Anatomy Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, 9th Edition PDF by Kenneth S Saladin

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Anatomy Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, Ninth Edition

By Kenneth S. Saladin

Anatomy Physiology The Unity of Form and Function, 9th Edition

Contents

About the Authors iv

PART ONE

ORGANIZATION OF THE BODY

CHAPTER 1

MAJOR THEMES OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 1

1.1 The Scope of Anatomy

and Physiology 2

1.2 The Origins of Biomedical

Science 3

1.3 Scientific Method 6

1.4 Human Origins and

Adaptations 9

1.5 Human Structure 11

1.6 Human Function 13

1.7 The Language of Medicine 19

1.8 Review of Major Themes 21

STUDY GUIDE 24

ATLAS A GENERAL ORIENTATION TO HUMAN ANATOMY 27

A.1 General Anatomical

Terminology 28

A.2 Major Body Regions 29

A.3 Body Cavities and Membranes 31

A.4 Organ Systems 35

STUDY GUIDE 38

CHAPTER 2

THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE 40

2.1 Atoms, Ions, and

Molecules 41

2.2 Water and Mixtures 48

2.3 Energy and Chemical Reactions 52

2.4 Organic Compounds 55

STUDY GUIDE 71

CHAPTER 3

CELLULAR FORM AND FUNCTION 74

3.1 Concepts of Cellular Structure 75

3.2 The Cell Surface 78

3.3 Membrane Transport 87

3.4 The Cell Interior 96

STUDY GUIDE 106

CHAPTER 4

GENES AND CELLULAR FUNCTION 109

4.1 DNA and RNA—The Nucleic

Acids 110

4.2 Genes and Their Action 114

4.3 DNA Replication and the Cell

Cycle 123

4.4 Chromosomes and Heredity 128

STUDY GUIDE 134

CHAPTER 5

THE HUMAN TISSUES 137

5.1 The Study of Tissues 138

5.2 Epithelial Tissue 141

5.3 Connective Tissue 148

5.4 Nervous and Muscular Tissues—

Excitable Tissues 157

5.5 Cellular Junctions, Glands, and

Membranes 160

5.6 Tissue Growth, Development,

Repair, and Degeneration 165

STUDY GUIDE 171

PART TWO

SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT

CHAPTER 6

THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM 174

6.1 Skin and Subcutaneous

Tissue 175

6.2 Hair and Nails 183

6.3 Cutaneous Glands 187

6.4 Skin Disorders 190

CONNECTIVE ISSUES 195

STUDY GUIDE 196

CHAPTER 7

BONE TISSUE 198

7.1 Tissues and Organs of the

Skeletal System 199

7.2 Histology of Osseous Tissue 201

7.3 Bone Development 206

7.4 Physiology of Osseous Tissue 211

7.5 Bone Disorders 216

CONNECTIVE ISSUES 220

STUDY GUIDE 221

CHAPTER 8

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 223

8.1 Overview of the Skeleton 224

8.2 The Skull 227

8.3 The Vertebral Column and

Thoracic Cage 239

8.4 The Pectoral Girdle and Upper

Limb 249

8.5 The Pelvic Girdle and Lower

Limb 254

STUDY GUIDE 264

CHAPTER 9

JOINTS 267

9.1 Joints and Their

Classification 268

9.2 Synovial Joints 272

9.3 Anatomy of Selected

Diarthroses 285

STUDY GUIDE 296

CHAPTER 10

THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM 299

10.1 Structural and Functional

Organization of Muscles 300

10.2 Muscles of the Head and

Neck 308

10.3 Muscles of the Trunk 318

10.4 Muscles Acting on the Shoulder

and Upper Limb 329

10.5 Muscles Acting on the Hip

and Lower Limb 344

STUDY GUIDE 359

ATLAS B REGIONAL AND SURFACE ANATOMY 362

B.1 Regional Anatomy 363

B.2 The Importance of Surface

Anatomy 363

B.3 Learning Strategy 363

CHAPTER 11

MUSCULAR TISSUE 384

11.1 Types and Characteristics

of Muscular Tissue 385

11.2 Skeletal Muscle Cells 386

11.3 The Nerve–Muscle Relationship 391

11.4 Behavior of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 394

11.5 Behavior of Whole Muscles 401

11.6 Muscle Metabolism 404

11.7 Cardiac and Smooth Muscle 409

CONNECTIVE ISSUES 416

STUDY GUIDE 417

PART THREE

INTERNAL COORDINATION AND CONTROL

CHAPTER 12

NERVOUS TISSUE 420

12.1 Overview of the Nervous

System 421

12.2 Properties of Neurons 422

12.3 Supportive Cells 426

12.4 Electrophysiology of Neurons 433

12.5 Synapses 440

12.6 Neural Integration 446

CONNECTIVE ISSUES 455

STUDY GUIDE 456

CHAPTER 13

THE SPINAL CORD, SPINAL NERVES, AND SOMATIC REFLEXES 459

13.1 The Spinal Cord 460

13.2 The Spinal Nerves 468

13.3 Somatic Reflexes 482

STUDY GUIDE 489

CHAPTER 14

THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES 492

14.1 Overview of the Brain 493

14.2 Meninges, Ventricles,

Cerebrospinal Fluid, and Blood Supply 497

14.3 The Hindbrain and Midbrain 503

14.4 The Forebrain 509

14.5 Integrative Functions of the

Brain 516

14.6 The Cranial Nerves 527

STUDY GUIDE 539

CHAPTER 15

THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM AND VISCERAL REFLEXES 542

