Treatment of Textile Processing Effluents PDF by N.Manivasakam

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Treatment of Textile Processing Effluents
By N.Manivasakam
Treatment of Textile Processing Effluents

CONTENTS
Part - I. TREATMENTOFTEXTILEPROCESSING
EFFLUENTS 1
Chapter - 1. Introduction 3
Chapter - 2. Characteristics of Cotton Textile Processing
Effluents 8
Chapter - 3. Treatment of Cotton Textile Processing
Effluents 38
Sizing 10
Desizing 11
Scouring 14
Bleaching 15
Mercerizing 17
Dyeing 18
Printing 29
Finishing 30
Combined Effluent 31
Desizing 38
Scouring 43
Bleaching 43
Mercerizing 44
Dyeing 45
Printing 52
Combined Effluent 53
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Treatments 56
Primary Treatment 56
Secondary Treatment 59
Tertiary Treatment 61
Chapter - 4. Charactristics and Treatment of Synthetic
Textile Processing Effluents 67
Chapter - 5. Knit Fabric Finishing 86
Process and Characteristics of Effluents 68
Treatment 80
Chapter - 6. Characteristics and Treatment of Woollen
Textile Processing Effluents 88
Chapter - 7. Recent Trends in Textile Waste Water
Management 120
Chapter - 8. Reduction of Pollution Load 122
Chapter - 9. Recovery and Reuse of Sizes, Dyes and
Other Chemicals 142
Processes, Sources&characteristics of
Effluents 89
Treatment ofWool Processing Effluents 99
Waste segregation 123
Recovery & Reuse of Sizes and
Other Chemicals 125
Substitution of Low-Pollution Load
Chemicals 125
Judicious use of chemicals 134
Process changes 135
Economy inWater use 138
Recovery of PVAand other Sizing agents 143
Caustic soda Recovery 144
Recovery of Dyes 145
Reuse of Ozonated Dyebath 146
Recovery of Other Valuable materials 146
Recovery of Heat 147
Chapter - 10. Recycling and Reuse ofWasteWater 149
Chapter - 11. Conservation and Reuse ofWater 155
Part - II. TREATMENT METHODS 161
Chapter - 12 Treatment Methods -An Introduction 163
Chapter - 13. Preliminary and Primary Treatments 172
Chapter - 14. Secondary Biological Treatment 209
Screening 172
Equalization 174
Neutralization 177
Coagulation 185
Sedimentation 206
Floatation (DissolvedAir Floatation) 207
Activated Sludge Process 213
Trickling Filtration 224
Aerated Lagoons 228
Oxidation Ponds 229
Anaerobic Digestion 231
Sludge Disposal 232
Neutralization ofAcidicWastes 178
Neutralization of AlkalineWastes 181
Coagulants 186
Auxiliary chemicals 192
Flocculation -Aids 193
Coagulation & Flocculation Equipments 197
Merits & Demerits of Coagulation 203
Removal of Interfering Substances 233
Chapter - 15. Tertiary Treatment 238
Chapter - 17. Advanced Oxidation Processes 264
Multimedia Filtration 239
Dialysis / Electro Dialysis 245
Chemical Coagulation 239
Chemical Precipitation 240
Disinfection 240
Ozonation 240
Activated CarbonAdsorption 240
MembraneTechnology 242
Evaporation 246
Advanced Oxidation Processes 252
OzoneTreatment 252
Adsorption 253
MembraneTechnology 253
Dialysis / Electrodialysis 254
Ion Exchange 257
Evaporation 258
Crystallization 261
Freezing 261
Some PatentedTechnics for Color Removal 262
Bio-mass basedTechnologies 262
Cutting-EdgeTreatment Methods 263
Chapter - 16. Advanced Methods for the Treatment of
Textile ProcessingWasteWater 250
Non-Photo chemical Methods 266
Homogeneous Photochemical Oxidation
Processes 271
Ozonation 266
Ozone/Hydrogen Peroxide Process 268
Fenton Method 269
Vacuum-UV Photo Oxidation 271
UVand Ozone 272
UVand Hydrogenperoxide 273
UV, Ozone and Hydrogen Peroxide 273
Photo Fenton Method 273
Heterogeneous Photochemical Oxidation
Processes 274
Reactions of Ozone inWasteWater
Treatment 281
Chapter - 18. Ozone Treatment 278
Chapter - 19. Activated CarbonAdsorption 291
Chapter - 20. Membrane Technology 298
Advancements in OzoneTreatment 287
Micro Filtration 300
Ultra Filtration 301
Nano Filtration 302
Reverse Osmosis 303
Disc andTube Module 316
Membrane Bio-Reactors 318
Oxidative Reactions and Color Removal 282
BODReduction 285
Sludge Reduction 286
Part - III. ANALYSISOFTEXTILEPROCESSING
EFFLUENTS 327
Chapter - 21 Purpose of Examination 329
Chapter - 22. Collection ofWasteWater samples 330
Chapter - 23. Recording of Results 333
Chapter - 24. Analytical Methods - Important Notes 336
Chapter - 25. Parameters to be determined on Textile
Processing Effluents 338
Chapter - 26. General Physico-Chemical Measurements 342
26-1. Color & PhysicalAppearance 342
26-2. Odor 342
26-3. Temperature 342
26-4. pH Value 343
26-5. Suspended Solids 345
26-6. Dissolved Solids 347
26-7. Settleable Solids 348
Chapter - 27. Measurement of Organic Pollution 351
Chapter - 28. Inorganic Constituents - Non Metallics 393
Chapter - 29. Inorganic Constituents - Metals 419
Chapter - 30. Miscellaneous Determination 437
27-1. Dissolved Oxygen 351
27-2. Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) 357
27-3. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 371
27-4. Permanganate Value 379
27-5. Ammonia Nitrogen 383
27-6. Organic Nitrogen 388
27-7. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 389
28-1. Acidity 393
28-2. Alkalinity 395
28-3. Chloride 399
28-4. Nitrate 403
28-5. Nitrite 406
28-6. Phosphate 409
28-7. Sulfide 412
29-1. Calcium + Magnesium 419
29-2. Calcium 421
29-3. Magnesium 423
29-4. Sodium 424
29-5. Potassium 425
29-6. Percent Sodium 426
29-7. Chromium 428
30-1. Boron 437
30-2. Chlorine 441
30-3. Oils & Grease 443
30-4. Phenols 446
30-5. Surfactants 451
Appendix 457
Index 489

