1 Overview 1
1.1 Ceramics and glasses 1
1.1.1 Description of ceramics 1
1.1.2 Structure and microstructure 2
1.1.3 Sintering and microstructure of ceramics 6
1.1.4 Glasses and glass-ceramics 6
1.1.5 Conclusion 9
1.2 Types of bioceramics 9
1.2.1 Classification of bioceramics according to the type of implant material 10
1.2.2 Classification of implants according to their tissue interactions 12
1.3 Alumina and zirconia 15
1.3.1 Alumina 15
1.3.2 Zirconia 20
1.4 Glasses and glass-ceramics 22
1.4.1 Glasses 22
1.4.2 Glass-ceramics 25
1.5 Hydroxyapatite 26
1.5.1 Preparation of hydroxyapatite 27
1.6 Different forms of tricalcium phosphate 28
1.7 Pyrolytic carbon 29
1.8 Composites 30
Review questions 31
2 Structure, microstructure, and properties of bioceramics 39
2.1 Oxide ceramics 39
2.1.1 Alumina 39
2.1.2 Properties of alumina 39
2.1.3 Zirconia 42
2.1.4 Properties of zirconia 43
2.1.5 Zirconia-toughened alumina 45
2.2 Calcium orthophosphates 46
2.2.1 Monocalcium phosphates 46
2.2.2 Octacalcium phosphate 46
2.2.3 Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate 46
2.2.4 Dicalcium phosphate anhydrous 46
2.2.5 Anhydrous tricalcium phosphate 46
2.2.6 Tetracalcium phosphate 46
2.2.7 Amorphous calcium phosphate 47
2.2.8 Hydroxyapatite 47
2.2.9 Fluorhydroxyapatite 48
2.2.10 Oxyapatite 48
2.3 Glass and glass-ceramics 54
2.3.1 Glass 54
2.3.2 Glass-ceramics 58
2.4 Bone cements and substitutes 61
2.4.1 The types of bone cements and substitutes 64
2.4.2 Example microstructures before and after in vitro tests 66
Review questions 72
3 Osteoinduction, osteoconduction, and osseointegration 77
Review questions 95
4 Orthopedic and dental applications 97
4.1 Orthopedic applications 97
4.2 Dental applications 104
Review questions 115
5 Hard tissue engineering applications 119
Review questions 147
6 Recent research trends 159
Review questions 202
It is my privilege to write this volume in the Woodhead series in biomaterials. The plan of the book is essentially based on my lectures on bioceramics, which is part of the curriculum of “Advanced ceramics” courses for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of materials science and engineering. However, the material in this book is expanded to fully meet the requirements for the undergraduate study and most of that for the postgraduate study. The lecturer can decide student’s assignments that spotlight on selected subjects.
The vision of the book is based on the issue of how to make the right introduction to the subjects of the book and how to ensure the flowability of the text in each chapter and across the book. Consequently, the book starts with a study text in character then gradually gains the flavor of review articles across the chapters. The author believes that this approach can represent a successful presentation of the book content to the students. In other words, the book supplies basic and advanced information of bioceramics following the shortest pathway. The writing style of the book contents smoothly changed from basics to higher levels. In addition, the book should help the students for understanding the subject in view of materials science and engineering. Moreover, the book should project a sufficient light on the recent concepts and state of the art of bioceramics. Undoubtedly, the fast-growing literature and innovations in bioceramics may make new concepts, appeared in the period between the writing of the book and publishing, uncovered. However, the reader is supplied with sufficient knowledge to follow recent literature.
The review questions at the end of each chapter were written for the undergraduates; although, some instructors will find they are also a challenge for a number of the postgraduates. The references of each chapter should be the first choice when an expansion of knowledge is needed.
Chapter 1 have three different goals; the first is providing a quick overview for the basics of ceramic materials science and engineering and the fundamentals of tissue– materials interaction, which should be useful to whom need to refresh his/her knowledge and filling some gaps. Second; the chapter should be useful for self-study needed by the newcomers to the subject. The third goal is to present a chapter that introduces the language of materials and medicine.
Chapter 2 provides the necessary link between the essential properties of materials (chemistry, crystalline structure, and microstructure) with the final properties such as the bioactivity, degradation, and mechanical properties. The instructor should give enough time to this chapter because it contains the basic tools for materials design that is necessary for both materials and medicine students.
Chapter 3 is aimed to fill a large gap in the knowledge of materials students who newly exposed to biomaterials field. The chapter is written in a way that introduces the new concepts gradually to dissolve any barrier and to get used to the biomaterials environment.
Chapter 4 presents a number of orthopedic and dental applications in a way that focuses on materials and processes design. Exposing to the examples of materials and processes design initiate and enhance creativity and capability for innovation. In this chapter and the next chapters, the instructor should encourage the students to point out the design elements in the presented examples and/or other examples. In addition, the instructor should always spotlight the role of characterizations throughout the materials and processes design.
Chapter 5 invested the knowledge base built through the previous chapters to start exposing to the hot disciplines of hard tissue engineering. It contains various scaffolds fabrication processes based on bioceramics and polymer–bioceramic composites. The fundamentals of the scaffold design process and the tests for bioactivity are presented to perform a wide view of the field of hard tissue engineering; however, the students can refer to the original reference article for more detailed information.
Chapter 6 illuminates the contribution of nanotechnology in tissue engineering and drug delivery. The chapter demonstrates that nanotechnology is not merely the use of nanomaterials. Various methodologies, microstructures, processes, and characterization techniques are expressed to reveal how the new and attended properties were achieved. The chapter concentrates on recent development in the field; however, the reader should gain the necessary knowledge to grasp newer achievements in the field. I hope that the students, the instructors, and readers looking for self-contained volume will find this book useful.