15.1 General Properties of the

Autonomic Nervous System 543

15.2 Anatomy of the Autonomic

Nervous System 546

15.3 Autonomic Effects on

Target Organs 553

15.4 Central Control of Autonomic

Function 557

STUDY GUIDE 560

CHAPTER 16

SENSE ORGANS 563

16.1 Properties and Types of Sensory

Receptors 564

16.2 The General Senses 566

16.3 The Chemical Senses 572

16.4 Hearing and Equilibrium 577

16.5 Vision 591

STUDY GUIDE 609

CHAPTER 17

THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 612

17.1 Overview of the Endocrine

System 613

17.2 The Hypothalamus

and Pituitary Gland 616

17.3 Other Endocrine Glands 623

17.4 Hormones and Their Actions 633

17.5 Stress and Adaptation 642

17.6 Eicosanoids and Other Signaling

Molecules 643

17.7 Endocrine Disorders 644

CONNECTIVE ISSUES 651

STUDY GUIDE 652

PART FOUR

CIRCULATION AND DEFENSE

CHAPTER 18

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM: BLOOD 655

18.1 Introduction 656

18.2 Erythrocytes 661

18.3 Blood Types 667

18.4 Leukocytes 672

18.5 Platelets and the Control

of Bleeding 678

STUDY GUIDE 686

CHAPTER 19

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM: HEART 689

19.1 Overview of the Cardiovascular

System 690

19.2 Gross Anatomy of the Heart 692

19.3 Cardiac Muscle and the Cardiac

Conduction System 700

19.4 Electrical and Contractile Activity

of the Heart 702

19.5 Blood Flow, Heart Sounds,

and the Cardiac Cycle 707

19.6 Regulation of Cardiac Output 713

STUDY GUIDE 721

CHAPTER 20

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM: BLOOD VESSELS AND CIRCULATION 724

20.1 General Anatomy of

the Blood Vessels 725

20.2 Blood Pressure, Resistance,

and Flow 733

20.3 Capillaries and Fluid

Exchange 740

20.4 Venous Return and Circulatory

Shock 744

20.5 Special Circulatory Routes 746

20.6 Anatomy of the Pulmonary

Circuit 747

20.7 Systemic Vessels

of the Axial Region 748

20.8 Systemic Vessels of the

Appendicular Region 766

CONNECTIVE ISSUES 777

STUDY GUIDE 778

CHAPTER 21

THE LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS 782

21.1 The Lymphatic System 783

21.2 Innate Immunity 795

21.3 Adaptive Immunity—

General Aspects 803

21.4 Cellular Immunity 808

21.5 Humoral Immunity 811

21.6 Immune System Disorders 815

CONNECTIVE ISSUES 821

STUDY GUIDE 822

PART FIVE

INTAKE AND OUTPUT

CHAPTER 22

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 825

22.1 Anatomy of the Respiratory

System 826

22.2 Pulmonary Ventilation 837

22.3 Gas Exchange and Transport 848

22.4 Respiratory Disorders 858

CONNECTIVE ISSUES 862

STUDY GUIDE 863

CHAPTER 23

THE URINARY SYSTEM 866

23.1 Functions of the Urinary

System 867

23.2 Anatomy of the Kidney 869

23.3 Urine Formation I: Glomerular

Filtration 875

23.4 Urine Formation II: Tubular

Reabsorption and Secretion 881

23.5 Urine Formation III:

Water Conservation 885

23.6 Urine and Renal Function

Tests 888

23.7 Urine Storage and Elimination 891

CONNECTIVE ISSUES 897

STUDY GUIDE 898

CHAPTER 24

FLUID, ELECTROLYTE, AND ACID–BASE BALANCE 901

24.1 Fluid Balance 902

24.2 Electrolyte Balance 908

24.3 Acid–Base Balance 914

STUDY GUIDE 922

CHAPTER 25

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 925

25.1 General Anatomy and

Digestive Processes 926

25.2 The Mouth Through

Esophagus 930

25.3 The Stomach 937

25.4 The Liver, Gallbladder,

and Pancreas 946

25.5 The Small Intestine 952

25.6 Chemical Digestion

and Absorption 956

25.7 The Large Intestine 963

CONNECTIVE ISSUES 970

STUDY GUIDE 971

CHAPTER 26

NUTRITION AND METABOLISM 974

26.1 Nutrition 975

26.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism 986

26.3 Lipid and Protein

Metabolism 993

26.4 Metabolic States and

Metabolic Rate 997

26.5 Body Heat and

Thermoregulation 999

STUDY GUIDE 1004

PART SIX

REPRODUCTION AND

THE LIFE CYCLE

CHAPTER 27

THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 1007

27.1 Sexual Reproduction

and Development 1008

27.2 Male Reproductive

Anatomy 1013

27.3 Puberty, Hormonal Control,

and Climacteric 1021

27.4 Sperm and Semen 1023

27.5 Male Sexual Response 1028

STUDY GUIDE 1034

CHAPTER 28

THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 1037

28.1 Female Reproductive

Anatomy 1038

28.2 Puberty and Menopause 1048

28.3 Oogenesis and the Sexual

Cycle 1050

28.4 Female Sexual Response 1058

28.5 Pregnancy and Childbirth 1059

28.6 Lactation 1066

CONNECTIVE ISSUES 1071

STUDY GUIDE 1072

CHAPTER 29

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND AGING 1075

29.1 Fertilization and the

Preembryonic Stage 1076

29.2 The Embryonic and Fetal

Stages 1082

29.3 The Neonate 1091

29.4 Aging and Senescence 1095

STUDY GUIDE 1106

Appendix A: Answer Keys A-1

Appendix B: Symbols, Weights, and Measures A-14

Appendix C: Periodic Table of the Elements A-16

Appendix D: The Genetic Code and Amino Acids A-17

Appendix E: Medical Word Roots and Affixes A-19

Glossary G-1

Index I-1

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