Automotive Service: Inspection, Maintenance, Repair, 6th Edition PDF by Tim Gilles

By

Automotive Service: Inspection, Maintenance, Repair, Sixth Edition

By Tim Gilles

Automotive Service Inspection, Maintenance, Repair, 6th Edition

Table of Contents

Preface Xvi

Acknowledgements Xviii

Dedication Xxiii

About The Author Xxiii

Features Of The Text Xxiv

Section 1

THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

CHAPTER 1

Introduction to the Automobile 2

Introduction 2 • Body and Chassis 2 • Engine Parts

and Operation 3 • Engine Support Systems 5 •

The Powertrain 9 • Accessory Systems 10

CHAPTER 2

Automotive Careers and Technician Certification 16

Introduction 16 • Automotive Career

Opportunities 16 • Technician Certification

and Licensing 19 • Technician Skill Levels and

Pay 22 • Other Areas of Specialization 22 •

Other Automotive Careers 23 • On the Job as an

Automotive Technician 24

SECTION 2

SHOP PROCEDURES, SAFETY, TOOLS, AND EQUIPMENT

CHAPTER 3

Shop Safety 31

Introduction 31 • General Personal Safety 31 •

Fire Safety 33 • Evacuation Plan 33 • Fire

Extinguishers 33 • Flammable Materials 35 •

Fuel Fires 35 • Electrical Fires 37 • Shop

Habits 37 • Electrical Safety Precautions 38 •

Cooling Fan Safety 39 • Coolant Burns 39 •

General Hand Tool Safety 39 • Puller Safety 41 •

Machinery Safety 41 • Electric Drill Safety 41 •

Grinder Safety 41 • Wire Wheel Safety 41 •

Compressed Air Safety 42 • Impact Wrench

Safety 42 • Air Chisel Safety 42 • Die Grinder/

Air Drill Safety 42 • Press Safety 43 • General

Lifting Safety 43 • Hydraulic Floor Jack ( Service

Jack) Safety 43 • Shop Crane (Engine Hoist)

Safety 44 • Transmission Jack Safety 45 • Battery

Safety 45 • Refrigerant Safety 46 • General Safety

Around Automobiles 46 • Hot Tank Safety

Precautions 46 • Hazardous Materials and

Environmental Safety 47 • Hazardous

Communication Standards 48 • Safety Data

Sheets 48 • Hazardous Materials Common to the

Automotive Industry 49 • Cleaning Solvent Safety

Precautions 50 • Skin Care Safety Precautions 51 •

Breathing Safety 51 • Welding Safety 52

CHAPTER 4

Shop Management, Service Records, and Parts 55

Introduction 55 • Customer Relations 55 • Service

Records 56 • Keep the Car Clean 57 • Linen

Service 58 • Wholesale and Retail Distribution of

Auto Parts 58

CHAPTER 5

Locating Service Information and

Specifications 62

Introduction 62 • Service Literature 62 •

Manufacturers’ Service Information 64 •

Generic Service Manuals 64 • Lubrication and

Maintenance Service Specifications 64 • Owner’s

Manual 65 • Owners’ Workshop Manuals 67 •

Electronic Service Information 67 • Technical

Service Bulletins 68 • Hotline Services 69 • Trade

Magazines and Internet 70

CHAPTER 6

Measuring Tools and Systems 72

Introduction 72 • Metric System 72 • Measuring

Tools 73 • Precision Measuring Tools 74

CHAPTER 7

Hardware, Fasteners, Drills, and Thread Repair 87

Introduction 87 • Characteristics of Fasteners 87 •

Fastener Failures 91 • Drill Bits 92 • Taps

and Threads 94 • Dies 97 • Repairing Broken

Fasteners 97

CHAPTER 8

Shop Tools 106

Introduction 106 • Tools of the Trade 106 •

Pullers 118 • Air Tools 120 • Special Service

Tools 124

CHAPTER 9

General Shop Equipment 126

Shop Equipment 126 • Hydraulic Equipment 126 •

Shop Electric Machinery 132 • Other Electric

Equipment 134 • Other Shop Equipment 135

CHAPTER 10

Cleaning Equipment and Methods 142

Introduction 142 • General Shop Housekeeping

Practices 142 • Cleaning Methods 143 • Cleaning

the Outside of the Engine 144 • Environmental

Concerns with Engine Cleaning 144 • Cleaning

Internal Parts 144 • Chemical Cleaning 145 •

Thermal Cleaning 152 • Vibratory

Parts Cleaners 153 • Other Cleaning

Methods 153 • Marking Clean Parts 154

CHAPTER 11

Lifting Equipment and Air Compressors 155

Introduction 155 • Lift Types 155 • Frame-Contact

Lifts 155 • Wheel-Contact Lifts 158 • Wheel-Free

Jacks 158 • In-Ground Lifts 159 • Surface Mount

Lifts 160 • Lift Safety 161 • Air Compressors 163

SECTION 3

VEHICLE INSPECTION (LUBRICATION/ SAFETY CHECK)

