Synthesis and Applications of Electrospun Nanofibers PDF by Ramazan Asmatulu and Waseem S. Khan

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Synthesis and Applications of Electrospun Nanofibers

by Ramazan Asmatulu and Waseem S. Khan

Synthesis and applications of electrospun nanofibers

Contents

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to electrospun nanofibers……………………1

1.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………1

1.1.1 What is Nanotechnology?…………………………………………… 1

1.1.2 What is Electrospinning?……………………………………………. 3

1.1.3 Conventional Fiber-Forming Techniques……………………… 5

1.1.4 Nanofiber-Forming Techniques…………………………………… 9

1.1.5 Nanomaterials …………………………………………………………. 11

1.1.6 Quantum Size Effect………………………………………………… 12

1.1.7 Surface and Interface Effects…………………………………….. 13

1.1.8 Characteristic Length Scale ………………………………………. 13

1.2 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………….14

References………………………………………………………………………… 14

Further Reading ………………………………………………………………… 15

CHAPTER 2 Historical background of the electrospinning

process……………………………………………………………… 17

2.1 Brief Historical Background ………………………………………………..17

2.2 Process Details and Experimental Design ……………………………..20

2.3 Shape of Fibers Produced by Electrospinning………………………..25

2.4 Electrospinning Parameters………………………………………………….27

2.4.1 System Parameters …………………………………………………… 27

2.4.2 Process Parameters…………………………………………………… 28

2.5 Fabrications of Aligned Electrospun Nanofibers ……………………29

2.5.1 Electrospinning With Rotating Drum…………………………. 30

2.5.2 Needleless Electrospinning……………………………………….. 31

2.5.3 Rotating Drum and Translating Spinneret ………………….. 32

2.5.4 Electrospinning With Rotating Electrodes ………………….. 32

2.6 Recent Developments in Electrospinning Methods ………………..33

2.6.1 Electrospinning Without Bending Instability………………. 33

2.6.2 Near-Field Electrospinning……………………………………….. 34

2.6.3 New Progress in Spinning Technology ………………………. 35

2.7 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………….36

References………………………………………………………………………… 37

CHAPTER 3 Electrospun nanofibers for drug delivery ……………… 41

3.1 Electrospun Nanofibers for Drug Delivery ……………………………41

3.1.1 Cancer and Treatment………………………………………………. 41

3.1.2 Electrospinning of Nanofibers …………………………………… 43

3.1.3 Nanofibers for Drug Delivery……………………………………. 44

3.2 Electrospun Nanofibers for Gene Delivery ……………………………51

3.3 Electrospun Nanofibers for DNA Delivery ……………………………53

3.4 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………….56

References………………………………………………………………………… 57

Further Reading ………………………………………………………………… 61

CHAPTER 4 Electrospun nanofibers for textiles ………………………. 63

4.1 Superhydrophobic Electrospun Nanofibers for

Nonwettable Surfaces………………………………………………………….63

4.1.1 Jet Formation in Electrospinning……………………………….. 63

4.1.2 Electrospinning of Nanofibers …………………………………… 65

4.1.3 Theory of Superhydrophobicity…………………………………. 69

4.1.4 Superhydrophobic Nanofibers …………………………………… 71

4.2 Electrospun Nanofibers for Metamaterials and Light

and Noise Sensitivity ………………………………………………………….74

4.3 Electrospun Nanofibers for Fire-Retardant Fabrics…………………78

4.4 Electrospun Nanofibers for Protective Clothing …………………….81

4.5 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………….82

References………………………………………………………………………… 83

CHAPTER 5 Electrospun nanofibers for agriculture

and food industries …………………………………………….. 89

5.1 Nanofibers for Agricultural Applications ………………………………89

5.1.1 Electrospinning of Nanofibers …………………………………… 89

5.1.2 Agricultural Applications of Nanofibers …………………….. 92

5.2 Preparation of Protective Clothes for Farm Workers………………98

5.3 Nanofibers for the Food Industry and Food Packaging …………100

5.3.1 Electrospinning for the Food Industry………………………. 100

5.3.2 Electrospinning for the Packaging Industry ………………. 103

5.3.3 Electrospinning for the Filtration of Beverage

Products ………………………………………………………………… 104

5.4 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………..105

References………………………………………………………………………. 105

Further Reading ………………………………………………………………. 109

CHAPTER 6 Electrospun nanofibers for energy applications ….. 111

6.1 Nanotechnology in Energy Generation………………………………..111

6.2 Electrospun Nanofibers for Battery Membranes …………………..112

6.3 Electrospun Nanofibers for Supercapacitors ………………………..116

6.4 Electrospun Nanofibers for Energy Conversions ………………….119

6.4.1 Electrospun Nanofibers for Solar Cells…………………….. 119

6.4.2 Electrospun Nanofibers for Fuel Cells ……………………… 124

6.4.3 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Based on Electrospun

Metal Oxides …………………………………………………………. 128

6.5 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………..128

References………………………………………………………………………. 129

CHAPTER 7 Electrospun nanofibers for filtration

applications……………………………………………………… 135

