Encyclopedia of Lubricants and Lubrication PDF Edited by Theo Mang

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Encyclopedia of Lubricants and Lubrication

Edited by Theo Mang

Encyclopedia of Lubricants and Lubrication

Preface
Lubrication is certainly an essential, if not the essential, area of tribology. Virtually all moving parts are lubricated and suitable lubricants are employed to maximize the lifetime of machine elements and to minimize energy consumption and overall costs. Making lubrication successful requires combined efforts: selecting the right lubricant, using the right lubricating system, keeping the lubricant in good conditions, incorporating properly the lubricant into the engineering process as a machine element, finding the suitable test procedure to check the efficiency of the lubricant, selecting the right criteria to protect the environment and to improve the energy efficiency and, last but not least, finding the overall economically best solution.

The Encyclopedia of Lubricants and Lubrication will be a leading and comprehensive reference work covering all major aspects of the science, technology and application of lubricants and lubrication, friction, wear and related fields.

It took more than 3 years of hard work of outstanding experts in awide range of disciplines to compile this encyclopedia. I would give my sincere thanks to all the invited authors and colleagues of Springer, especially Dr.MartinM€uller.

Editor-in-Chief

Theo Mang
Weinheim, Germany

Theo Mang gained his doctorate in chemical engineering from the University of Clausthal, Germany, in 1967. He began working in the field of lubricants at Fuchs in Mannheim in 1967, becoming head of the technical department in 1980 and a member of the Executive Board of the global Fuchs Group from 1983 until 2001, responsible for technology including engineering, research and development, technical application and product management, and later additionally responsible for group purchasing and human resources. Since 1998 he has been Professor at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of the University of Aachen (RWTH Aachen). Professor Mang is recipient of the Georg Vogelpohl Medal, highest award of the German Society of Tribology, and has 80 publications to his name including books and monographs with the focus on lubricants and lubrication. He was a board member of various German and European professional societies. In 2013, he was honored with the Federal Cross of Merit by the German Federal President Joachim Gauck for his successful work in research and development, his cultural activities and generally for his lifework.

