Section I Introduction
1 Online Utilization for Terrorist Self-Radicalization Purposes 3
R. Allen Anderson
2 Online Radicalization: Contested Terms and Conceptual Clarity 33
Stuart Macdonald and Joe Whittaker
3 The Relationship between Social Media and Radicalization 47
Cori E. Dauber and Kemal Ilter
4 Rule-of-Law and Respect for Human Rights Considerations 65
Section II A Transnational Recruitment
Problem of Violent Online Extremist Terrorists
5 How Homegrown Violent Extremism Will Likely Continue to Evolve
as a Significant Threat 81
Cori E. Dauber and Mark D. Robinson
6 Counterterrorism Strategy from an Extended Global Online Level 103
José de Arimatéia da Cruz
7 Tools to Study Complexity in the Virtual World of Counterrorism:
Lessons Learned from the Stuxnet and Shamoon Viruses 113
Sheila Ronis and Richard J. Chasdi
Section III Policy and Legislative Frameworks
Responses to Threats Presented by Online Terrorists
8 Legislation Specifically Targeting the Use of the Internet to
Recruit Terrorists 125
Thomas J. Holt, Joshua D. Freilich, and Steven M. Chermak
9 Legal Restrictions and Challenges for Police and Law Enforcement
10 Web Vulnerability-Based Spear Phishing: A Modern Combination of
Tools in Cyberterrorism 149
Section IV Investigations and Intelligence
Gathering of Terrorism-Related Online Activities
11 Investigations of Terrorist Cases Involving the Internet 165
Allison Miller and Yannis A. Stivachtis
12 Terrorism Recruitment and Radicalization into the 21st Century 179
James M. Smith and Maeghin Alarid
13 Domestic Terrorism and Digital Media: Planning in Cyberspace 197
David Woodring, Kevin M. Fitzpatrick, Jeff Gruenewald, and Brent Smith
Section V Online Terrorist Propaganda
14 Metaphors of Radicalization: A Computational and Qualitative
Analysis of Jihadi Propaganda 215
Ben Miller, Weeda Mehran, Yassin Kosay Alsahlani, and Haroon Qahtan
15 An Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Perspective on
Terrorist Propaganda 227
Rebecca A. Wilson and Anthony F. Lemieux
16 The Relationship between Personal Data Protection and Use of
Information to Fight Online Terrorist Propaganda, Recruitment, and
Paolo Balboni and Milda Macenaite
17 Online Terrorist Propaganda: Strategic Messaging Employed by
Al Qaeda and ISIS 267
18 Daesh’s Multimodal Strategies of Online Propaganda 291
Carol K. Winkler and Jonathan Pieslak
19 Supporting the Authentication of Digital Evidence 305
Section VI ISIS and the Dark Web
20 How IS Virtual Planners Use the Dark Web to Recruit, Direct, and
Inspire Attacks in Europe and North America 317
21 Monitoring and Tracking ISIS on the Dark Web 341
William F. Gross, Jr.
22 ISIS and Russia: The Use of Threat for Spreading of Influence and
ISIS’s Future 351
Section VII International Cooperation
with Online Terrorism
23 Instruments and Arrangements against Online Terrorism Relating to
International Cooperation 373
Ali Dizboni and Christian Leuprecht
24 Intelligence Sharing Among Agencies and Internationally 389
José de Arimatéia da Cruz
25 Role of Prosecutors in Online Terrorism Cases 401
Becky K. da Cruz
Section VIII Private Sector Cooperation
and Responsibility for Countering the Use
of the Internet for Terrorist Purposes
26 A Typology of Public–Private Partnerships and Its Implications for
Counterterrorism and Cyber-security 415
Richard J. Chasdi
27 Public–Private Partnerships and the Private Sector’s Role in Countering
the Use of the Internet for Terrorist Purposes 443
Allison Miller and Yannis A. Stivachtis
Section IX Appendices
Appendix A: List of Top Online Counterterrorism Organizations 461
Appendix B: List of Miscellaneous Online Counterterrorism Resources 473
Appendix C: Glossary 481
SECTION I: INTRODUCTION
Section I discusses self-radicalization and how it occurs online. This section also covers contested terms and conceptual clarity; the relationship between social media and radicalization; and the rule-of-law and respect for human rights considerations. The section includes the following chapters. Chapter 1, Online Utilization for Terrorist Self-Radicalization Purposes, sets the stage for the rest of the book, by presenting insight into the main ideas of the Deep and Dark Web. This chapter also covers encrypted communications; online recruitment techniques and methodology; online radicalization and self-radicalization methodology; planning; incitement to action; execution; cyber-attacks; cyber-jihad; and the cyber-caliphate.