7.1 Nanotechnology in Filtration ……………………………………………..135

7.2 Electrospun Nanofibers for Wet Filtration …………………………..140

7.3 Electrospun Nanofibers for Dry Filtration……………………………146

7.4 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………..148

References………………………………………………………………………. 149

CHAPTER 8 Electrospun nanofibers for catalyst applications…. 153

8.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..153

8.2 Hydrogen Production ………………………………………………………..156

8.2.1 Hydrogen Production by Solar Energy …………………….. 157

8.2.2 Hydrogen Production by Photocatalytic Activity ………. 158

8.3 Basis of Photocatalytic Water Splitting……………………………….159

8.3.1 Photoelectrolysis ……………………………………………………. 163

8.4 Electrospun Fibers Embedded With Nanocatalyst

for Water Splitting ……………………………………………………………164

8.5 Electrospun Nanofibers in Hydrogen Storage ………………………168

8.6 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………..170

References………………………………………………………………………. 171

CHAPTER 9 Electrospun nanofibers for nanosensor

and biosensor applications ……………………………….. 175

9.1 Electrospun Nanofibers for Nanosensors……………………………..175

9.1.1 General Background ………………………………………………. 175

9.1.2 Electrospinning for Nanofibers………………………………… 177

9.1.3 Electrospun Nanofibers for Nanosensors ………………….. 178

9.2 Nanofibers for Biosensors………………………………………………….183

9.2.1 Biosensors …………………………………………………………….. 183

9.2.2 Nanofibers for Biosensors……………………………………….. 183

9.2.3 Applications of Electrospun Nanofibers

for Biosensors ……………………………………………………….. 185

9.2.4 Polyaniline-Based Nanofibers for Biosensors……………. 189

9.3 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………..191

References………………………………………………………………………. 192

CHAPTER 10 Toxicity of nanofibers and recent developments

in protections …………………………………………………… 197

10.1 Nanomaterials…………………………………………………………………..197

10.2 Nanofibers ……………………………………………………………………….199

10.3 Surface Interaction of Nanofibers……………………………………….201

10.3.1 Physical Interaction of Nanofibers …………………………. 201

10.3.2 Chemical Interaction of Nanofibers ……………………….. 203

10.4 Carbon-Based Nanofibers ………………………………………………….206

10.5 Protection Methods of Nanofibers ………………………………………208

10.6 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………..211

References………………………………………………………………………. 212

CHAPTER 11 Electrospun nanofibers for tissue engineering ……. 215

11.1 Electrospun Nanofibers for Wound Healing ………………………..215

11.1.1 General Background …………………………………………….. 215

11.1.2 Nanofibers With Antibacterial Activity ………………….. 218

11.2 Electrospun Nanofibers for Tissue Engineering……………………219

11.2.1 Applications of Synthetic Polymers in Scaffolds……… 221

11.2.2 Applications of Natural Polymers in Scaffolds………… 223

11.3 Electrospun Nanofibers for Bone Tissue Engineering …………..225

11.4 Electrospun Nanofibers for Dental Growth………………………….227

11.5 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………..231

References………………………………………………………………………. 231

Further Reading ………………………………………………………………. 237

CHAPTER 12 Electrospun nanofibers for photonics

and electronics applications……………………………… 239

12.1 Electrospun Nanofibers for Photonic and Light-Emitting

Sources ……………………………………………………………………………239

12.2 Nanofiber-Based Light-Emitting Systems……………………………241

12.2.1 Quantum Dot- and Dye-Doped Electrospun

Nanofibers …………………………………………………………… 241

12.2.2 Nanofibers Embedded With Bio-Chromophores ……… 242

12.2.3 Nanofibers Fabricated by Conjugated Polymers………. 243

12.2.4 Luminescent Nanofiber Arrays………………………………. 245

12.3 Electrically Conductive Electrospun Nanofibers…………………..245

12.4 Thermally Conductive Electrospun Nanofibers ……………………248

12.5 Electrospun Magnetic Nanofibers……………………………………….249

12.6 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………..252

References………………………………………………………………………. 253

CHAPTER 13 Characterization of electrospun nanofibers ………… 257

13.1 Structural Characterization of Electrospun Nanofibers………….257

13.1.1 Electrospinning Nanofibers …………………………………… 257

13.1.2 XRD Characterization…………………………………………… 259

13.1.3 SEM Characterization …………………………………………… 263

13.1.4 TEM Characterization…………………………………………… 263

13.2 AFM Characterization……………………………………………………….266

13.3 Optical Spectroscopy…………………………………………………………267

13.3.1 FTIR Characterization ………………………………………….. 267

13.3.2 Raman Spectroscopy…………………………………………….. 270

13.4 Other Characterizations of Nanofibers ………………………………..271

13.4.1 DSC Characterization …………………………………………… 271

13.4.2 TGA Characterization …………………………………………… 273

13.4.3 XPS Characterization……………………………………………. 275

13.4.4 UV_Vis Spectroscopy………………………………………….. 276

13.4.5 VSM Characterization ………………………………………….. 277

13.5 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………..279

References………………………………………………………………………. 279

Index ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….283

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