High-Performance and Specialty Fibers: Concepts, Technology and Modern Applications of Man-Made Fibers for the Future PDF

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High-Performance and Specialty Fibers: Concepts, Technology and Modern Applications of Man-Made Fibers for the Future
High-Performance and Specialty Fibers_ Concepts, Technology and Modern Applications of Man-Made Fibers for the Future


Contents

Part I Advancement of Fiber Science and Technology
1 History of Fiber Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Toshiji Kanaya and Keisuke Kaji
2 Progress in Structure Analysis Techniques of Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Kohji Tashiro
3 Progress in Fiber Spinning Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Takeshi Kikutani
4 History of Polyester Resin Development for Synthetic Fibers
and Its Forefront . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Masatoshi Aoyama and Yoichiro Tanaka
Part II High-Strength High-Modulus Organic Fibers
5 History of Super Fibers: Adventures in Quest of the Strongest
Fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Hiroki Murase and Kazuyuki Yabuki
6 Microscopically Viewed Relationship Between Structure and
Mechanical Property of Crystalline Polymers: An Important
Guiding Principle for the Development of Super Fibers . . . . . . . . . 95
Kohji Tashiro
7 Dyneema®: Super Fiber Produced by the Gel Spinning
of a Flexible Polymer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Yasunori Fukushima, Hiroki Murase, and Yasuo Ohta
8 Development of High-Strength Poly(ethylene terephthalate)
Fibers: An Attempt from Semiflexible Chain Polymer . . . . . . . . . . 133
Takeshi Kikutani
9 Technora® Fiber: Super Fiber from the Isotropic Solution
of Rigid-Rod Polymer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Shigeru Hayashida
10 Vectran®: Super Fiber from the Thermotropic Crystals
of Rigid-Rod Polymer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Hideki Hoshiro, Ryokei Endo, and Forrest E. Sloan
11 Zylon®: Super Fiber from Lyotropic Liquid Crystal of the Most
Rigid Polymer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Yoshihiko Teramoto and Fuyuhiko Kubota
Part III Functional and Speciality Man-Made Fibers
12 Overview of Functional and Speciality Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Togi Suzuki
13 High-Touch Fibers and “Shin-gosen” (Newly Innovated Fabrics) . . . 233
Hiroshi Takahashi
14 Moisture and Water Control Man-Made Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Togi Suzuki and Sonoko Ishimaru
15 Heat-Controllable Man-Made Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Sonoko Ishimaru
Part IV Ultrafine and Nano Fibers
16 Nanofibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Akihiko Tanioka and Mitsuhiro Takahashi
17 Nanofibers by Conjugated Spinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Yuhei Maeda and Masato Masuda
18 Cellulose Nanofibers as New Bio-Based Nanomaterials . . . . . . . . . . 297
Akira Isogai
19 Forefront of Nanofibers: High Strength Fibers and Optoelectronic
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Hidetoshi Matsumoto
Part V Carbon Fibers
20 Carbon Fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Makoto Endo
21 Pitch-Based Carbon Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Yutaka Arai
22 Life Cycle Assessment of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic . . . . . . . 355
Tetsuyuki Kyono
23 Recycling Technologies of Carbon Fiber Composite Materials . . . . 363
Yoshitaka Kageyama
Part VI Nonwovens
24 Current Status and Future Outlook for Nonwovens in Japan . . . . . 375
Osamu Yaida
25 Bicomponent Polyester Fibers for Nonwovens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Masatsugu Mochizuki and Nobuhiro Matsunaga
26 The World’s Only Cellulosic Continuous Filament Nonwoven
“Bemliese®” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Eiji Shiota
27 Thermoplastic Polyurethane Nonwoven Fabric “Espansione” . . . . 421
Hiroyasu Shimizu
Part VII Fibers in Future
28 Future Man-Made Fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Akira Yonenaga