PREFACE

The biggest problem that every textile processor has to encounter is the treatment of their effluents. But many processors find it very difficult to treat their effluents mainly because of their poor understanding of the character of their effluents. This book is written with the intention to provide the textile processor, a clear picture of the effluents emerging from their industry, and to have a suitable treatment system that works efficiently and economically. The textile industry has to adopt new technologies according to the changing scenario both in processing and treatment of effluents. In recent times a number of effluent treatment technologies have been developed. They are dealt exhaustively in this book. Unlike in the past, today’s treatment programs encompass several new concepts such as reduction of pollution load, recovery of dyes and chemicals, waste water recovery etc., This book describes all these new concepts elaborately under separate chapters.

This book is divided into three parts. Part-I exclusively deals with the characteristics and treatment of processing effluents. Separate chapters are devoted for Cotton, Synthetic and Woollen Textiles. An exclusive chapter is apportioned to offer ways and means to reduce pollution load. The chapters, “Recovery and Reuse of Sizes, Dyes and Other Chemicals” and “Recovery and Reuse of Waste Water” are incorportated to enable the processor to recover valuable materials from the effluents and possible methods of reusing them and also waste water. Methods for the minimum use of water are also described in the chapter “Conservation and Reuse of Water”.

Part-II is devoted exclusively to describe treatment methods. Elaborate discussions have been made on primary, secondary and tertiary treatments in Chapters 13, 14, and 15. The latest treatment methods are described under the Chapter “Advanced Methods for the Treatment of Textile Processing Waste Water”. “Ozone Treatment” and “Activated Carbon Adsorption” are also discussed elaborately as separate chapters. An exclusive chapter is devoted to “Membrane Technology” owing to its effective applications in the treatment of effluents.

Part-III, Analysis of Textile Processing Effluents provides analytical procedures for the determination of various parameters. Starting from the general physico-chemial measurements, analytical procedures for the measurement of organic pollution (including BOD and COD), determination of non-metallics and metallic constituents are described in detail. The procedures are described in step by step for easy follow up.

Needless to say that this book would be of immense use to textile processors, textile chemists, textile consultants, and to all others who engaged in textile processing and to consultants, engineers and chemists and firms engaged in water and waste water treatment. Academic and Research Institutions and University faculties offering courses on Textile Technology, Textile Processing, Textile Chemistry, Environmental Sciences, Chemistry and Ecology would find this as an invaluable reference book.

This book is prepared and published with the assistance of a number of people. Among them, I gratefully acknowledge Mr.S.Murugesan and Mr.S.Muruganandam without whose encouragement and assistance this work is not possible.Aspecial debt of gratitude is due to Mr.A.Sundararajan (late) who has excellently drawn the figures appearing in this book. I also acknowlege Ms.S.Punitha for the excellent typesetting of this book. Lastly it is a pleasure to extend my sincere thanks to my wife Mrs.M.Sivabagiam and to my son M.Sakthikumar for thier patience and encouragments.

I am immensely pleased to express my gratitude and sincere thanks to M/s. Chemial Publishing Company, Revere, U.S.A., for their keen interest shown towards the publication of this book.

It is US$10. To get this book send email: textileebooks@gmail.com

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