CHAPTER 12

Engine Lubrication 168

Introduction 168 • Engine Oil 168 •

Engine Oil Licensing and Certification 172 •

Oil Additives 174 • Changing Engine Oil 178 •

Oil Filter 181 • Changing the Oil Filter 184

CHAPTER 13

Underhood and Body Inspection (Vehicle on

Ground) 188

Introduction 188 • Brake System Inspection 188 •

On-Ground Steering and Suspension Checks 190 •

Fuel System Inspection 192 • Cooling System

Inspection 193 • Belt Inspection 194 • Electrical

System Inspection 195 • Check Operation of

Lights 196 • Visibility Checks 197 • Other Safety

Checks and Service 199

CHAPTER 14

Undercar Inspection and Service 205

Introduction 205 • Tire Visual Inspection 205 •

Undercar Brake Checks 206 • Exhaust System

Inspection 207 • Chassis Lubrication 208 •

Suspension and Steering Checks 210 • Driveline

Checks 212

SECTION 4

ENGINE OPERATION

CHAPTER 15

Introduction to the Engine 219

Introduction 219 • Basic Engine Operation 219 •

Four-Stroke Engine Operation 220 • Engine

Upper End 221 • Valve Train 221 • Cylinder

Head 222 • Engine Front 225 • Cylinder Block

Assembly (Lower End) 225 • Short Block and

Long Block 227

CHAPTER 16

Engine Classifications and Types 232

Introduction 232 • Engine Classifications 232 •

Cylinder Arrangement 232 • Firing Order 234 •

Engine Cooling 235 • Valve Location 235 •

Camshaft Location 236 • Other Cylinder Head

Variations 237 • Combustion Chamber

Designs 237 • Spark and Compression

Ignition 239 • Alternate Engines 240

CHAPTER 17

Engine Size and Measurements 244

Introduction 244 • Engine Size

Measurements 244 • Compression

Ratio 246 • Physical Principles of

Work 248 • Torque 249 • Horsepower 249 •

Dynamometer 250 • Dynamometer Safety

Concerns 254 • Engine Efficiency 255 • Mean

Effective Pressure 256

CHAPTER 18

Engine Upper End 258

Introduction 258 • Cylinder Head

Construction 258 • Valve Guides 259 •

Valve Guide Seals 259 • Valves 261 • Retainers

and Valve Locks 264 • Valve Springs 264 •

Pushrods and Rocker Arms 265 • Camshaft 266 •

Number of Cams and Lobes 266 • Camshaft

Performance 267 • Valve Lifters and

Lash Adjusters 269 • Roller Cam and

Lifters 270 • Hydraulic Lifters 270 • Camshaft

Drives 271 • Valve Timing 274 • Variable Valve

Timing 275 • Electric Cam Phasers 278 • Active

Fuel Management 279

CHAPTER 19

Engine Lower End and Lubrication System

Theory 283

Introduction 283 • Cylinder Block

Construction 283 • Core Plugs 284 • Cylinder

Bore 285 • Cylinder Sleeves 285 • Main Bearing

Caps 285 • Lifter Bores 285 • Crankshaft

Design 285 • Crankshaft End

Thrust 287 • Direction of Crankshaft

Rotation 287 • Vibration Damper 287 • Crankshaft

Hardness 288 • Bearings 288 • Connecting

Rods 290 • Pistons 291 • Piston

Head 291 • Piston Ring Grooves 291 • Heat

Transfer 292 • Cast and Forged

Pistons 293 • Piston Skirt 293 • Piston

Pin Offset 294 • Piston Pins 295 • Piston

Rings 296 • Compression

Rings 296 • Compression Ring

Design 297 • Oil Control Rings 299 • Engine

Balancing 299 • The Lubrication System 300 • Oil

Pumps 300 • Pressure Relief Valve 302 • Oil

Pump Screen By-Pass Valve 302 • Oil

Pressure 303 • Windage Tray and Baffles 303 • Dry

Sump Lubrication Systems 304 • Semi-Dry

Sump 305

SECTION 5

COOLING SYSTEM, BELTS, HOSES, AND

PLUMBING

CHAPTER 20

Cooling System Theory 308

Introduction 308 • Liquid and Air Cooling 308 •

Liquid Cooling System Parts 308 • Cooling

System Circulation 309 • Coolant 310 • Racing

Coolants 311 • Heat-Transferability of Water

and Coolant 311 • Cooling System Pressure

Cap 314 • Coolant Recovery System 315 •

Radiator 316 • Thermostat 317 • Temperature

Warning Light or Gauge 320 • Fans 321 • Fan

Clutch 322 • Radiator Shroud 322 • Heater

Core 322

CHAPTER 21

Cooling System Service 325

Introduction 325 • Diagnosing Cooling

System Problems 325 • Radiator

Cap 327 • Coolant Service 329 • Testing

Coolant Condition and Strength 334 • Thermostat

Service 338 • Locating Leaks 340 • External

Leaks 341 • Internal Leaks 342 • Recovery Tank

Service 345 • Cooling System Repairs 345 • Water

Pump Service 347 • Electric Cooling Fan

Service 349 • Heater Core Service 349

CHAPTER 22

Automotive Belts 353

Introduction 353 • Belt Material 353 • V-Ribbed

Belts 353 • Serpentine Belt Drive 353 • Stretch

Belts 353 • Timing Belts 354 • Drive Belt

Service 356 • Belt Inspection and Adjustment 357 •

Replacing Belts 358

CHAPTER 23

Automotive Hoses 365

Introduction 365 • Hose Construction 365 •

Hose Size 365 • Unreinforced Hose 365 •

Radiator Hose 365 • Hose Types 365 • Hose

Clamps 369 • Hoses 371 • Hose Inspection

and Service 372 • Replacing Hoses 373 •

High-Performance Hoses and Fittings 376

CHAPTER 24

Automotive Plumbing: Tubing and Pipe 380

Introduction 380 • Tubing 380 • Flared

Connections 382 • Compression Fittings 383 •

Pipe Fittings 385 • Shutoff Valves 385 • Tubing

Service 386 • Installing Tubing 390 • Transmission

Oil Cooler Line Repairs 390 • Nylon Fuel Injection

Tubing 391 • Pipe Service 391

SECTION 6

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

THEORY AND SERVICE

CHAPTER 25

Basic Electrical System Theory and Repairs 394

