C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 8th Edition PDF by D.S. Malik

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C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Eighth Edition

By D.S. Malik

C++ Programming From Problem Analysis to Program Design 8th Edition

Table of contents:

Preface xxxi ii

1. AN OVERVIEW Of COMPUTERS

AND PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES 1

Introduction 2

A Brief Overview of the History of Computers 2

Elements of a Computer System 4

Hardware 4

Central Processing Unit and Main Memory 4

Input/Output Devices 5

Software 5

The Language of a Computer 6

The Evolution of Programming Languages 7

Processing a c++ Program 9

Programming with the Problem

Analysis-Coding-Execution Cycle 11

Programming Methodologies 20

Structured Programming 20

Object-Oriented Programming 20

ANSI/ISO Standard C++ 22

Quick Review 22

Exercises 24

2. BASIC ELEMENTS OF C11 27

A Quick Look at a C11 Program 28

The Basics of a C11 Program 33

Comments 34

Special Symbols 35

Reserved Words (Keywords) 35

Identifiers 36

Whitespaces 37

Data Types 37

Simple Data Types 38

Floating-Point Data Types 40

Data Types, Variables, and Assignment

Statements 42

Arithmetic Operators, Operator Precedence, and Expressions 43

Order of Precedence 45

Expressions 47

Mixed Expressions 48

Type Conversion (Casting) 50

string Type 53

Variables, Assignment Statements,

and Input Statements 54

Allocating Memory with Constants and Variables 54

Putting Data into Variables 57

Assignment Statement 57

Saving and Using the Value of an Expression 60

Declaring and Initializing Variables 61

Input (Read) Statement 62

Variable Initialization 65

Increment and Decrement Operators 69

Output 71

Preprocessor Directives 78

namespace and Using cin and cout in a Program 79

Using the string Data Type in a Program 80

Creating a C11 Program 80

Debugging: Understanding and Fixing

Syntax Errors 84

Program Style and Form 87

Syntax 87

Use of Blanks 88

Use of Semicolons, Brackets, and Commas 88

Semantics 88

Naming Identifiers 89

Prompt Lines 89

Documentation 90

Form and Style 90

More on Assignment Statements 92

Programming Example: Convert Length 94

Programming Example: Make Change 98

Quick Review 102

Exercises 104

Programming Exercises 114

3. INPUT/OUTPUT 123

I/O Streams and Standard I/O Devices 124

cin and the Extraction Operator >> 125

Using Predefined Functions in a Program 130

cin and the get Function 133

cin and the ignore Function 134

The putback and peek Functions 136

The Dot Notation between I/O Stream Variables

and I/O Functions: A Precaution 139

Input Failure 139

The clear Function 142

Output and Formatting Output 143

setprecision Manipulator 144

fixed Manipulator 145

showpoint Manipulator 146

C1114 Digit Separator 149

setw 150

Additional Output Formatting Tools 152

setfill Manipulator 152

left and right Manipulators 154

Input/Output and the string Type 156

Debugging: Understanding Logic Errors

and Debugging with cout Statements 157

File Input/Output 160

Programming Example: Movie Tickets

Sale and Donation to Charity 164

Programming Example: Student Grade 170

Quick Review 173

Exercises 175

Programming Exercises 181

  1. CONTROL STRUCTURES I (SELECTION) 187

Control Structures 188

SELECTION: if AND if . . . else 189

Relational Operators and Simple Data Types 189

Comparing Characters 190

One-Way Selection 191

Two-Way Selection 194

int Data Type and Logical (Boolean) Expressions 198

bool Data Type and Logical (Boolean) Expressions 198

Logical (Boolean) Operators and Logical Expressions 199

Order of Precedence 201

Relational Operators and the string Type 205

Compound (Block of) Statements 207

Multiple Selections: Nested if 207

Comparing if . . . else Statements with a Series of if Statements 210

Short-Circuit Evaluation 211

Comparing Floating-Point Numbers for Equality: A Precaution 212

Associativity of Relational Operators: A Precaution 213

Avoiding Bugs by Avoiding Partially Understood

Concepts and Techniques 215

Input Failure and the if Statement 218

Confusion between the Equality Operator (==)

