Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses PDF by Aruna C., K.B.R.S. Visarada, B.Venkatesh Bhat, Vilas A. Tonapi

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Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses
Edited by Aruna C., K.B.R.S. Visarada, B.Venkatesh Bhat, Vilas A. Tonapi
Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses

Contents
Contributors xi
About the Editors xiii
Foreword xv
1. Sorghum: A Bundle of Opportunities in the 21st Century
K.B.R.S. VISARADA AND C. ARUNA
1. Sorghumdthe Climate-Smart Crop 1
2. Primary Uses of Sorghum in Different Parts of the World 2
3. Other End Uses of Sorghum 4
4. Trends in Area, Production, and Productivity 5
5. What Did We Bring to the Readers in the Book 10
6. Conclusions 12
References 12
Further Reading 14

2. Origin, Domestication and Diffusion
of Sorghum bicolor
KAMALA VENKATESWARAN, M. ELANGOVAN, AND N. SIVARAJ
1. Introduction 15
2. Taxonomy 16
3. Progenitors of Cultivated Sorghum 16
4. Current Hypotheses on Time and Place of Origin 17
5. Domestication 20
6. Diffusion/Movement of Sorghum 24
7. Sorghum Genetic Resources 26
8. Future Prospects 28
References 28
Further Reading 31

3. Classification, Distribution and Biology
KAMALA VENKATESWARAN, N. SIVARAJ, S.R. PANDRAVADA,
M. THIRUPATHI REDDY, AND B. SARATH BABU
1. Introduction 33
2. Classification 34
References 56
Further Reading 60

4. History of Sorghum Improvement
P. SANJANA REDDY AND BELUM V.S. REDDY
1. Introduction 61
2. Sorghum Improvement in India 61
3. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics Efforts in Sorghum Improvement 63
4. Sorghum Improvement in China 64
5. Sorghum Improvement in Africa 66
6. Sorghum Improvement in Latin America 70
7. Sorghum Improvement in Australia 70
8. Sorghum Improvement in the United States 71
9. International Sorghum and Millet’s Role in Sorghum Improvement 71
10. Sorghum Improvement in Europe 72
11. Conclusions 72
References 73
Further Reading 75