Introduction 394 • Electron

Flow 394 • Basic Automotive Electrical

System 396 • Electrical Terms 397 • Circuitry

and Ohm’s Law 401 • Magnetic

Fields 403 • Capacitors 405 • Automotive

Electronics 405 • Basic Electrical

Tests 406 • Voltage Drop Testing 407

CHAPTER 26

Battery Fundamentals 416

Introduction 416 • Battery Parts and Operation 417 •

Battery Recharging and Discharging 420 •

Battery Capacity Ratings 422 • Battery Types 423 •

Battery Plate Size 426 • Battery Selection 427 •

Battery Service Life 427 • Battery Cables 428 •

Battery Holddowns 429 • Reasons for Battery

Failure 429 • Electric Vehicle Battery Types 429

CHAPTER 27

Battery Service 431

Introduction 431 • Battery Inspection 432 • Battery

Service 432 • Replacing a Battery 435 • Battery

Testing: Measuring Battery State of Charge (SOC) 441 •

Battery Charging 446 • Battery Chargers 447 •

Storing a Vehicle 451 • Battery Capacity Tests 451 •

Battery Testing Using an Amp Clamp 454 • Battery

Drain Test/Parasitic Load 454 • Battery Jump-

Starting 455

CHAPTER 28

Starting System Fundamentals 459

Introduction 459 • Starter Motor 459 • Starter

Motor Fundamentals 459 • Starter Drives 462 •

Starter Electrical Circuit 463 • Gear Reduction

Starters 466 • Brushless DC Motors 466

CHAPTER 29

Starting System Service 468

Introduction 468 • Starting System

Service 468 • Starting System Tests 469 • Cranking

Voltage and Amperage Test 470 • Circuit Resistance

Test 470 • No-Crank Tests 473 • Solenoid

Problems 474 • Starter Repair 475 • Starter

Disassembly 475 • Starter Drive

Service 476 • Starter Reassembly 478

CHAPTER 30

Charging System Fundamentals 480

Introduction 480 • Charging System 480 • AC

Generator/Alternator 481 • Alternator Pulleys 485 •

AC Generator Bearings 485 • AC Generator Fan 486 •

Voltage Regulator 486 • Computer-Controlled Voltage

Regulation 487 • Charging System Indicators 490 •

High-Voltage Charging Systems 491

CHAPTER 31

Charging System Service 493

Introduction 493 • Charging System Service 493 •

Preliminary Charging System Tests 494 • Testing

the Charging System 495 • Charging System Output

Tests 495 • Regulated Voltage Test 497 • Diode

Tests 499 • Charging System Voltage Drops 500 •

AC Generator Service and Repair 502 • AC

Generator Reassembly 505

CHAPTER 32

Lighting and Wiring Fundamentals 508

Introduction 508 • Wire and Cable 508 • Circuit

Protection Devices 509 • Lighting 511 •

Headlamps 512 • Taillights 521 • Incandescent

Light Bulb Identification 522 • Turn Signals 524 •

Signal Flasher Operation 524 • Hazard Flashers 525 •

Back-Up Lights 525 • Electrical Instrumentation and

Instrument Panel 529 • Miscellaneous Gauges 531

CHAPTER 33

Lighting and Wiring Service 536

Analyzing Electrical Problems 536 • Wiring

Service 536 • Trim Removal 538 • Crimp

Terminals 540 • Selecting Replacement Wire 545 •

Adding Electrical Accessories 545 • Soldering 545 •

Broken or Damaged Ground Straps 548 • Wiring for

a Trailer or RV Tow Car 549 • Circuit Testing and

Service 550 • Finding Grounds 550 • Fuse Testing

and Service 550 • Fuse Link Service 552 •

Headlamp Service 552 • Headlamp Aiming 554 •

Tail Lamp and Park Light Service 557 • LED

Service 558 • Stoplight Switch Service 558 •

Back-Up Lights 558 • Turn Signal Switch 559 •

Signal Flasher/Relay 559 • Locating a Signal

Flasher 560 • Windshield Washer Service 560 •

Horn Service 561 • Gauge Testing 561

CHAPTER 34

Safety, Security, Comfort Systems, and Electrical

Accessories 564

Introduction 564 • Supplemental Restraint

Systems 564 • Active and Passive Restraints 564 •

Restraint System Service 575 • Security, Navigation,

and Electrical Accessories 578 • Security Systems 578 •

GPS Vehicle Tracking/ Navigation Systems 584 •

Other Comfort Systems 587 • Vehicle Audio

Systems 587 • Cruise Control 604 • Body Electronic

System Testing and Service 606 • Precollision/

Collision Avoidance Systems 606 • Lane Departure

Warning System 607 • Autonomous Driving

Vehicles 607 • The Future of Autonomous Vehicles 608

SECTION 7

HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

CHAPTER 35

Heating and Air-Conditioning Fundamentals 612

Introduction 612 • Sources of Heat 612 •

Ventilation 612 • Heating 613 • Air Distribution

System 613 • Air Conditioning 615 • Air-

Conditioning Principles 616 • Heat Transfer 616 •

Humidity 617 • States of Matter 617 • Latent

Heat 617 • Air-Conditioning System

Operation 618 • Reducing Humidity 619 •

Compressing the Refrigerant 620 •

Transferring Refrigerant Heat to Outside

Air 620 • Flow Control Devices 622 •

Air-Conditioning Compressors 625 •

Compressor Lubrication 628 • Muffler 628 •

Accumulator or Receiver/Dryer 629 • Evaporator

Icing Control 630 • System Switches 631 •

Heating and Air-Conditioning Controls 632 •

Automatic Air-Conditioning Sensors 633 •

Refrigerants and the Environment 634 •

Temperature and Pressure 637

CHAPTER 36

Heating and Air-Conditioning Service 640

Heater Service 640 • Air-Conditioning

Service 640 • Air-Conditioning System

Service and Diagnosis 641 • System

Performance Test 642 • Pressure

