Green Composites for Automotive Applications PDF by Georgios Koronis, Arlindo Silva

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Green Composites for Automotive Applications

Edited by Georgios Koronis, Arlindo Silva

Green composites for automotive applications

Contents

Contributors xi

Preface xv

Part I

Processing and characterization of green composites

Surface modification of natural fibers in polymer composites

Diana P. Ferreira, Juliana Cruz and Raul Fangueiro

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Properties of natural fibers 6

1.3 Surface modification techniques 6

1.3.1 Physical methods 10

1.3.2 Chemical methods 15

1.4 Physical and chemical methods as treatments for natural fiber polymer composites (NFPCs) 20

1.4.1 Effects of plasma treatment on NFPCs 20

1.4.2 Natural fibersdchemical treatments and their influence on NFPCs 23

1.5 Biological methods as an alternative to chemical/physical treatments 28

1.5.1 Enzymatic treatment 29

1.5.2 Fungal treatment 30

1.5.3 Bacterial cellulose coating 30

1.6 Nanoparticles deposition/functionalization 31

1.7 Concluding remarks and future trends 32

References 33

Flammability performance of biocomposites

Maya Jacob John

2.1 Introduction 43

2.2 Flammability testing techniques 44

2.2.1 Cone calorimetry 44

2.2.2 Pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry 45

2.2.3 Limiting oxygen index 45

2.2.4 Underwriters laboratories 94 (UL94) 46

2.2.5 Ohio State University heat release apparatus (OSU) 47

2.3 Case studies 47

2.3.1 Biopolymers and biocomposites 47

2.3.2 Use of green flame retardants 54

2.4 Conclusions 56

References 56

Part II

Thermosetting and thermoplastic materials for

structural applications

Green thermoset reinforced biocomposites

Samson Rwahwire, Blanka Tomkova, Aravin Prince Periyasamy

and Bandu Madhukar Kale

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Vegetable oil resins and composites 64

3.2.1 Linseed oil thermoset composites 65

3.2.2 Soybean oil thermoset composites 65

3.2.3 Wheat gluten matrix composites 68

3.2.4 Castor oil resin composites 69

3.2.5 Bio-based polyurethanes 70

3.2.6 Cashew shell nut liquid 71

3.2.7 Zein matrix composites 73

3.2.8 Green epoxy composites 75

3.3 Conclusion and challenges 75

References 76

Further reading 80

Green composites in automotive interior parts:

