Environmental Change & Challenge: A Canadian Perspective, 5th Edition PDF by Philip Dearden and Bruce Mitchell


Environmental Change & Challenge: A Canadian Perspective, Fifth Edition

By Philip Dearden and Bruce Mitchell

Environmental Change & Challenge A Canadian Perspective 5th Edition


Preface xv

Features xvii

Acknowledgements xx

About the Authors xxi

PART A Introduction 1


Environment, Resources, and Society 3

Introduction: Change and Challenge 3

Defining Environment and Resources 5

Three Waves Regarding Approaches to Environmental Management 5

Alternative Approaches to Understanding Complex Natural and Socio-economic Systems 6

Science-Based Management of Resources and

Environment 7

War on Science? 8

The Northern Gateway Proposal 9

Wicked Problems 12

Sustainable Development and Resilience 12

The Global Picture 13

Domestic Guest Statement: Some Reflections on Social-Ecological Resilience 14

Ryan Plummer (Brock) International Guest Statement: Urban Development Challenges and Human Living Conditions

in Cities in Developing Countries 22

Peter Adeniyi (Lagos) Jurisdictional Arrangements for Environmental Management in Canada 28

Measuring Progress 29

Implications 34

Summary 37

KeyTerms 38

Questions for Review and Critical Thinking 38

Related Websites 39

Further Readings 39

PART B The Ecosphere 40


Energy Flows and Ecosystems 45

Introduction 45

Energy 46

Energy Flows in Ecological Systems 49

International Guest statement: Apex Predators and Tiger

Conservation tn Thailand 58

Anak Pattanavibool (Kasetsart University, Thailand) Ecosystem Structure 61

Abiotic Components 62

Domestic Guest Statement: Landscape Ecology 69

Chris Malcolm (Brandon)

Biodiversity 70

Implications 78

Summary 79

Key Terms BO

Questions for Review and Critical Thinking BO

Related Websites Bl

Further Readings Bl


Ecosystems Are Dynamic 82

Introduction 82

Ecological Succession 83

Domestic Guest Statement: How Will Forests Respond to Rising Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide? 87

Ze’ev Gedalof (Guelph) and Aaron Berg (Guelph) Changing Ecosystems 91

Population Growth 98

International Guest Statement: The Roles of Elephants and Logging in Tropical Rain Forest Dynamics 101

Aerin Jacob (Victoria) Evolution. Speciation, and Extinction 102

Implications 109

Summary 110

Key Terms 111

Questions for Review and Critical Thinking 112

Related Websites 112

Further Readings 112


Ecosystems and Matter Cycling 113

Introduction 113

Matter 114

Biogeochemical Cycles 114

International Guest Statement: Action-Oriented Research on Community Recycling in Sao Paulo, Brazil 115

Jutta Gutberlet (Victoria) The Hydrological Cycle 128

Domestic Guest Statement: Feedbacks between the Carbon Cycle and Climate 129

Kirsten Zickfeld (Simon Fraser) Biogeochemical Cycles and Human Activity 134

Implications 149

Summary 149

Key Terms 150

Questions for Review and Critical Thinking 151

Related Websites 151

Further Readings 151

PART C Planning and Management: Perspectives, Process, and Methods 152


Planning and Management Perspectives 156

Introduction 156

Planning and Management Components 157

Domestic Guest Statement: Planning Challenges Related to Flood Management in Canada 158

Dan Shrubsole (Western)

International Guest Statement: Downloading Responsibilities for Environmental Protection in China – Good or Not? 160

Taiyang Zhong (Nanjing, China)

Implications 168

Summary 169

Key Terms 170

Questions for Review and Critical Thinking 170

Related Websites 171

Further Readings 171

Planning and Management: Processes and Methods 172

Introduction 172

Collaboration and Coordination 173

Stakeholders and Participatory Approaches 173

Domestic Guest Statement: How Collaboration Can Support

Protected Area Planning 174

Joslyn Spurgeon (Ontario)

Communication 177

Adaptive Management 178

Impact and Risk Assessment 180

International Guest Statement: Mainstreaming Sustainable Development

Principles into Development Planning and Policy-Making: The Challenges

of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Indonesia 182

Bakti Setiawan (Gadjah Mada, Indonesia)

Dispute Resolution 186

Regional and Land-Use Planning 192

Implementation Barriers 192

Implications 193

Summary 194

Key Terms 195

Questions for Review and Critical Thinking 195

Related Websites 196

Further Readings 196

PART D Resource and Environmental Management in Canada 198


Climate Change 201

Introduction 201

Nature of Climate Change 202

Scientific Evidence Related to Climate Change 204

Modelling Climate Change 207

Scientific Explanations 209

Implications of Climate Change 210

Communicating Global Change 217

International Guest Statement: Responding to Climate Change:

Perspectives from China 219

Yong Geng (Shanghai Jiaotong, China)

Kyoto Protocol 221

Policy and Action Options 231

Domestic Guest Statement: Global Policy Challenges 233

Barry Smit (University of Guelph)

Summary 236

Key Terms 237

Questions for Review and Critical Thinking 237

Related Websites 238

Further Readings 239


Oceans and Fisheries 240

Introduction 240

Oceanic Ecosystems 241

Ocean Management Challenges 246

International Guest Statement: The Rise and Fall of Industrial

Fisheries 248

Daniel Pauly (UBC)