Testing 642 • Static Pressure Reading 644 •

Diagnosing HVAC Electronic Problems 649 •

Air Distribution System Diagnosis 650 • Leak

Detection 656 • Common Air-Conditioning

Component Problems 659 • Refrigerant

Oil 660 • Evaporator Problems 661 •

Thermal Expansion Valve or Orifice Tube

Problems 662 • Compressor Service 663 •

Evacuating a System 668 • Evacuate the

System 669 • Air-Conditioning Service

Equipment 670 • Refrigerant Charging 670 •

Follow-Up 672 • Refrigerant Storage 673 •

R-1234YF Service 673

SECTION 8

ENGINE PERFORMANCE DIAGNOSIS: THEORY

AND SERVICE

CHAPTER 37

Ignition System Fundamentals 677

Introduction 677 • Basic Ignition System 677 •

Primary Circuit 677 • Secondary Ignition

Parts 680 • Spark Plugs 681 • Electronic

Ignitions 683 • Electronic Ignition Variations 686 •

Ignition Modules 690 • Ignition Timing 690 •

Detonation Sensor 692 • Distributorless

Ignition 692

CHAPTER 38

Ignition System Service 697

Ignition System Service and Repairs 697 • Spark

Plug Service 697 • Spark Plug Diagnosis 698 •

Installing Spark Plugs 701 • Repairing Damaged

Spark Plug Threads 702 • Spark Plug Cable

Service 704 • Ignition Timing 706 • Electronic

Ignition Distributor Service 706 • Static

Timing 709 • Electronic Ignition System

Service 709 • Lab Scope Testing 712 • Types

of Scope Patterns 713 • Other Scope

Tests 717 • Other Diagnostic Instruments 718

CHAPTER 39

Petroleum Fuels and Alternative Fuel

Technologies 720

Introduction 720 • Crude Oil 720 • Diesel Engines

and Diesel Fuel 721 • Gasoline 725 • Air-Fuel

Mixture 728 • Spark Knocks, Carbon Noise,

and Abnormal Combustion 729 • Abnormal

Combustion 730 • Excessive Carbon Buildup 733 •

Regular Versus Premium Fuels 733 • Octane

Standards 734 • Gasoline Additives 735 •

Reformulated Gasolines 735 • Oxygenated Fuels/

Alcohols 735 • Alternative Fuels 737 •

Natural Gas 738 • Compressed Natural Gas 739 •

Refueling CNG 740 • Liquified Natural Gas 742 •

Engine Rebuilding Concerns with Alternative Fuel

Engines 743 • Hydrogen 743

CHAPTER 40

Fuel System Fundamentals, Gasoline and Diesel 745

Introduction 745 • Fuel System 745 • Fuel

Tanks 745 • Fuel Lines, Hoses, and

Fittings 746 • Fuel Pumps 746 • Fuel Filters 747 •

Fuel Injection and Carburetion 748 • Pressure

Regulator Operation 753 • Electronic Fuel System

Operation 754 • Airflow Measurement 755 •

Idle Speed Control 756 • Fuel Pump Control

Module 757 • Computer-Controlled Fuel

Systems 758 • Feedback Fuel Systems 758 •

Diesel Fuel Systems 763 • Diesel Fuel

Subsystem 765 • Diesel Fuel Filters 765

CHAPTER 41

Fuel System Service 768

Introduction 768 • Fuel Supply System

Service 768 • Fuel Filter Service 772 • Throttle

Linkage 772 • Fuel System Problems and

Service 772 • Exhaust Gas Analysis 774 • Fuel

Injection Diagnosis and Service 774 • EFI Computer

Self-Diagnostics (OBD) 775 • Air-Fuel Mixture

Problems 775 • Injector Problems 778 • Throttle

Plate Service 781 • EFI Adjustments 782 • Sensor

Service 783 • Throttle Position Sensor 783 •

Oxygen Sensor Service 783 • Coolant Temperature

Sensor 785 • Inlet Air Temperature Sensor 785 •

Map Sensor Diagnosis 785 • Mass Airflow

(MAF) Sensor Diagnosis 786 • Testing Other

Sensors 787 • Computer Service 787 • Mechanical

Injection 787 • Carbon Deposit Service 788 •

Diesel Engine Fuel Service 788

CHAPTER 42

Intake and Exhaust Systems/Turbochargers and

Superchargers 792

Introduction 792 • Intake System Fundamentals 792 •

Manifolds 793 • Intake Manifolds 793 • Exhaust

System Fundamentals 797 • Exhaust Manifolds 797 •

Exhaust Tubing 798 • Exhaust System Service 800 •

Turbochargers and Superchargers 802 •

Turbochargers 803 • Aftercooler/Intercooler 807 •

Belt-Driven Superchargers/Blowers 812

CHAPTER 43

Emission Control System Fundamentals, Gasoline

and Diesel 819

Introduction 819 • Air Pollution 819 • Automotive

Emissions 819 • Pollution Control 821 •

Automobile Emission Control Systems 821 •

Crankcase Ventilation 822 • PCV Valve Testing 824 •

Exhaust Gas Recirculation 824 • EGR System

Operation 826 • Computer-Controlled EGR

Systems 827 • Catalytic Converter 828 • Types

of Catalytic Converters 829 • Evaporative

Controls 832 • Other Parts of the Fuel Tank

System 834 • On-Board Diagnostics 835 •

Engine Emission Modifications 835 • Diesel Engine

Emission Control 836

CHAPTER 44

Emission Control System Service 841

Introduction 841 • Inspecting Emission Control

Systems 841 • Computer-Controlled Emission

Service 842 • Crankcase Ventilation System

Service 842 • Evaporative Control System

Service 843 • Evaporative System Maintenance 844 •

Evaporative System Problem Diagnosis 844 • EGR

System Service 846 • Air Injection System

Service 848 • Catalytic Converter Service 849 •

Converter Testing 849 • Catalytic Converter

Replacement 850 • Analyzing Exhaust

Emissions 850 • Emission Analyzers 851 •

Hydrocarbons 852 • Carbon Monoxide

(CO) 853 • Carbon Dioxide 853 • Oxygen

(O2) 855 • Oxides of Nitrogen 855 • Catalytic

Converter Tests 858 • Diesel Emission Control

Service 860 • Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)