Chapter 2, Online Radicalization: Contested Terms and Conceptual Clarity, provides a detailed description of the importance of conceptual clarity. This chapter also covers radicalization; self-radicalization; online radicalization; and the echo chamber.
Chapter 3, The Relationship between Social Media and Radicalization, presents a description of the radicalization process. This chapter also covers what social media is; the role of social media in the radicalization process; and a description of the radicalization process.
Chapter 4, Rule-of-Law and Respect for Human Rights Considerations, introduces the liberty versus security debate. This chapter also covers collective security; individual liberties; infringement on human rights; and finding the balance between security and liberty.
SECTION II : A TRANSNATION AL RECRUIT MENT PROBLEM OF VIO LENT ON LINE EXTREMIST TE RRORISTS
Section II discusses how homegrown violent extremism will likely continue to evolve as a significant threat. This section also covers counterterrorism strategies from an extended global online level and tools to study complexity in the virtual world of counterterrorism lessons learned from the Stuxnet and Shamoon viruses. The section includes the following chapters.
Chapter 5, How Homegrown Violent Extremism Will Likely Continue to Evolve as a Significant Threat, looks at the relationship between communication technology, extremism, and terrorism, and the historical patterns and examples of their relationship. Then the chapter focuses on the impacts of the developments of digital technologies and the way these technologies initially functioned synergistically—what is called “the Iraq effect,” and then how these technologies, as they continued to evolve, created completely new opportunities for terrorist groups. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of extremely disturbing directions for the future—not a future that is ten years off—but one that may only be months or weeks away. Of course, that refers to events that have already occurred—the linking of violent acts and live stream functionalities of social media platform.
Chapter 6, Counterterrorism Strategy from an Extended Global Online Level, explores the United Nations’ global counterterrorism strategy. This chapter also covers the G20 and its counterterrorism strategy; G8 recommendations for counterterrorism; the counterterrorism action group (CTAG); public–private partnerships to counter terrorism; NATO’s policy guidelines on counterterrorism; the Council of Europe; and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).
Chapter 7, Tools to Study Complexity in the Virtual World of Counterterrorism: Lessons Learned from the Stuxnet and Shamoon Viruses, discusses the nature of complex systems and why the development of visionarios or stories about those systems helps to explore complex systems to better understand their idiosyncrasies and characteristics. This chapter also describes complex systems such as terrorist cells and proposes a method through the use of system maps and stories, called visionaries, to learn about and explore them. In addition, cyber-weapons, potential tools of terrorists, are also discussed.
SECTION III : POLICY AND LEGISLATI VE FRAMEWORKS RESPON SES TO THREATS PRESENTE D BY ON LINE TE RRORISTS
Section III discusses legislation that specifically targets the use of the internet to recruit terrorists. This section also covers legal restrictions and challenges for police and law enforcement authorities and web vulnerability-based spear phishing: a modern combination of tools in cyberterrorism. The section includes the following chapters.
Chapter 8, Legislation Specifically Targeting the Use of the Internet to Recruit Terrorists, examines the general state of legislation in Western nations as it affects the ways that radical organizations use the internet as a tactical and strategic tool. The authors first consider the ways that extremists and terrorists use the internet for recruitment and information sharing. Next, they discuss the differences in legislation with a specific focus on the United States, the UK, and the European Union. They also review the actions taken by social media companies and internet service providers to respond to the threat of terrorism. The authors conclude with a discussion of the implications of these laws for individual free speech and privacy protections.
Chapter 9, Legal Restrictions and Challenges for Police and Law Enforcement Authorities, identifies the restrictions and challenges that have an influence on the outcomes for police and law enforcement strategies. The chapter also discusses how legal restrictions are varied—with two of the more prominent issues that include jurisdictional boundaries and the protection of constitutional rights. In addition to these legal restrictions, the chapter explores the understanding of non-Western communities and how practicing cultural sensitivity poses a challenge, as does the need to acquire the cooperation and participation of the private sector—a lack of these factors can influence the success of a counterterrorism campaign. This chapter finally focuses on the preceding particular considerations within the context of the strategies and measures employed by law enforcement to counter escalating extremism.
Chapter 10, Web Vulnerability-Based Spear Phishing: A Modern Combination Of Tools in Cyber terrorism, details a number of different techniques that modern attackers use to enhance phishing attacks and bring the success rate of such attacks to a significantly higher level by using advanced methods of crafting phishing pages—including pages created by using vulnerabilities of legitimate web applications. After a brief review of existing classic methods used by phishing attacks, the chapter reviews the methods of developing phishing pages with attempts to make them look like genuine ones by using inherent vulnerabilities of different natures and levels, such as the IDN name display method of browsers, web certificate issuance process imperfections, and classic cross-site scripting vulnerabilities of web applications.