and the Assignment Operator (=) 221

Conditional Operator (?:) 223

Program Style and Form (Revisited): Indentation 224

Using Pseudocode to Develop, Test, and Debug a Program 224

switch Structures 227

Avoiding Bugs by Avoiding Partially Understood

Concepts and Techniques (Revisited) 234

Terminating a Program with the assert Function 236

Programming Example: Cable Company Billing 238

Quick Review 244

Exercises 245

Programming Exercises 257

  1. CONTROL STRUCTURES II (REPETITION) 265

Why Is Repetition Needed? 266

while Looping (Repetition) Structure 269

Designing while Loops 273

Case 1: Counter-Controlled while Loops 274

Case 2: Sentinel-Controlled while Loops 277

Case 3: Flag-Controlled while Loops 283

Case 4: EOF-Controlled while Loops 286

eof Function 287

More on Expressions in while Statements 292

Programming Example: Fibonacci Number 293

for Looping (Repetition) Structure 297

Programming Example: Classifying Numbers 305

  1. . .while Looping (Repetition) Structure 309

Divisibility Test by 3 and 9 311

Choosing the Right Looping Structure 313

break and continue Statements 313

Nested Control Structures 315

Avoiding Bugs by Avoiding Patches 321

Debugging Loops 324

Quick Review 324

Exercises 326

Programming Exercises 340

  1. USER-DEFINED FUNCTIONS 347

Predefined Functions 348

User-Defined Functions 352

Value-Returning Functions 353

Syntax: Value-Returning Function 355

Syntax: Formal Parameter List 355

Function Call 355

Syntax: Actual Parameter List 356

return Statement 356

Syntax: return Statement 356

Function Prototype 360

Syntax: Function Prototype 361

Value-Returning Functions: Some Peculiarities 362

More Examples of Value-Returning Functions 364

Flow of Compilation and Execution 375

Programming Example: Largest Number 376

Void Functions 378

Value Parameters 384

Reference Variables as Parameters 386

Calculate Grade 387

Value and Reference Parameters and Memory Allocation 390

Reference Parameters and Value-Returning Functions 399

Scope of an Identifier 399

Global Variables, Named Constants,

and Side Effects 403

Static and Automatic Variables 411

Debugging: Using Drivers and Stubs 413

Function Overloading: An Introduction 415

Functions with Default Parameters 417

Programming Example: Classify Numbers 420

Programming Example: Data Comparison 425

Quick Review 435

Exercises 438

Programming Exercises 453

  1. USER-DEFINED SIMPLE DATA TYPES, NAMESPACES, AND THE STRING TYPE 467

Enumeration Type 468

Declaring Variables 470

Assignment 470

Operations on Enumeration Types 471

Relational Operators 471

Input /Output of Enumeration Types 472

Functions and Enumeration Types 475

Declaring Variables When Defining the Enumeration Type 476

Anonymous Data Types 477

typedef Statement 477

Programming Example: The Game of Rock, Paper, and Scissors 478

Namespaces 487

string Type 492

Additional string Operations 496

Programming Example: Pig Latin Strings 505

Quick Review 510

Exercises 512

Programming Exercises 517

  1. ARRAYS AND STRINGS 521

Arrays 523

Accessing Array Components 525

Processing One-Dimensional Arrays 527

Array Index Out of Bounds 531

Array Initialization during Declaration 532

Partial Initialization of Arrays during Declaration 532

Some Restrictions on Array Processing 533

Arrays as Parameters to Functions 534

Constant Arrays as Formal Parameters 535

Base Address of an Array and Array in Computer Memory 537

Functions Cannot Return a Value of the Type Array 540

Integral Data Type and Array Indices 543

Other Ways to Declare Arrays 544

Searching an Array for a Specific Item 544

Sorting 547

Auto Declaration and Range-Based For Loops 551

C-Strings (Character Arrays) 552

String Comparison 555