Service 860 • Diesel Particulate Filter Service 861

CHAPTER 45

Electronics and Computer Systems

Fundamentals 864

Introduction 864 • Semiconductors 864 •

Diodes 865 • Transistors 867 • Electronic

Instrument Displays 868 • Automotive Computer

Systems 868 • Parts of a Computer System 869 •

On-Board Computer 870 • Information

Processing 871 • Computer Memory 872 •

Communication Rate 873 • Sensors and

Actuators 873 • Types of Sensors 874 •

Thermistors 874 • Voltage Dividers 874 •

Piezoelectric and Piezoresistive Sensors 874 •

Heated Resistive Sensors 875 • Variable DC

Frequency Sensors 875 • Voltage Generators 875 •

Wheatstone Bridges 876 • Switches 876 • Types

of Actuators 877 • Solenoid Actuators 877 • Relay

Actuators 877 • Motor Actuators 877 • Actuator

Switches/Modules 878 • Adaptive Strategy 879 •

Ignition Advance 880 • Knock Sensor 880 •

Electronic Throttle Control/Drive-By-Wire 881 •

On-Board Diagnostics 881 • Diagnostic Trouble

Codes 881 • Computer Self-Diagnostics 881 •

Multiplexing 881 • Network Sizes and Types 883 •

CAN Systems 883 • Supplemental Data Bus

Networks 887 • Telematics 889 • Wireless

Networks 889 • DSRC 890

CHAPTER 46

Electronics and Computer Systems Service 892

Introduction 892 • Inspection Sequence 892 •

Perform Diagnostic Tests 893 • On-Board

Diagnostics 894 • Reading Trouble Codes 895 •

Scan Tools 896 • Breakout Box 897 • Retrieving

Trouble Codes 897 • Working with Codes 898 •

Erasing Trouble Codes 898 • Scan Tool

Snapshot 898 • Closed Loop 900 • Fuel Trim

Diagnosis 901 • Digital Waveforms 902 •

Logic Probe 907 • Sensor and Actuator

Testing 907 • Diagnosing Sensor Problems 907 •

Sensor Tests 908 • Oxygen Sensor 908 • Load

Sensors 911 • Map Sensor 911 • Baro

Sensors 912 • Vacuum Sensors 912 • Throttle

Position Sensor 912 • Coolant Temperature

Sensor 913 • Air Temperature Sensors 914 • Airflow

Sensor Service 915 • Knock Sensor Service 916 •

Actuator Service 917 • Repair the Problem 917 •

Computer Wiring Service 917 • Static Electricity 921 •

Electrical Damage to a Circuit 921

CHAPTER 47

Advanced Emissions and On-Board Diagnostics

(OBD) 926

Introduction 926 • History of On-Board

Diagnostics 926 • OBD II Operation 927 • Society

of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standards 928 •

Trouble Codes and the Malfunction Indicator

Lamp 930 • OBD II Codes 931 • OBD II Diagnostic

Testing 933 • Emission Testing Programs 942

CHAPTER 48

Diagnosing Engine Performance Problems 945

Introduction 945 • Visual Checks 945 • Ignition

System Checks 945 • Engine Performance

Testing 946 • Compression Loss 946 • Vacuum

Testing 947 • Other Vacuum

Tests 948 • Compression Problems 949 • Cylinder

Leakage Test 955 • Carbon-Related Problems 956

SECTION 9

AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE SERVICE AND REPAIR

CHAPTER 49

Diagnosing Engine Mechanical Problems 959

Introduction 959 • Diagnosing Problems Before

a Repair 959 • Oil Consumption 959 • Causes

of Oil Consumption 960 • Testing for Oil

Leaks 963 • Engine Performance and Compression

Loss 964 • Engine Noises 964 • Engine

Knocks 965 • Oil Pressure Problems 969 • Cooling

System Problems 970 • Internal Engine

Leakage 970 • Seized Engine 971 • Electronic

Failures/Engine Damage 973 • Engine Performance

and Fuel Mixture Problems 973

CHAPTER 50

Engine Removal and Disassembly 975

Introduction 975 • Engine Removal 975 •

Engine Disassembly 988 • Engines with

Pushrods 990 • Overhead Cam Cylinder Head

Removal 992 • Cylinder Block Disassembly 994

CHAPTER 51

Engine Sealing, Gaskets, Fastener Torque 1001

Introduction 1001 • Clamping Force 1001 •

Torque and Friction 1001 • Torque Wrenches 1002 •

Torque-To-Yield 1003 • Torque by Degrees 1004 •

Fastener Clamping Load 1004 • Gaskets and

Seals 1005 • Cleaning the Head 1009 • Head

Gasket Installation 1011 • Other Engine

Gaskets 1012 • Valve Cover, Timing Cover, and Oil

Pan Service 1012 • Gasket Sealers 1016 • Silicone

RTV Sealant 1018 • Seals 1019 • Rear Main

Seals 1020 • Transmission Front Pump Seal 1022

CHAPTER 52

Engine Diagnosis and Service: Cylinder Head and

Valve Train 1024

Introduction 1024 • Head Disassembly 1024 •

Carbon Removal 1028 • Cylinder Head

Inspection 1029 • Resurfacing by Grinding, Cutting,

or Sanding 1031 • Straightening Cylinder

Heads 1031 • Crack Inspection 1032 • Crack

Repair 1033 • Checking Valve Springs 1033 •

Checking Valve Stems 1034 • Valve Guide

Service 1034 • Guide Repair 1034 • Grinding

Valves 1035 • Grinding Valve Seats 1038 •

Checking Valve Stem Installed Height 1038 • Solvent

Testing the Valve and Seat 1040 • Reassembling the

Head 1040 • Valve Guide Seal Installation 1040 •

Install the Valve and Spring Assembly 1041 •

Pushrod Engine Rocker Arm Service 1041 • Inspect

Pushrods 1041 • Inspect OHC Camshaft 1041 •

Reassembling OHC Heads 1042 • Camshaft

Service 1044 • Lifter Service 1044 • Cam and Lifter

Break-In 1045 • Timing Chain and Belt Service 1045 •

Timing Belt Service 1045 • Timing Belt

Replacement 1046 • Timing Chain Service 1048

CHAPTER 53

Engine Diagnosis and Service: Block, Crankshaft,

Bearings, and Lubrication System 1053