Global Responses 260

Canada’s Oceans and Fisheries 261

Aboriginal Use of Marine Resources 270

Pollution 273

Some Canadian Responses 275

Domestic Guest Statement: Public and Political Will Needed to

Protect Our Oceans 277

Sabine Jessen (Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society)

Aquaculture 277

Implications 280

Summary 281

Key Terms 282

Questions for Review and Critical Thinking 282

Related Websites 282

Further Readings 283


Forests 284

Canada’s Boreal Forest 284

An Overview of Canada’s Forests 286

Forest Management Practices 292

Domestic Guest Statement: Forest Ownership, Forest Stewardship,

Community Sustainability 293

Kevin Hanna (UBC)

Environmental and Social Impacts of Forest Management

Practices 301

New Forestry 312

Canada’s National Forest Strategies 314

Global Forest Strategies 315

International Guest Statement: The Amazon Rain Forest 318

Oliver Coomes (McGill)

Implications 317

Summary 322

Key Terms 324

Questions for Review and Critical Thinking 324

Related Websites 324

Further Readings 325


Agriculture 326

Introduction 326

International Guest Statement: Life at the Crossroads for African

Pastoralists: How Climate Change Threatens the Existence of

the Maasai 331

Philip Osano (Stockholm Environment Institute)

Agriculture as an Ecological Process 332

Modern Farming Systems in the Industrialized World 334

Trends in Canadian Agriculture 341

Environmental Challenges for Canadian Agriculture 343

Sustainable Food Production Systems 356

Organic Farming 358

Local Agriculture 359

Implications 360

Domestic Guest Statement: Perspectives on Food Security 361

Ashley Mcinnes (Guelph) and Evan D.G. Fraser (Guelph)

Summary 363

Key Terms 364

C Questions for Review and Critical Thinking 364

Related Websites 365

Further Readings 365


Water 366

Introduction 367

Human Interventions in the Hydrological Cycle: Water

Diversions 368

Domestic Guest Statement: Thinking Like a Watershed:

Fresh Ideas, Laws, and Institutions in a Changing

Water World 369

Oliver M. Brandes (Victoria)

Water Quality 377

Sydney Tar Ponds, Cape Breton Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia 378

Water Security: Protecting Quantity and Quality 384

Water as Hazard 393

International Guest Statement: A Land of Flood and Drought 397

Katheryn Bellette (South Australian Government)

Heritage Rivers 399

Hydrosolidarity 400

Water Ethics 402

Implications 403

Summary 405

Key Terms 406

Questions for Review and Critical Thinking 407

Related Websites 407

Further Readings 408 c


Minerals and Energy 409

Introduction 409

Framing Issues and Questions 410

Non-Renewable Resources in Canada:

Basic Information 411

Potash in Saskatchewan 412

Developing a Diamond Mine: Ekati, NWT 412

Energy Resources 420

International Guest Statement: Energy Transition and Social

Power 421

Gavin Bridge (Durham, UK)

Domestic Guest Statement: Capturing Carbon for Enhanced

Oil Recovery: A Climate Change Strategy? 438

Emily Eaton (Regina)

Implications 441

Summary 442

Key Terms 444

Questions for Review and Critical Thinking 444

Related Websites 445

Further Readings 445


Urban Environmental Management 446

Introduction 446

Sustainable Urban Development 447

Environmental Issues in Cities 450

International Guest Statement: Revitalizing Urban

Streams 454

Mee Kam Ng (Chinese University of Hong Kong)

Vulnerability of Urban Areas to Natural and Human-Induced

Hazards 456

Domestic Guest Statement: Managing for Urban

Resilience-Recovery, Resistance and “Bouncing Forward” 457

Meg Holden (Simon Fraser)

Urban Sustainability 462

Best Practice for Urban Environmental Management 466

Implications 474

Summary 474

Key Terms 475

Questions for Review and Critical Thinking 475

Related Websites 475

Further Readings 476


Endangered Species and Protected Areas 477

Introduction 477

Valuing Biodiversity 479

Main Pressures Causing Extinction 482

Vulnerability to Extinction 494

Responses to the Loss of Biodiversity 496

Protected Areas 501

International Guest Statement: Protected Areas and the

International Agenda 502

Stephen Woodley (International Union for the Conservation

of Nature)

Implications 518

Domestic Guest Statement: Tribal Parks in Clayoquot and Beyond:

Forwarding Indigenous and Community Conserved Areas in a

Canadian Context 519

Eli Enns (ICCA Consortium)

Summary 521

Key Terms 522

Questions for Review and Critical Thinking 522

Related Websites 523

Further Readings 523

part E Environmental Change and Challenge in Canada 524


Mal ing It Happen 526

Introduction 526

Global Perspectives 527

National Perspectives 535

Personal Perspectives 538

Domestic Guest Statement: A Generation of Possibility 539

Skye Augustine (Salish Sea Research Center, Northwest

Indian College)

Domestic Guest Statement: The Power of Fossil Fuel

Divestment 540

James Rowe (Victoria), Jessica Dempsey (Victoria), Peter Gibbs

(Organize BC), and Kelsey Mech (Canadian Youth Climate Coalition)

The Law of Everybody 545

Implications 549

Summary 550

Key Terms 551

Questions for Review and Critical Thinking 551

Related Websites 551

Further Readings 552

Glossary 553

References 565

Index 587

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