Reading and Writing Strings 556

String Input 556

String Output 558

Specifying Input/Output Files at Execution Time 559

string Type and Input/Output Files 559

Parallel Arrays 560

Two- and Multidimensional Arrays 561

Accessing Array Components 563

Two-Dimensional Array Initialization during Declaration 564

Two-Dimensional Arrays and Enumeration Types 564

Initialization 567

Print 568

Input 568

Sum by Row 568

Sum by Column 568

Largest Element in Each Row and Each Column 569

Passing Two-Dimensional Arrays as Parameters to Functions 570

Arrays of Strings 573

Arrays of Strings and the string Type 573

Arrays of Strings and C-Strings (Character Arrays) 573

Another Way to Declare a Two-Dimensional Array 574

Multidimensional Arrays 575

Programming Example: Code Detection 577

Programming Example: Text Processing 583

Quick Review 590

Exercises 592

Programming Exercises 604

  1. RECORDS (STRUCTS) 611

Records (structs) 612

Accessing struct Members 614

Assignment 617

Comparison (Relational Operators) 618

Input/Output 618

struct Variables and Functions 619

Arrays versus structs 620

Arrays in structs 620

structs in Arrays 623

structs within a struct 624

Programming Example: Sales Data Analysis 628

Quick Review 642

Exercises 643

Programming Exercises 648

  1. CLASSES AND DATA ABSTRACTION 651

Classes 652

Unified Modeling Language Class Diagrams 656

Variable (Object) Declaration 656

Accessing Class Members 657

Built-in Operations on Classes 659

Assignment Operator and Classes 659

Class Scope 660

Functions and Classes 660

Reference Parameters and Class Objects (Variables) 660

Implementation of Member Functions 661

Accessor and Mutator Functions 666

Order of public and private Members of a Class 670

Constructors 671

Invoking a Constructor 673

Invoking the Default Constructor 673

Invoking a Constructor with Parameters 674

Constructors and Default Parameters 677

Classes and Constructors: A Precaution 677

In-Class Initialization of Data Members and the Default Constructor 678

Arrays of Class Objects (Variables) and Constructors 679

Destructors 681

Data Abstraction, Classes, and Abstract Data Types 682

A struct versus a class 684

Information Hiding 685

Executable Code 689

More Examples of Classes 691

Inline Functions 700

Static Members of a Class 701

Programming Example: Juice Machine 707

Quick Review 722

Exercises 724

Programming Exercises 736

  1. INHERITANCE AND COMPOSITION 743

Inheritance 744

Redefining (Overriding) Member Functions of the Base Class 747

Constructors of Derived and Base Classes 754

Destructors in a Derived Class 763

Multiple Inclusions of a Header File 764

C11 Stream Classes 768

Protected Members of a Class 769

Inheritance as public, protected, or private 769

(Accessing protected Members in the Derived Class) 770

Composition (Aggregation) 773

Object-Oriented Design (OOD) and

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) 778

Identifying Classes, Objects, and Operations 780

Programming Example: Grade Report 781

Quick Review 802

Exercises 802

Programming Exercises 811

  1. POINTERS, CLASSES, VIRTUAL FUNCTIONS, AND ABSTRACT CLASSES 817

Pointer Data Type and Pointer Variables 818

Declaring Pointer Variables 818

Address of Operator (&) 820

Dereferencing Operator (*) 821

Classes, Structs, and Pointer Variables 826

Initializing Pointer Variables 829

Initializing Pointer Variables Using nullptr 829

Dynamic Variables 830

Operator new 830

Operator delete 831

Operations on Pointer Variables 835

Dynamic Arrays 837

Arrays and Range-Based for Loops (Revisited) 840

Functions and Pointers 841

Pointers and Function Return Values 842

Dynamic Two-Dimensional Arrays 842

Shallow versus Deep Copy and Pointers 845