Introduction 1053 • Cleaning the Block 1053 • Oil

and Water Plug Removal 1053 • Oil Gallery

Plug Installation 1055 • Inspect and Clean

Lifter Bores 1055 • Checking Main Bearing

Bore Alignment 1055 • Check the Deck

Surface for Flatness 1057 • Clean All

Threaded Holes 1057 • Inspecting Cylinder

Bores 1057 • Measuring the Bore 1058 • Deglazing

the Cylinder Bore 1059 • Clean the Block of

Grit 1060 • Boring for Oversized Pistons 1061 •

Block Distortion 1062 • Honing After Boring 1063 •

Sleeves 1064 • Cam Bearing Installation (Cam-In-

Block Engines) 1064 • Front Cam Bearing

Installation 1065 • Checking Crankshaft

Condition 1066 • Crankshaft and Bearing

Wear 1067 • Crankshaft Journal Tolerance 1068 •

Regrinding the Crankshaft 1069 • Measuring

Bearing Clearance with Plastigage 1069 •

Lubrication System Service 1070 • Checking Oil

Pumps for Wear 1071 • Oil Pump Screen

Service 1071 • Oil Pump Failure 1072 • Installing

the Oil Pump 1073

CHAPTER 54

Engine Diagnosis and Service: Piston, Piston Rings,

Connecting Rod, Engine Balancing 1075

Introduction 1075 • Piston Service 1075 • Piston

Ring Service 1078 • Installing Pins in Connecting

Rods 1080 • Installing Rings on Pistons 1080 •

Oil Ring Installation 1080 • Connecting Rod

Service 1082 • Engine Balancing Service 1084

CHAPTER 55

Ordering Parts, Short and Long Blocks, Engine

Assembly 1089

Introduction 1089 • Ordering Parts 1089 • Engine

Kits 1089 • Determining Part Sizes 1091 • Types

of Engine Rebuilds 1091 • Selecting the Correct

Replacement Engine 1092 • Warranty 1092 •

Reassembly 1092 • Begin Reassembly 1092 •

Prepare the Crankshaft for Installation 1093 •

Install the Crank 1094 • Install the Cylinder

Heads 1102 • Install OHC Heads 1102 • Install

the Cam Drive (Pushrod Engines) 1103 • Install

the Oil Pump 1103 • Install the Timing

Cover 1103 • Install the Crankshaft Damper/

Pulley 1104 • Install the Oil Pan 1104 • Install

the Intake Manifold 1105 • Install the Thermostat

and Water Outlet Housing 1106 • Completing the

Assembly 1106 • Install Exhaust Manifold(s) 1106

CHAPTER 56

Engine Installation, Break-In, and In-Chassis

Repairs 1109

Introduction 1109 • Engine

Installation 1109 • Install Engine

Mounts 1109 • Install the Engine 1109 • Priming

the Lubrication System 1111 • Pressure

Priming 1111 • Install Valve Covers 1112 •

Ignition System Installation and Timing 1112 •

Engine Starting and Initial Break-in 1112 • Valve

Clearance Adjustment 1114 • Road Test and

Break-in 1114 • Final Inspection 1114 • Returning

the Car to the Customer 1114 • Engine Repair—

Engine in the Vehicle 1115 • Valve Job or Head

Gasket Repair 1115 • Valve Job or Complete

Engine Overhaul 1116 • Head Gasket Problems 1116 •

In-Chassis Lower End Repairs 1116 • Removing the

Oil Pan 1116 • Remove the Piston and Rod

Assembly 1118 • Remove the Timing Cover 1118 •

Freewheeling and Interference Engines 1119 •

Replace the Timing Components 1119 • Crankshaft

Seal Replacement 1119 • Flywheel Ring Gear

Service 1119

SECTION 10

BRAKES AND TIRES

CHAPTER 57

Brake Fundamentals 1123

Introduction 1123 • Brake Linings 1123 • Drum

and Disc Brakes 1124 • Hydraulic Brake System

Operation 1124 • Hydraulic Brake Fluid 1126 •

Brake Hose 1127 • Brake Tubing 1128 • Hydraulic

System Operation 1128 • Low Brake Pedal 1129 •

Split Hydraulic System 1132 • Quick Take-Up

Master Cylinder 1133 • Drum Brakes 1133 •

Drum Brake Adjustment 1135 • Disc Brakes 1136 •

Hydraulic System Valves and Switches 1140 • Power

Brakes 1143 • Parking Brake 1146 • Types of

Parking Brakes 1147 • Stoplight Switches 1149 •

Brake Pedal Position Sensor 1149 • Antilock

Brakes 1149

CHAPTER 58

Brake Service 1152

Introduction 1152 • Brake Inspection 1152 •

Check Brake Pedal Feel 1152 • Master Cylinder

Inspection 1152 • Brake Diagnosis 1154 •

Undercar Checks 1155 • Disc Brake

Inspection 1155 • Inspecting Drum Brake

Assemblies 1159 • Brake Fluid Service 1161 •

Routine Brake Fluid Replacement 1161 • Brake

Fluid Testing 1162 • Bleeding Brakes 1163 • Brake

Bleeding Methods 1164 • Drum Brake

Adjustment 1168 • Master Cylinder Service 1169 •

Master Cylinder Removal 1169 • Master Cylinder

Disassembly 1169 • Bench Bleeding a Master

Cylinder 1170 • Brake Job 1171 • Drum Brake

Lining Removal 1172 • Reassembling a Wheel

Cylinder 1174 • Removing Wheel Cylinders 1174 •

Replacing Drum Brake Shoes 1174 • Adjusting

Drum Brake Clearance 1175 • Drum and Rotor

Service 1175 • Drum Service 1177 • Rotor

Service 1179 • On-Vehicle Rotor Machining 1181 •

Disc Brake Service 1182 • Rear Disc Pad

Installation 1184 • Rebuilt Calipers 1185 • Disc

Caliper Rebuilding 1185 • Selecting Brake

Linings 1187 • Disc Brake Noise 1189 • Parking

Brake Cable Service 1191 • Vacuum Power Brake

Service 1191 • Brake Warning Lamp Diagnosis 1195 •

Antilock Brake System (ABS) Service 1196

CHAPTER 59

Antilock Brakes, Traction, and Stability

Control 1198

Introduction 1198 • Antilock Brakes 1198 • Parts

of an Antilock Brake System 1199 • Types

of Antilock Brake Systems 1202 • Antilock

Brake System Operation 1204 • Traction

Control System 1206 • Antilock Brake (ABS)

