Contract Law, 11th Edition PDF by Catherine Elliott and Frances Quinn

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Contract Law, Eleventh Edition

By Catherine Elliott and Frances Quinn

Contract Law, Eleventh edition

Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgements xiv

Table of cases xv

Table of statutes xxvi

Table of statutory instruments xxix

Table of EC legislation xxx

Introduction 1

Why do we need contract law? 2

The origins of contract law 2

Freedom of contract 4

Contract and fairness 4

The objective approach 5

The Human Rights Act 1998 6

Reading list 8

Reading on the internet 8

Part 1 the formation of a contract 9

Chapter 1 Offer and acceptance 11

Unilateral and bilateral contracts 12

Offer 12

Invitations to treat 14

How long does an offer last? 17

Acceptance 24

Acceptance must be communicated 29

Exceptions to the communication rule 29

Ignorance of the offer 33

Cross-offers 34

Time of the formation of the contract 34

Offer and acceptance implied by the court 35

Agreements to negotiate 36

Agreements to agree, letters of intent and agreements ‘subject to contract’ 37

Common types of contracts 38

How important are offer and acceptance? 43

Problems with offer and acceptance 44

Answering questions 45

Summary of Chapter 1 49

Reading list 52

Reading on the internet 52

Chapter 2 Certainty 53

Provision for clarification 55

Terms implied by statute 56

Previous course of dealing 56

Reasonableness 56

Custom 57

The ‘officious bystander’ 57

Removing minor uncertain terms 58

Answering questions 58

Summary of Chapter 2 59

Reading list 60

Chapter 3 Intention to create legal relations 61

Social and domestic agreements 62

Commercial agreements 64

How important is intention to create legal relations? 68

Answering questions 68

Summary of Chapter 3 69

Reading list 70

Chapter 4 Capacity 71

Minors 72

Mental incapacity 77

Corporations 78

Answering questions 79

Summary of Chapter 4 81

Reading list 83

Reading on the internet 83

Chapter 5 Formalities 84

Contracts that must be made by deed 85

Contracts that must be in writing 85

Contracts that must be evidenced in writing 88

Answering questions 91

Summary of Chapter 5 91

Reading on the internet 92

Chapter 6 Consideration 93

What is consideration? 94

Performance of an existing duty 100

Waiver and promissory estoppel 107

Agreement by deed 112

Consideration and conditional gifts 112

Problems with consideration 113

The future of consideration 115

Reform 116

Answering questions 116

Summary of Chapter 6 119

Reading list 121

Reading on the internet 122

Part 2 the contents of a contract 123

Chapter 7 Terms of the contract 125

Express terms 126

Oral statements 126

Written terms 129

Collateral contracts 131

Oral and written statements 132

Interpretation of express terms 132

Implied terms 140

Terms implied in fact 140

Terms implied in law 145

Terms implied by custom 146

Terms implied by trade usage 146

Entire agreement clauses 147

The relative importance of contractual terms 148

Conditions 148

Warranties 149

Innominate terms 149

Criticism and reform 152

Answering questions 154

Summary of Chapter 7 157

Reading list 160

Reading on the internet 160

Chapter 8 Unfair contract terms 161

Exemption clauses 162

Common law controls 162

Statutory controls 171

Answering questions 178

Summary of Chapter 8 181

Reading list 184

Reading on the internet 184

Part 3 Vitiating factors 185

Chapter 9 Misrepresentation 187

What is a misrepresentation? 188

Types of misrepresentation 195

Remedies for misrepresentation 199

Misrepresentation and terms 206

Excluding liability for misrepresentation 206

Entire agreement clauses and misrepresentation 208

Answering questions 210

Summary of Chapter 9 211

Reading list 214

Chapter 10 Mistake 215

General principles 216

Common mistake 219

Cross-purposes mistake 224

Mistakes relating to documents 230

Criticism and reform 233

Answering questions 235

Summary of Chapter 10 237

Reading list 240

Reading on the internet 240

Chapter 11 Illegality 241

Introduction 242

Violation of legal rules and public policy 243

The effect of an illegal contract 252

Criticism 254

Answering questions 258

Summary of Chapter 11 258

Reading list 260

Reading on the internet 260

Chapter 12 Duress and undue influence 261

Duress 262

Undue influence 266

Inequality of bargaining power 274

Answering questions 274

Summary of Chapter 12 277

Reading list 279

Reading on the internet 279

Part 4 the rights and liabilities of third parties 281

Chapter 13 Third parties 283

The privity rule 284

Reform 285

Contractual rights conferred on third parties 286

Statutory rights 286

Common law exceptions 289

Exceptions in equity 295

Arguments for the privity rule 296

Arguments against the privity rule 297

Answering questions 299

Summary of Chapter 13 300

Reading list 303

Reading on the internet 303

Part 5 discharge and remedies 305

Chapter 14 Discharge of contract 307

Performance 308

The entire performance rule 308

Mitigation of the entire performance rule 309

Vicarious performance 312

Frustration 313

What will amount to frustration? 313

What will not amount to frustration? 315

Legal consequences of frustration 318

The theory of frustration 320

Breach 321

Actual breach 321

Anticipatory breach 322

Lawful excuse 323

Effect of breach 323

Choice to affirm or discharge 325

agreement 329

Consideration 329

Formalities 329

Answering questions 330

Summary of Chapter 14 335

Reading list 338

Chapter 15 Remedies 339

Common law remedies 340

Damages 340

Action for an agreed sum 367

Restitution 367

equitable remedies 371

Specific performance 372

Injunction 374

remedies agreed by the parties 375

Liquidated damages 376

Penalty clauses 377

Extinction of remedies 379

The statutory time limits 380

Problems with remedies 381

Answering questions 383

Summary of Chapter 15 390

Reading list 394

Reading on the internet 395

Part 6 Consumer protection 397

Chapter 16 Consumer contracts 399

History 400

Key terms 400

Consumer rights 401

Manufacturers’ liability 410

Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 413

Unsolicited goods 416

Consumer credit 416

Contract law and consumer protection 417

Answering questions 418

Summary of Chapter 16 421

Reading list 422

Reading on the internet 423

Appendix: Answering examination questions 425

Essay questions 426

Problem questions 428

Glossary 431

Index 435

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