Classes and Pointers: Some Peculiarities 847

Destructor 848

Assignment Operator 849

Copy Constructor 851

Inheritance, Pointers, and Virtual Functions 858

Classes and Virtual Destructors 865

Abstract Classes and Pure Virtual Functions 866

Address of Operator and Classes 874

Quick Review 876

Exercises 879

Programming Exercises 890

  1. OVERLOADING AND TEMPLATES 893

Why Operator Overloading Is Needed 894

Operator Overloading 895

Syntax for Operator Functions 896

Overloading an Operator: Some Restrictions 896

Pointer this 899

Friend Functions of Classes 904

Operator Functions as Member Functions

and Nonmember Functions 907

Overloading Binary Operators 910

Overloading the Stream Insertion (<<) and Extraction (>>) Operators 916

Overloading the Assignment Operator (=) 921

Overloading Unary Operators 929

Operator Overloading: Member versus Nonmember 935

Classes and Pointer Member Variables (Revisited) 936

Operator Overloading: One Final Word 936

Programming Example: clockType 936

Programming Example: Complex Numbers 945

Overloading the Array Index (Subscript) Operator ([]) 950

Programming Example: newString 952

Function Overloading 959

Templates 959

Function Templates 959

Class Templates 961

C1111 Random Number Generator 969

Quick Review 971

Exercises 973

Programming Exercises 981

  1. EXCEPTION HANDLING 991

Handling Exceptions within a Program 992

C11 Mechanisms of Exception Handling 996

try/catch Block 996

Using C11 Exception Classes 1003

Creating Your Own Exception Classes 1007

Rethrowing and Throwing an Exception 1016

Exception-Handling Techniques 1020

Terminate the Program 1020

Fix the Error and Continue 1020

Log the Error and Continue 1021

Stack Unwinding 1022

Quick Review 1025

Exercises 1027

Programming Exercises 1033

  1. RECURSION 1035

Recursive Definitions 1036

Direct and Indirect Recursion 1038

Infinite Recursion 1038

Problem Solving Using Recursion 1039

Tower of Hanoi: Analysis 1049

Recursion or Iteration? 1049

Programming Example: Converting a Number from

Binary to Decimal 1051

Programming Example: Converting a Number from Decimal to Binary 1055

Quick Review 1058

Exercises 1059

Programming Exercises 1064

  1. SEARCHING, SORTING,

AND THE VECTOR TYPE 1069

List Processing 1070

Searching 1070

Bubble Sort 1071

Insertion Sort 1075

Binary Search 1079

Performance of Binary Search 1082

vector Type (class) 1083

Vectors and Range-Based for Loops 1088

Initializing vector Objects during Declaration 1090

Programming Example: Election Results 1091

Quick Review 1105

Exercises 1106

Programming Exercises 1111

  1. LINKED LISTS 1115

Linked Lists 1116

Linked Lists: Some Properties 1117

Deletion 1123

Building a Linked List 1124

Linked List as an ADT 1129

Structure of Linked List Nodes 1130

Member Variables of the class linkedListType 1130

Linked List Iterators 1131

Print the List 1137

Length of a List 1138

Retrieve the Data of the First Node 1138

Retrieve the Data of the Last Node 1138

Begin and End 1138

Copy the List 1139

Destructor 1140

Copy Constructor 1140

Overloading the Assignment Operator 1141

Unordered Linked Lists 1141

Search the List 1142

Insert the First Node 1143

Insert the Last Node 1144

Header File of the Unordered Linked List 1149

Ordered Linked Lists 1150

Search the List 1151

Insert a Node 1152

Insert First and Insert Last 1156

Delete a Node 1157

Header File of the Ordered Linked List 1158

Print a Linked List in Reverse Order

(Recursion Revisited) 1161

print List Reverse 1163

Doubly Linked Lists 1164

Default Constructor 1167

is EmptyList 1167

Destroy the List 1167

Initialize the List 1168

Length of the List 1168

Print the List 1168

Reverse Print the List 1168