Service 1207 • ABS Brake Fluid Service 1210

CHAPTER 60

Bearings, Seals, and Greases 1218

Introduction 1218 • Plain Bearings 1218 •

Frictionless Bearings 1218 • Bearing Loads 1219 •

Ball Bearings 1219 • Roller Bearings 1220 • Wheel

Bearings 1222 • Greases 1223 • Wheel Bearing

Seals 1227 • Seal Materials and Design 1228 •

Seal Tolerance 1228 • Wheel Bearing Diagnosis

and Service 1228 • Wheel Bearing Adjustment 1229 •

Disc Brake Caliper Removal 1232 • Repacking

Wheel Bearings 1232 • Bearing Inspection and

Diagnosis 1234 • Diagnosing Wheel Bearing

Noise 1236 • Replacing Bearing Races 1236 •

Servicing Front-Wheel-Drive Bearings 1238

CHAPTER 61

Tire and Wheel Theory 1240

Introduction 1240 • Tire Construction 1240 •

Tubeless Tires 1241 • Tire Tread 1241 • Tire

Tread Material 1242 • Tire Cord 1243 • Tire Ply

Design 1243 • Tire Sidewall Markings 1244 •

Euro-Metric Commercial Tires 1245 •

Load Rating 1249 • Tire Life and Age 1250 •

All-Season Tires 1251 • Snow Tires 1251 •

Tire Pressure Monitoring System 1253 • Uniform

Tire Quality Grading 1255 • Changing Tire

Size 1255 • Wheels 1257 • Custom Wheels 1258 •

Lug Studs 1259 • Lug Nuts 1259 • Tire Valve

Stems 1259

CHAPTER 62

Tire and Wheel Service 1262

Introduction 1262 • Tire Inflation 1262 •

Checking Air Pressure 1262 • Adjusting Tire

Pressure 1264 • Tire Wear 1266 • Sidewall

Checks 1267 • Tire Age 1267 • Tire

Rotation 1267 • Removing and Tightening

Lug Nuts 1269 • Tire Rotation with

TPMS 1270 • Repairing Wheel Studs 1271 •

Removing and Mounting Tires on Rims 1271 •

Inspecting the Tire and Wheel 1274 • Valve Stem

Service 1274 • Rubber Lubricant 1276 • Install the

Tire 1277 • Mounting High-Performance

Tires 1280 • Bead Roller Tire Changer 1280 •

Installing the Valve Core 1281 • Tire Runout 1281 •

Tire Repair 1282 • Repairing a Tire 1283 •

Preparing a Tire for Repair 1284 • Patching a

Tire 1285 • Tire and Wheel Balance 1286 • Types

of Wheel Balance 1288 • Couple Imbalance 1289 •

Dynamic Balance 1289 • Using a Computer

Balancer 1291 • Centering the Wheel on the

Balancer 1291 • Match Mounting 1294 • Force

Variation 1294 • Installing the Wheel 1294 • Tire

Pressure Monitoring System Service 1296 • TPMS

Service 1300 • TPMS Service 1301

SECTION 11

SUSPENSION, STEERING, ALIGNMENT

CHAPTER 63

Suspension Fundamentals 1307

Introduction 1307 • Suspension 1307 • Frame and

Suspension Designs 1308 • Springs 1308 •

Suspension Construction 1310 • Independent

and Solid Axle Suspensions 1311 • Suspension

Types 1312 • High-Performance Suspensions 1314 •

Shock Absorbers 1314 • Hydraulic Shock Absorber

Operation 1315 • Compression and Rebound

Resistance 1317 • Bump Stops and Limiters 1318 •

Gas Shocks 1318 • Other Front End Parts 1319 •

Stabilizer Bar 1319 • Air Shocks/Leveling

Devices 1320 • Suspension Leveling

Systems 1322 • Active Suspensions 1326

CHAPTER 64

Suspension System Service 1328

Introduction 1328 • Diagnosing Suspension System

Problems 1328 • Shock Absorber Service 1329 •

Testing Shock Absorbers 1329 • Macpherson Strut

Service 1332 • Inspect the Upper Strut Bearing 1333 •

Install the Coil Spring 1333 • Reinstall the Strut

Assembly 1334 • Suspension Bushing

Service 1334 • Strut Rod Bushing Service 1335 •

Stabilizer Bar Service 1335 • Spindle Service 1336 •

Ball Joint Service 1336 • Measuring Ball Joint

Wear 1337 • Separating Tapered Connections 1337 •

Replacing a Ball Joint 1338 • Coil Spring

