conclusions ................ ....... .. .................... .............. .............................................. 259
References ....................................................... .. ........ .. .. ..................................... 259

Chapter 14: Flavonoids: Potential Therapeutic Agents by Their
Antioxidant Capacity ..................................................................... 265
Patricia Hernandez-Rodriguez, Ludy Pabon Baquero,
Harold Rodriguez Larrota
14.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 265
14.2 Oxidative Stress .............................................. .............................................. ...... 266
14.3 Secondary Metabolites With Antioxidant Activity ............ ....................... .. ..... ... 267
14.4 Flavonoids and Mechanisms of Antioxidant Activity ........ .. ....... .. ................... ... 268
14.5 Methods of Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity ............................ ...................... 272
14.6 ABTS (2,2'-Azinobis-(3-Ethylbenzthiazolin-6-Sulfonic Acid)) ......................... 274
14.7 Antioxidant Activity in Flavonoids by DPPH and ABTS .. ................................. 275
References ................. ........................................................ ............................ ..... 284
Further Reading ..................................... .. .. .. ...... ......... ...... .......... .................. ...... 288
lndex .............................................................................................................. 289

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