5. Conventional Breeding Techniques
in Sorghum
SUJAY RAKSHIT AND AMASIDDHA BELLUNDAGI
1. Introduction 77
2. Defining Goals in Sorghum Breeding 77
3. Crossing and Selfing Techniques in Sorghum 80
4. Breeding Procedures 82
5. Production of Hybrids 87
6. Evaluation of Breeding Material 88
7. Yield Gains in Sorghum 89
8. Summary and Conclusions 89
References 89
Further Reading 91
6. Marker-Assisted Breeding in Sorghum
R. MADHUSUDHANA
1. Introduction 93
2. Marker-Assisted Selection 93
3. Marker-Assisted Selection in Sorghum 95
4. Marker-Assisted Selection: Challenges and Conclusions 105
References 109
7. Tissue Culture and Genetic
Transformation in Sorghum bicolor
D. BALAKRISHNA, R. VINODH, P. MADHU, S. AVINASH,
P.V. RAJAPPA, AND B. VENKATESH BHAT
1. Introduction 115
2. Tissue Culture and Regeneration of Sorghum 115
3. Factors Influencing the Development of
Transgenic Sorghum Plants 118
4. Genetic Transformation of Sorghum 123
5. Target Traits in Transgenic Sorghum 124
6. Conclusions 125
References 125
8. Wide Hybridization
K.B.R.S. VISARADA AND KAMALA VENKATESWARAN
1. Introduction 131
2. Intergeneric Hybridization in Sorghum 131
3. Interspecific Hybridization in Sorghum 132
4. Resistance to Abiotic Stress 133
5. Natural Hybridization 136
6. Future Prospects 137
References 137
Further Reading 139
9. Genetics of Important Economic Traits
in Sorghum
R. MADHUSUDHANA
1. Introduction 141
2. Developmental and Agronomic Traits 141
3. Biotic Stresses 147
4. Abiotic Stresses 150
5. Conclusions 151
References 151
10. Genetic Improvement of
Grain Sorghum
C. ARUNA AND DEEPIKA CHERUKU
1. Introduction 157
2. Utilization of Genetic Diversity in Breeding Programs 158
3. Breeding for Grain Yield and Adaptive Traits 159
4. Genetic Improvement of Sorghum
in IndiadA Case Study 162
5. Future Needs 171
References 171
11. Breeding Forage Sorghum
B. VENKATESH BHAT
1. Introduction 175
2. Suitability of Sorghum and Sudangrass
as Forage Crops 175
3. History of Forage Sorghum 176
4. Types of Forage Sorghum 176
5. Present Scenario of Forage Sorghum Cultivation 177
6. Breeding Forage Sorghum 178
7. Outlook 187
References 187
12. Grain Structure, Quality, and Nutrition
C.V. RATNAVATHI
1. Introduction 193
2. Grain Structure 193
3. Grain Quality 194
4. Grain Nutrition 197
5. Conclusions 203
References 203
13. Sorghum Grain in Food and Brewing
Industry
C. ARUNA AND K.B.R.S. VISARADA
1. Introduction 209
2. Nutritional and Health Benefits of Sorghum 210
3. Food Uses of Sorghum 211
4. Grain Quality Traits Contributing for Food
Quality and Their Improvement 216
5. Challenges in Using Sorghum for Food Purpose
and Strategies to Overcome 220
6. Concluding Remarks and Future 221
References 222
Further Reading 228
14. Sorghum for Animal Feed
VENKATESWARLU RONDA, C. ARUNA, K.B.R.S. VISARADA, AND
B. VENKATESH BHAT
1. Introduction 229
2. Feed Value of Sorghum 229
3. Factors Affecting Feed Value of Sorghum 232
4. Improving the Feed Efficiency 234
5. Conclusions and Future Thrusts 235
References 236
15. Sorghum for Starch and
Grain Ethanol
S. AUDILAKSHMI AND M. SWARNALATHA
1. Starch 239
2. Grain Ethanol 246
3. Conclusions 249
Abbreviations 250
References 250
16. Sweet Sorghum for Biofuel
Industry
A.V. UMAKANTH, A. ASHOK KUMAR, WILFRED VERMERRIS, AND
V.A. TONAPI
1. Introduction 255
2. Merits of Sweet Sorghum Over Other Biofuel Crops 256
3. Characteristics That Make Sweet Sorghum
an Attractive Biofuel Feedstock 257
4. Genetic Enhancement of Sweet Sorghum 259
5. Cultivars Released in Different Countries 260
6. Status of Commercialization and Industrial
Experiences for Production of Biofuels 261
7. Second-Generation Biofuel Development From
Sweet Sorghum 263
8. Concerns in Sweet Sorghum Promotion and
Strategies for Realizing Higher Productivity 263
9. Way Forward 266
Acknowledgments 266
References 266
Further Reading 270
17. Other Industrial Uses of Sorghum
C. ARUNA AND K.B.R.S. VISARADA
1. Introduction 271
2. Additional Uses as Food and Feed Supplements 271
3. Health Industry 272
4. Utilization in Bioindustrial Product Development 282
5. Conclusions and Future 286
References 287
Further Reading 292
18. Advances in Sorghum Insect Pest
Resistance
P.G. PADMAJA AND C. ARUNA
1. Introduction 293
2. Insect Pests and Yield Loss 293
3. Host Plant Resistance 294
4. Advanced Tools in Sorghum Pest Resistance 302
5. Conclusions and Future Research 307
References 307
Further Reading 312
19. Advances in Sorghum Disease
Resistance
I.K. DAS
1. Introduction 313
2. Effect of Diseases on Different End Uses 313
3. Identification and Understanding of Disease Resistance 317
4. Utilization of Resistance for Cultivar
Development 320
References 322
20. Breeding for Abiotic Stress Resistance
in Sorghum
P. SANJANA REDDY
1. Importance of Abiotic Stresses in Sustainable Agriculture 325
2. Breeding for Drought and Heat Tolerance 325
3. Breeding for Cold Tolerance in Postrainy Sorghums 331
4. Breeding for Salinity and Aluminum Toxicity Tolerance 333
5. Future Prospects 335
References 335
Further Reading 340

21. Distinctness, Uniformity, and Stability (DUS)
Testing in Sorghum
K. HARIPRASANNA
1. Introduction 341
2. Evolution of Plant Variety Protection System 341
3. DUS Testing and Requirement 342
4. UPOV Guidelines for Sorghum 344
5. Members of UPOV Offering Protection 355
6. Evolution of the Indian PVP System 356
7. Limitation of Morphological Descriptors for DUS Testing 358
8. Use of Molecular Techniques for DUS Testing 358
9. Conclusions 359
Annexure I 359
References 365

22. Status of Sorghum Patents
K.B.R.S. VISARADA, M. ELANGOVAN, AND SWARNA RONANKI
1. Introduction 367
2. Scope for Sorghum Patents 367
3. Patent Search Engines 407
4. Paid Sites 407
List of Abbreviations 408 

23. Sorghum Value Chain for Food and Fodder Security
B. DAYAKAR RAO
1. Introduction 409
2. Value Chains of Sorghum Across the Globe 410
3. Case Study of Integrated Sorghum Food Value Chain 412
4. Summary 418
References 419
Index 421

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