Search the List 1169

First and Last Elements 1169

Circular Linked Lists 1175

Programming Example: DVD Store 1176

Quick Review 1196

Exercises 1196

Programming Exercises 1203

  1. STACKS AND QUEUES 1209

Stacks 1210

Stack Operations 1212

Implementation of Stacks as Arrays 1214

Initialize Stack 1217

Empty Stack 1218

Full Stack 1218

Push 1218

Return the Top Element 1220

Pop 1220

Copy Stack 1222

Constructor and Destructor 1222

Copy Constructor 1223

Overloading the Assignment Operator (=) 1223

Stack Header File 1224

Programming Example: Highest GPA 1228

Linked Implementation of Stacks 1232

Default Constructor 1235

Empty Stack and Full Stack 1235

Initialize Stack 1236

Push 1236

Return the Top Element 1238

Pop 1238

Copy Stack 1240

Constructors and Destructors 1241

Overloading the Assignment Operator (=) 1241

Stack as Derived from the class unordered LinkedList 1244

Application of Stacks: Postfix Expressions Calculator 1245

Main Algorithm 1248

Function evaluateExpression 1248

Function evaluateOpr 1250

Function discardExp 1252

Function printResult 1252

Removing Recursion: Nonrecursive Algorithm

to Print a Linked List Backward 1255

Queues 1259

Queue Operations 1260

Implementation of Queues as Arrays 1262

Linked Implementation of Queues 1271

Queue Derived from the class unorderedLinkedListType 1276

Application of Queues: Simulation 1277

Designing a Queuing System 1278

Customer 1279

Server 1282

Server List 1285

Waiting Customers Queue 1289

Main Program 1291

Quick Review 1295

Exercises 1296

Programming Exercises 1305

APPENDIX A: RESERVED WORDS 1309

APPENDIX B: OPERATOR PRECEDENCE 1311

APPENDIX C: CHARACTER SETS 1313

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) 1313

EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) 1314

APPENDIX D: OPERATOR OVERLOADING 1317

APPENDIX E: ADDITIONAL C11 TOPICS ONLINE

Binary (Base 2) Representation of a Nonnegative Integer E-1

Converting a Base 10 Number to a Binary Number (Base 2) E-1

Converting a Binary Number (Base 2) to Base 10 E-3

Converting a Binary Number (Base 2) to Octal (Base 8)

and Hexadecimal (Base 16) E-4

More on File Input/Output E-6

Binary Files E-6

Random File Access E-12

Naming Conventions of Header Files in

ANSI/ISO Standard C11 and Standard C11 E-20

APPENDIX F: HEADER FILES 1319

Header File cassert (assert.h) 1319

Header File cctype (ctype.h) 1320

Header File cfloat (float.h) 1321

Header File climits (limits.h) 1322

Header File cmath (math.h) 1324

Header File cstddef (stddef.h) 1325

Header File cstring (string.h) 1325

HEADER FILE string 1326

APPENDIX G: MEMORY SIZE ON A SYSTEM 1329

APPENDIX H: STANDARD TEMPLATE LIBRARY (STL) 1331

Components of the STL 1331

Container Types 1332

Sequence Containers 1332

Sequence Container: Vectors 1332

Member Functions Common to All Containers 1340

Member Functions Common to Sequence Containers 1342

copy Algorithm 1342

Sequence Container: deque 1346

Sequence Container: list 1349

Iterators 1354

IOStream Iterators 1354

Container Adapters 1355

Algorithms 1358

STL Algorithm Classification 1358

STL Algorithms 1360

Functions fill and fill_n 1361

Functions find and find_if 1362

Functions remove and replace 1363

Functions search, sort, and binary_search 1365

APPENDIX I: ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED EXERCISES 1369

Chapter 1 1369

Chapter 2 1372

Chapter 3 1376

Chapter 4 1377

Chapter 5 1380

Chapter 6 1382

Chapter 7 1385

Chapter 8 1387

Chapter 9 1389

Chapter 10 1391

Chapter 11 1395

Chapter 12 1398

Chapter 13 1400

Chapter 14 1402

Chapter 15 1405

Chapter 16 1406

Chapter 17 1407

Chapter 18 1409

INDEX 1413

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