a solution using cellulosic fibers

N.C. Loureiro and J.L. Esteves

4.1 Introduction 81

4.2 Natural fibers 82

4.3 Green composites in the automotive industry 84

4.4 Case study 85

4.4.1 Materials used 85

4.5 Conclusions 95

References 96

Further reading 97

Eco-impact assessment of a hood made of a ramie

reinforced composite

Koronis and A. Silva

5.1 Introduction 99

5.2 Materials and methods 101

5.2.1 Functional unit and boundary conditions for the

hood 102

5.2.2 Natural fiber incorporation (ramie reinforcement)

and alternative approaches to manufacturing 103

5.2.3 Materials, manufacture, end of life 104

5.3 Results and discussion 106

5.4 Conclusions 111

References 112

Production and modification of nanofibrillated cellulose

composites and potential applications

Md Nazrul Islam and Fatima Rahman

6.1 Introduction 115

6.2 Cellulose and nanocellulose 116

6.2.1 Architecture of cellulose 117

6.2.2 Structures and size of nanocellulose 118

6.3 Pretreatment of biomass fibers 119

6.3.1 Enzyme 119

6.3.2 Alkaline-acid 121

6.3.3 Ionic liquids 121

6.4 Isolation of nanofibrillated cellulose 122

6.4.1 Homogenization 122

6.4.2 Grinding 123

6.4.3 Ultrasonication 123

6.4.4 Electrospinning 124

6.4.5 Cryocrushing 125

6.4.6 Steam explosion 125

6.4.7 Ball milling 126

6.5 Drying of nanofibrillated cellulose 126

6.6 Modifications of nanofibrillated cellulose 126

6.6.1 Acetylation 127

6.6.2 Silylation 128

6.6.3 Application of coupling agents 130

6.6.4 Grafting 130

6.7 Applications of nanofibrillated cellulose 131

6.7.1 General applications 131

6.7.2 Applications in automobile industry 132

6.8 Conclusion 133

References 133

Part III

Nanomaterials and additive manufacturing composites

Nanocomposites with nanofibers and fillers from

renewable resources

Saba, M. Jawaid and M. Asim

7.1 Introduction 145

7.2 Nanomaterials 146

7.3 Renewable nanomaterials 147

7.4 Advantages over micro-sized particles 148

7.4.1 Nanoclays 148

7.4.2 Nanocellulose 149

7.5 Applications of renewable materials 154

7.6 Polymer composites 154

7.7 Polymer nanocomposites 157

7.7.1 Characterization and applications of

nanocomposites 157

7.8 Renewable nanomaterialebased polymer nanocomposites 158

7.9 Applications of nano fillers or nanofibers reinforced

polymer nanocomposites 161

7.10 Conclusions 162

Acknowledgment 162

References 163

3D printing technologies and composite materials for structural applications

Rajkumar Velu, Felix Raspall and Sarat Singamneni

8.1 Introduction 171

8.2 3D printing technologies 174

8.3 Composites and its properties for fabrications 177

8.3.1 Challenges for 3D printing material properties 179

8.4 3D printing of composite materials 183

8.4.1 3D printing of green composite materials 189

8.5 Conclusion and future directions 190

References 190

Biocomposites: present trends and challenges for

the future

Malladi Nagalakshmaiah, Sadaf Afrin, Rajini Priya Malladi,

Saı¨d Elkoun, Mathieu Robert, Mohd Ayub Ansari,

Anna Svedberg and Zoheb Karim

9.1 Introduction 197

9.2 Reinforcement phase 199

9.3 Polymer matrices 201

9.3.1 Renewable source 201

9.3.2 Mixed source 202

9.3.3 Fossil fuelebased source 202

9.4 Bio-composites processing and properties 202

9.4.1 Processing techniques 202

9.4.2 Improved properties 202

9.5 Bionanocomposites 203

9.5.1 Lignin-based bionanocomposites 206

9.5.2 Hemicellulose-based bionanocomposites 206

9.5.3 Nanocellulose-based bionanocomposites 207

9.6 Challenges 208

9.6.1 Challenges at industrial scale 209

9.7 Conclusion 210

References 211

Part IV

Life cycle assessment and risk analysis

Risk-sensitive life cycle assessment of green

composites for automotive applications

Go¨tze, P. Pec¸ as, H.M. Salman, J. Kaufmann and A. Schmidt

10.1 Introduction 219

10.2 Green composites and their LCA: a review 221

10.2.1 Green composites based on natural fibers 221

10.2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of natural

fiber-based composites 225

10.2.3 LCA of Green Composites 228

10.3 Modeling risks of LCA and their management 233

10.3.1 Modeling risks 233

10.3.2 Management of modeling risks 236

10.4 Real-world risks of green composites and their

management 239

10.4.1 Real-world risks of green composites 239

10.4.2 Management of real-world risks 241

10.5 Example from the Automotive Industry 243

10.6 Conclusion 246

References 247

Ramie and jute as natural fibers in a composite

partda life cycle engineering comparison with an

aluminum part

Pec¸ as, I. Ribeiro, H. Carvalho, A. Silva, H.M. Salman and

Henriques

11.1 Introduction 254

11.1.1 The need to be greener 254

11.1.2 Motivation and contribution 254

11.2 Background 255

11.2.1 Natural fibers and green composites 255

11.2.2 Industrial applications of natural fibers 260

11.2.3 Life cycle analysis and case studies from

literature 262

11.3 Bonnet case study 267

11.3.1 Means and methods 268

11.3.2 Materials and assumptions 268

11.3.3 Requirements and FEM analysis 270

11.4 Life cycle studies of different alternatives 271

11.4.1 Raw material and transport 272

11.4.2 Manufacturing phase 274

11.4.3 Use phase 274

11.4.4 End-of-life phase 275

11.4.5 Overall environmental impact and costs during

whole life cycle 275

11.5 Life cycle engineering and CLUBE analysis 276

11.5.1 CLUBE analysis 277

11.6 Conclusions and outlook 279

References 280

Recycling processes and issues in natural

fiber-reinforced polymer composites

Sibele Piedade Cestari, Daniela de Franc¸a da Silva Freitas,

Dayana Coval Rodrigues and Luis Claudio Mendes

12.1 Introduction 285

12.2 Polymers recycling 286

12.3 Polymer composites/nanocomposites 287

12.3.1 Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites 288

12.3.2 Green automotive composites 295

12.4 Recycling and natural fiber-reinforced composites in the

automotive industry 295

12.5 Conclusion 296

References 297

Index 301

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