Contributors

Robert Acuner Forschungsstelle f€ur Zahnr€ader und Getriebebau,

Technische Universit€at M€unchen, Garching, Bayern, Germany

Paul E. Adams The Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH, USA

Jo Ameye Fluitec International, Antwerpen, Belgium

Bagcivan Surface Engineering Institute, RWTH Aachen University,

Aachen, Germany

Thorsten Bartels Evonik Industries AG, Darmstadt, Germany

Shubhamita Basu The Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH, USA

Douglas Bea Chevron Global Base Oils, Richmond, CA, USA

Bernd-Arno Behrens Institut f€ur Umformtechnik, Universit€at Hannover,

Garbsen, Germany

Edward G. Bell Fuchs-Lubritech GmbH -Moly-Paul Division, Hilden,

Germany

Roland Bennewitz INM Leibniz-Institut f€ur Neue Materialien,

Saarbr€ucken, Germany

Lutz-Michael Berger Fraunhofer Institute IWS, Dresden, Germany

Bernhard Biehl Fuchs Lubritech GmbH, Kaiserslautern, Germany

Kirsten Bobzin Surface Engineering Institute, RWTH Aachen University,

Aachen, Germany

Eberhard Bock Freudenberg Sealing Technologies GmbH & Co. KG,

Weinheim, Germany

Wolfgang Bock Fuchs Europe Schmierstoffe GmbH, Mannheim, Germany

Bo¨lter IAVF Antriebstechnik, Karlsruhe, Germany

Bo¨rner ZF Friedrichshafen, Friedrichshafen, Germany

Steffen Bots OELCHECK GmbH, Brannenburg, Germany

J€urgen Braun Fuchs Europe Schmierstoffe GmbH, Mannheim, Germany

Richard Brocker RWTH Aachen University, Laboratory for Machine

Tools and Production Engineering (WZL), Aachen, Germany

Detlev Bruhnke AVISTA OIL AG, Uetze-Dollbergen, Germany

Mathias Burkert Merkel Freudenberg Fluidtechnic, Schwalmstadt,

Germany

Rowena Crockett Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and

Technology (Empa), Duebendorf, Switzerland

Horst Czichos BHT Berlin, University of Applied Sciences, Berlin,

Germany

Klaus Daniel APL Automobil-Pr€uftechnik Landau GmbH, Landau,

Germany

Ludger Deters Institute of Machine Design, Otto-von-Guericke-University

Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany

Jesus Dı´az Kl€uber Lubrication M€unchen KG, Munich, Germany

Albert Dick ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen, Germany

Wilfried Dresel Ludwigshafen, Germany

Duscha RWTH Aachen University, Laboratory for Machine Tools and

Production Engineering (WZL), Aachen, Germany

Claus Enekes RWTH Aachen, IFAS, Aachen, Germany

Marco Enger Hochschule Mannheim, Kompetenzzentrum Tribologie,

Mannheim, Germany

Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Materials Science

and Technology

Renee Eveland The Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH, USA

Robert Feher AMG Mining AG, Passau, Bavaria, Germany

Horst Fehrenbach IFEU (Institute for Energy and Environmental

Research), Heidelberg, Germany

Paul Feinle Competence Centre for Tribology, Mannheim University of

Applied Sciences, Mannheim, Germany

Alexandra Fluri Bellach, Switzerland

Christian Forster Kl€uber Lubrication M€unchen KG, Munich, Germany

Jung Frank HYDAC Filter Systems GmbH, Sulzbach/Saar, Germany

Edgar Freitag Freudenberg Sealing Technologies, LC Fluidpower Industry

Merkel Freudenberg Fluidtechnic GmbH, Schwalmstadt, Germany

Dietmar Frey ZF Friedrichshafen, Friedrichshafen, AG, Germany

Christopher Friend Lubrizol Limited, Hazelwood, Derbyshire, UK

Hans Gaca Offenbach, Germany

Markus Garb Fuchs Europe Schmierstoffe GmbH, Mannheim, Germany

Stefan Gels Institute for Fluid Power Drives and Controls (IFAS), RWTH

Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

Klaus Gerschwiler RWTH Aachen University, Laboratory for Machine

Tools and Production Engineering (WZL), Aachen, Germany

Torsten Goerz Fuchs Lubritech GmbH, Kaiserslautern, Germany

Apu Gosalia Fuchs Petrolub AG, Mannheim, Germany

Ge´rard Goujon Nyco, Paris, France

Markus Grebe Competence Centre for Tribology, Mannheim University of

Applied Sciences, Mannheim, Germany

Andreas Gropp Freudenberg Forschungsdienste KG, Computer Aided

Engineering, Weinheim, Germany

Hermann-J. Gummert Viersen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany

Rainer Haja Almig Kompressoren GmbH, Koengen, Germany

Uwe Hanschke Enviolet GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany

Manfred Harperscheid Fuchs Petrolub AG, Mannheim, Germany

Manfred Hartelt Fachbereich 6.3 Makrotribologie und Verschleißschutz,

BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin, Germany

Jutta Heckenkamp Fuchs Petrolub AG, Mannheim, Germany

Rolf-Peter Heckler Fuchs Petrolub AG, Mannheim, Germany

Oliver Heipl Institute for Fluid Power Drives and Controls (IFAS), RWTH

Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

Wolfgang Hemmer Fuchs Lubritech GmbH, Kaiserslautern, Germany

Harry Hofmann Carl Bechem GMBH, Hagen, Germany

Klaus Holz Fuchs Lubritech GmbH, Kaiserslautern, Germany

Dietrich Ho¨rner Hassloch, Germany

Maureen E. Hunter King Industries, Inc, Norwalk, CT, USA

Phillip A. Hutchinson Evonik Industries AG, Darmstadt, Germany

Martin Inderelst Institute for Fluid Power Drives and Controls (IFAS),

RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

Georg Jacobs Institute for Machine Elements and Machine Design, RWTH

Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

Gerd Jacobs Fuchs Europe Schmierstoffe GmbH, Mannheim, Germany

Andreas Japing System Technologies and Design Methodology, Hamburg

University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany

J. Joachim ZF Friedrichshafen, Friedrichshafen, Germany

Manfred Jungk Development Lubricant Product Line, Dow Corning

GmbH, Wiesbaden, Germany

Friedhelm Junker HOLIFA Fro¨hling GmbH & Co. KG, Hagen, Germany

Czeslaw Kajdas Institute of Chemistry in Płock, Warsaw University of

Technology, Płock, Poland

Automotive Industry Institute PIMOT, Warszawa, Poland

Bernhard Kammermeier Kl€uber Lubrication M€unchen KG, Munich,

Germany

Kai F. Karhausen Hydro Aluminium Rolled Products GmbH, Bonn,

Germany

Bernhard Kehrwald IAVF Antriebstechnik GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany

Po¨hlmann Klaus IAVF Antriebstechnik GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany

Thomas Klenk Innovation Center, Freudenberg Sealing Technologies,

Weinheim, Germany

Fritz Klocke RWTH Aachen University, Laboratory for Machine Tools and

Production Engineering (WZL), Aachen, Germany

Thomas Koch Stiftung Institut f€ur Werkstofftechnik IWT, Bremen,

Germany

Mercedes Kowallik Fuchs Europe Schmierstoffe GmbH, Mannheim,

Germany

Alexander Kr€amer RWTH Aachen University, Laboratory for Machine

Tools and Production Engineering (WZL), Aachen, Germany

R€udiger Krethe OELCHECK GmbH, Brannenburg, Germany

Kamala R. Krishna Chevron Lummus Global, Richmond, CA, USA

Marius Kuhn Kl€uber Lubrication M€unchen KG, Munich, Germany

Peter Kunz APL Automobil-Pr€uftechnik Landau GmbH, Landau, Germany

Norbert Kurz ZF Friedrichshafen, Friedrichshafen, Germany

Clive Lacey Fuchs-Lubritech GmbH -Moly-Paul Division, Hilden,

Germany

David Laing Kl€uber Lubrication M€unchen KG, Munich, Germany

Holger Lang Freudenberg O-Ring GmbH u. Co KG, Go¨rwihl-Oberwihl,

Germany

Michael Laval Fuchs Lubritech GmbH, Kaiserslautern, Germany

Guan-Dao Lei Chevron Lummus Global, Richmond, CA, USA

Marcel Liauw RWTH Aachen University, ITMC, Aachen, Germany

Rudolf Lienhard Kl€uber Lubrication AG (Schweiz), Zurich, Switzerland

Lutz Lindemann Fuchs Petrolub AG, Mannheim, Germany

Greg Livingstone Fluitec International, Jersey City, NJ, USA

Siegfried Lochschmidt Kl€uber Lubrication M€unchen KG, Munich,

Germany

Achim Losch Fuchs Europe Schmierstoffe GmbH, Mannheim, Germany

Dominique Lutaud Freudenberg Sealing Technologies GmbH & Co. KG,

Weinheim, Germany

Rolf Luther Fuchs Europe Schmierstoffe GmbH, Mannheim, Germany

Wolfgang Mach IAVF Antriebstechnik, Karlsruhe, Germany

Theo Maesen Chevron Lummus Global, Richmond, CA, USA

Theo Mang Weinheim, Germany

Jean-Louis Mansoux Nyco, Paris, France

Giuseppe Marcantoni Properzi International, Inc., Sparks, Maryland, USA

Go¨ tz Mehr SKF Lubrication Systems (formerly Willy Vogel AG), Berlin,

Germany

Thomas Meindorf Parker Hanifin GmbH, Kaarst, Germany

Herbert Metzger Fuchs Lubritech GmbH, Kaiserslautern, Germany

Klaus Michaelis Gear Research Centre FZG, Technische Universit€at

M€unchen, Lehrstuhl f€ur Maschinenlemente/FZG, Garching, Germany

David J. Moreton Lubrizol Limited, Hazelwood, Derbyshire, UK

Jochen M€uhlemeier Kl€uber Lubrication M€unchen KG, Munich, Germany

Rolf M€uller Fuchs Europe Schmierstoffe GmbH, Mannheim, Germany

Roman M€uller Fuchs Petrolub SE, Mannheim, Germany

Hubertus Murrenhoff Institute for Fluid Power Drives and Controls

(IFAS), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

Gurumurthi Natesh Chem-Trend L.P, Howell, MI, USA

Frank Oberli HYDAC Filtertechnik GmbH, Sulzbach/Saar, Germany

Hartmut Pawelski SMS Siemag AG, D€usseldorf, Germany

Franz Pelg Kl€uber Lubrication M€unchen KG, Munich, Germany

Bo N. T. Persson Peter Gr€unberg Institut, Institut f€ur Festko¨rperforschung,

Forschungszentrum J€ulich, J€ulich, Germany

Karin Persson SP, Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden

Volker Peterseim Freudenberg O-Ring GmbH u. Co KG, Go¨rwihl-Oberwihl, Germany

Hermann Pflaum Forschungsstelle f€ur Zahnr€ader und Getriebebau,

Technische Universit€at M€unchen, Garching, Bayern, Germany

Frank Plenert Fuchs Europe Schmierstoffe GmbH, Mannheim, Germany

Michael Plogmann Institute for Machine Elements and Machine Design,

RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

Klaus Po¨hlmann IAVF Antriebstechnik GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany

Hubertus Prinzler Freudenberg Simmerringe GmbH & Co. KG, Weinheim, Germany

Jens Pusch Elaskon Sachsen GmbH & Co KG, Dresden, Germany

Ludger Quick Fossil Power Generation Division, Siemens AG Energy

Sector, Muelheim an der Ruhr, Germany

Isabelle Raclot Freudenberg Sealing Technologies GmbH & Co. KG, Weinheim, Germany

Martin Raulf ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG, Forschung und