Preface
The Society of Fiber Science and Technology, Japan (SFSTJ) was established in 1943 by merging the Cellulose Association (founded in 1924) and the Society of Industrial Fiber Technology (founded in 1935). Since then, SFSTJ has been contributing not only to research and education on fiber science and technology but also to the development of the fiber and textile industries. In December 2013, SFSTJ celebrated its 70th anniversary and held a commemorative ceremony for the anniversary on September 29, 2014. The ceremony was followed by the International Symposium for Fiber Science and Technology (ISF2014), looking back at its previous activities and looking ahead to the fiber science and technology of the future. For this purpose, many prominent scientists and important leaders from government, academia, and industry around the world were invited. In addition, SFSTJ made plans to publish this book commemorating the 70th anniversary by compiling the whole of fiber science and technology that have been developed thus far. In particular, new technologies for manmade fibers that have recently been industrialized in Japan are highlighted to shed light on the future technologies that will be needed in the fiber and textile industry of this century.

Manmade fibers have a long history, and their current developments ought to have their own historical backgrounds. We therefore succeeded in reviewing the historical origins of the newly developed fibers in addition to the concepts and processes for their development, as well as their key technologies and excellent characteristics. Recently, the production center of many low-cost manmade fibers such as polyester has shifted from Japan to China after the past drift from the Western countries, including the United States, to Japan. Such transition has forced Japanese fiber companies to change their business strategy from mass production to small-size production of high-quality, high-performance fibers. Currently, many of the specialty fibers are industrialized in Japan. For example, Zylon and Dyneema from Toyobo are the strongest organic and super high-elastic-modulus fibers, respectively. Technora from Teijin and Vectran from Kuraray are high-strength fibers. Torayca is the most famous carbon fiber produced by Toray. These fibers having outstanding properties constitute the main subjects of this book.

We are proud to have been able to invite the inventors or specialists from both industry and academia as authors who write about the various fibers. They describe in detail the design concepts and key technologies used for the respective manmade fibers in the chapters for which they were responsible. These chapters have been effectively compiled into a book that can be used not only as a good textbook for university teachers and students to learn basic concepts of modern fibers, but also as a review or a reference book for researchers in academic organizations and companies to overview the recent statuses of manmade fibers, particularly specialty fibers that have been developed in Japan to date. This book is therefore presented as a record of the outcome of important research by Japanese scientists and engineers who have been involved in the development of manmade fibers in Japan. It also has the distinction of being the first English book authorized by The Society of Fiber Science and Technology, Japan.

In the initial publication plan for this book, Springer explained to us that they now publish not only printed books but also ebooks, which readers can access through the Internet. This on-line publishing system is convenient for readers in that the books they need are readily available whether in the office or at home. Readers who are interested in having a hard copy of a book can order a printed version which will be mailed to them. On-line publications in principle keep on sailing forever, and no book ever goes “out of print”. In other words, if a book is continuously revised, it will not lose contemporary value as a reference book and as a data and information source. This feature is especially attractive for authors and editors although continued revision may not always be easy. Therefore, revisions must be made in an organized manner from generation to generation by leaving it to scientific societies or organizations where the most capable authors can be nominated from among many eminent members at the time of revision in order to update the descriptions and data. Based on this concept, SFSTJ decided to edit this book and to continue its revision to maintain the contemporary quality of the book in the future. The present volume is therefore to be considered only a first version leading to a comprehensive treatise on fiber science and technology that will be accomplished after several revision steps.

Here, we express our deep appreciation to the many authors who devoted themselves to writing their respective chapters, sacrificing their valuable time. We also acknowledge the section directors who arranged the important sections by inviting excellent authors and sometimes editing the manuscripts submitted. Finally, Ms. Taeko Sato and Dr. Shin’ichi Koizumi at Springer Japan are gratefully acknowledged for their valuable support for the publication of this book. Without their initial proposal and their follow-up arrangements, this book would not have appeared.

 

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