Textbook of Environmental Biotechnology PDF by Pramod Kumar, Vipin Kumar and Pravin Kumar Sachan


Textbook of Environmental Biotechnology
By Pramod Kumar, Vipin Kumar and Pravin Kumar Sachan

Textbook of Environmental Biotechnology


Preface ix
1. Scope of Environmental Biotechnology 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Environmental Science 1
1.3 Environmental Engineering and its Limitations 2
1.4 Environmental Biotechnology, Present and Future Prospects 3

2. Environment and Ecology 7
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Components of Environment 8
2.3 Ecology and Ecosystem 13

3. Environmental Pollution 27
3.1 Introduction 27
3.2 Requirement and Introduction of Environmental Biotechnology 27
3.3 Definition of Environmental Pollution 28

4. Microbial Metabolism 61
4.1 Introduction 61
4.2 PERT Hypothesis for Biological Treatment 61
4.3 Microbial Metabolic Pathways 62
5. Analytical Techniques for Environmental Monitoring 73
5.1 Introduction 73
5.2 Wastewater Monitoring 74
5.3 Estimation of Lignin, Hemicelluloses and Cellulose 81
5.4 Air Quality Monitoring 91
5.5 Sound Monitoring 92
5.6 Radioactive Monitoring 94
5.7 Minimal National Standards for Waste Disposal 97
6. Management and Treatment of Waste 99
6.1 Introduction 99
6.2 Types of Waste 99
6.3 Type of Waste Treatment 105
6.4 Solid Waste Management by Vermiculture 113
7. Biological Waste Treatment 119
7.1 Introduction 119
7.2 Objectives of Wastewater Treatment 119
7.3 Characteristics of Liquid Effluents 120
7.4 Type of Biological Treatment 122
8. Bioreactors for Waste Treatment 137
8.1 Introduction 137
8.2 Biological Waste Treatment Reactors 137
8.3 Suspended Growth System 151
9. Effluent Treatment 175
9.1 Introduction 175
9.2 Aerobic and Anaerobic Treatment 175
10. Bioremediation 187
10.1 Introduction 187
10.2 Principles of Bioremediation and Biodegradation 187
10.3 Concept and Requirement of Bioremediation 189
10.4 Bioremediation of Hydrocarbons 200
10.5 Bioremediation of Industrial Waste 201
10.6 Phytoremediation 205
10.7 Advantages and Limitations of Bioremediation 211
11. Bioenergy from Waste 213
11.1 Introduction 213
11.2 Biofuel Versus Fossil Fuel 214
11.3 Type of Energy Resources, Renewable, Non-renewable
Resources and Availability 214
11.4 Classification of Biofuels – First, Second, Third and
Fourth Generation 219
11.5 Future Prospects 242
12. Value Added Products from Organic Waste 249
12.1 Introduction 249
12.2 Biofertilisers 249
12.3 Types of Biofertilisers 251
12.4 Production of Biofertilisers 251
12.5 Microbial Mass 257
12.6 Problems with Biofertilisers 257
12.7 Single Cell Protein 259
12.8 Mushroom 260
12.9 Enzymes 261
13. Global Environmental Issues at National and
International Level 263
13.1 Introduction 263
13.2 Climatic Changes 263
13.3 Sustainable Development Challenges 268
13.4 Environmental Protection Acts and Legislation 269
13.5 International Policies, Summits and Declarations
to Protect Environment 271
Glossary 277
References 297
Index 299

Environmental biotechnology is a vast and rapidly growing field, which continues to revolutionise the understanding of basic life sustaining processes in the environment, by identifying and exploiting the biomolecules and their, utilities to provide clean technologies, in order to counter environmental problems. This technology plays very crucial role in environmental management. There are several applications in agriculture, including the use of specific bacteria to enhance nutrient supply to soil and also in pollution control, as the use of micro-organisms for waste water treatment. The technology is focused to improve production process with minimum waste generation, waste recycling, development of bioresources, manipulation of micro-organisms according to waste, remediation of contaminated habitats, degradation of chemicals, pesticides, heavy metal removal, remediation of surface and ground water. Environmental degradation is due to rapid industrialisation, expanding population, exploitation of natural resources, and this lead to global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain and health hazards.

This Textbook of Environmental Biotechnology contains 13 chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the scope of environmental biotechnology and discuses environmental science, environmental engineering and its limitations. Chapter 2 is devoted to environment and ecology and provides information on components of environmental and ecosystems. Chapter 3 looks at the need of environmental pollution. Various types of pollutions, their causes, effects and control are discussed. Chapter 4 considers the role of microbial metabolism. The chapter discusses various types of valuable micro-organisms their mechanism and metabolic pathways. Chapter 5 concentrates on analytical techniques for environmental monitoring. The chapter also discusses wastewater, air quality sound and radioactive monitoring along with minimum national standards for waste disposal.

Chapter 6 discusses management and treatment of waste. Various types of waste, their collection and treatments are discussed in detail. Chapter 7 considers the role of biological waste treatment. Various types of aerobic and anaerobic treatment processes are discussed along with the factors affecting these processes. Chapter 8 is devoted to bioreactors for waste treatment. Various types of biological treatment bioreactors on the basis of microbial growth pattern are discussed. Chapter 9 focuses on effluent treatment. Various aerobic and anaerobic treatment processes along with step involved in treatment process are discussed. Chapter 10 serves as foundation to understand bioremediation.

The chapter discusses various types of biodegradation, in situ and ex situ bioremediation along with treatment of soil and industrial wastes. Chapter 11 concentrates on bioenergy from waste. Various types of energy resources and biofuels along with their advantages, disadvantages and future prospects are discussed.

Chapter 12 provides information on value added products from organic waste such as biofertilisers, single cell protein, biofuels, mushroom and enzymes, etc. Chapter 13 is devoted to global environmental issues at national and international level as climate change, global warming, ozone layer, acid rain, sustainable development, protect biodiversity, various environment protection acts and legislations, international policies, summits and declarations to protect environment etc.

I am thankful to Mr Pravin Kr. Sachan, Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Food Technology at Harcourt Butler Technical University, Kanpur, who helped me in editing the book. Appreciations are also extended to Mr Harinder Singh, Senior DTP operator, who drew and labelled the flow diagrams and worked long hours to bring the book on time. I am also thankful to the editorial team of Woodhead Publishing India Pvt. for their wholehearted cooperation in bringing out the book in time.

It may not be wrong to hold that this Textbook of Environmental Biotechnology is essential reading for students pursuing B.Tech/M.Tech, (Biotechnology, Environmental Engineering, Food Biotechnology, Biochemical Engineering). Besides students, this book will prove useful to industrialists and consultants in the respective fields.

It has been prepared with meticulous care, aiming at making the book error free. Constructive suggestions are always welcome from users of this book.

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