Entwicklung, Dortmund, Germany

Martin Reik HYDAC Filtertechnik GmbH, Sulzbach/Saar, Germany

J€urgen Rigo Competence Centre for Tribology, Steinbeis Transferzentrum

an der Hochschule Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany

Meike Rinnbauer Freudenberg Sealing Technologies, Weinheim, Germany

Jay Rogers Chevron Lummus Global, Richmond, CA, USA

John M. Rosenbaum Chevron Global Base Oils, Richmond, CA, USA

Jan Ruiter SKF Lubrication Systems Germany AG, Formerly Willy Vogel

AG, Hockenheim, Germany

Hubertus Sangemann RWTH Aachen University, Laboratory for Machine

Tools and Production Engineering (WZL), Aachen, Germany

Matthias Scherge Fraunhofer-Institut f€ur Werkstoffmechanik,

MikroTribologie Centrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

Thomas Schimmel Evonik Industries AG, Darmstadt, Germany

Josef Schlattmann System Technologies and Design Methodology,

Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany

Johannes Schmitz Institute for Fluid Power Drives and Controls (IFAS),

RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

Reinhardt Schneider Fuchs Lubritech GmbH, Kaiserslautern, Germany

Christian Scholz Macrotribology and Wear Protection, BAM Federal

Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin, Germany

Peter Schreiner Freudenberg Simmerringe, Weinheim, Germany

Joachim Schulz Wisura GmbH, Bremen, Germany

Jan Schumacher Institute for Fluid Power Drives and Controls (IFAS),

RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

Martin Schweigkofler Kl€uber Lubrication M€unchen KG, Munich, Germany

Oliver Seiferth Hydro Aluminium Rolled Products GmbH, Bonn, Germany

Helmut Seubert Kl€uber Lubrication M€unchen KG, Munich, Germany

Christian Seyfert Fuchs Europe chmierstoffe GmbH, Mannheim, Germany

Wolfgang Siegert Sch€ulke und Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany

Dirk Spaltmann Macrotribology and Wear Protection, BAM Federal

Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin, Germany

Nicholas D. Spencer Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Karsten Stahl Forschungsstelle f€ur Zahnr€ader und Getriebebau, Technische

Universit€at M€unchen, Garching, Bayern, Germany

Katharina Stalf Kl€uber Lubrication M€unchen KG, Munich, Germany

Frank Steep Merkel Freudenberg Fluidtechnic, Hamburg, Germany

Werner Stehr Dr. Tillwich GmbH Werner Stehr, Horb-Ahldorf, Germany

Raimund Stockhammer SKF Lubrication Systems Germany AG, Berlin, Germany

Thate Institut f€ur Kolbenmaschinen IfKM, KIT Karlsruher Institut f€ur

Technologie, Karlsruhe, Germany

Theiß Surface Engineering Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

Heinz Gerhard Theis Fuchs Europe Schmierstoffe GmbH, Mannheim, Germany

Heinrich Theissen Institut f€ur fluidtechnische Antriebe und Steuerungen

(IFAS) der RWTH, Aachen, Germany

Helga Thomas Kl€uber Lubrication M€unchen KG, Munich, Germany

Dennis Thong Evonik Industries AG, Darmstadt, Germany

Christian van Husen Kl€uber Lubrication M€unchen KG, Munich, Germany

Rolf Vogt Freudenberg Sealing Technologies, Weinheim, Germany

RolfW€asche Fachbereich 6.3 Makrotribologie und Verschleißschutz, BAM

Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin, Germany

Weiß RWTH Aachen University, Laboratory for Machine Tools and

Production Engineering (WZL), Aachen, Germany

Rainer Weiß Freudenberg New Technologies SE & Co. KG, Weinheim, Germany

Arno Wentz Global Product Management Automotive, Fuchs Europe

Schmierstoffe GmbH, Mannheim, Germany

Harald Willrich Fuchs Lubritech GmbH, Kaiserslautern, Germany

Christoph Wincierz Evonik Industries AG, Darmstadt, Germany

Ralf Wnuk HYDAC Prozess Technology, Sulzbach/Saar, Germany

Mathias Woydt Macrotribology and Wear Protection, BAM Federal

Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin, Germany

Martin W€unsch LUBRICANT CONSULT GMBH, Maintal, Germany

Guido J. W€ustenhagen Merkel Freudenberg Fluidtechnic, Hamburg, Germany

Yilmaz Surface Engineering Institute, RWTH Aachen University,

Aachen, Germany

Nael Zaki Lubricating Grease R&D Manager, Fuchs Lubricants Company,

Kansas City, KS, USA

Rudolf Zechel Kl€uber Lubrication M€unchen KG, Munich, Germany

James N. Ziemer Chevron Lummus Global, Richmond, CA, USA

Carlos Arenzana Zorrilla Fuchs Europe Schmierstoffe GmbH, Mannheim,

Germany

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