Service 1338 • Adjusting Spring Height 1340 •

Coil Spring Replacement 1340 • SLA Coil Spring

Replacement 1340 • Wheel Alignment 1343 •

Electronic Suspension Service 1343 • Electronically

Controlled Shock Absorbers 1344

CHAPTER 65

Steering Fundamentals 1346

Steering Systems 1346 • Steering Gears 1346 •

Recirculating Ball and Nut Steering Gear 1347 •

Rack-and-Pinion Steering 1347 • Steering

Linkage 1348 • Parallelogram Steering Linkage 1348 •

Ball Sockets 1348 • Tie-Rods 1348 • Steering

Arm 1350 • Rack-and-Pinion Steering

Linkage 1350 • Steering Column 1351 • Power

Steering 1352 • Power Steering Pump 1353 • Types

of Power Steering 1354 • Electronically Controlled

Variable Effort Power Steering 1355 • Electronically

Controlled Steering Systems 1357

CHAPTER 66

Steering System Service 1362

Introduction 1362 • Fluid Level Checks 1362 •

Type of Fluid 1362 • Diagnosing Steering

Problems 1363 • Noise Diagnosis 1363 • Hard

Steering 1363 • Tire Wear 1363 • Steering

Part Inspection 1363 • Steering Linkage

Inspection 1363 • Steering Gear Looseness 1363 •

Parallelogram Steering Inspection 1364 • Rack-and-

Pinion Steering Linkage Inspection 1364 • Steering

Linkage Repairs 1364 • Idler Arm Replacement 1365 •

Pitman Arm Replacement 1365 • Tie-Rod

End Replacement 1365 • Rack-and-Pinion

Tie-Rods 1366 • Steering Wheel, Column, and Air

Bag Service 1367 • Air Bag Service 1367 • Steering

Wheel Service 1369 • Steering Column

Service 1369 • Steering Gear Service 1370 •

Rack-and-Pinion Service 1370 • Rack-and-Pinion

Steering Looseness 1370 • Power Steering System

Service 1371 • Power Steering System Flushing 1371 •

Bleeding Air from the Hydraulic System 1372 •

Power Steering Pump Replacement 1372 • Repairing

Power Steering Pump Oil Leaks 1372 • Power

Steering Pressure Diagnosis 1373 • Power Steering

Pump Service 1374 • Power Steering Hoses 1374 •

Refilling the Power Steering System 1375 • Power

Steering Gear Service 1375 • Replacing Rackand-

Pinion Units 1375 • Variable Power Steering

Service 1377 • Electronically Controlled Power

Steering System Service 1377

CHAPTER 67

Wheel Alignment Fundamentals 1379

Introduction 1379 • Wheel Alignment

Angles 1379 • Toe 1379 • Camber 1380 •

Caster 1381 • Steering Axis Inclination 1382 •

Scrub Radius 1383 • Turning Radius 1384 •

Geometric Centerline and Thrust Angle 1385 •

Tracking 1385 • Setback 1385 • Special Handling

Characteristics 1386

CHAPTER 68

Wheel Alignment Service 1388

Introduction 1388 • Prealignment Inspection 1388 •

Tire Wear Inspection 1388 • Ride Height

Check 1390 • Toe Change 1390 • Torque

Steer 1391 • Suspension Looseness 1391 •

Test Drive 1392 • Tire Checks 1392 •

Inspection Checklist 1393 • Wheel Alignment

Procedures 1393 • Measuring Alignment 1394 •

Measuring Camber 1395 • Measuring Caster 1396 •

Road Crown and Pull 1396 • Measuring

Steering Axis Inclination 1399 • Measuring

Toe 1400 • Adjusting Toe 1401 • Centering a

Steering Wheel 1403 • Recalibrating Steering

Position 1404 • Checking for Toe Change 1404 •

Measuring Turning Radius 1404 • General

Wheel Alignment Rules 1405 • Four-Wheel

Alignment 1406 • Performing a Four-Wheel

Alignment 1407 • Compensating the Alignment

Heads 1408 • Measuring Caster and Camber 1408 •

Adjusting Rear-Wheel Alignment 1409

SECTION 12

DRIVETRAIN

CHAPTER 69

Clutch Fundamentals 1413

Introduction 1413 • Clutch Parts and Operation 1413 •

Clutch Disc 1414 • Pressure Plate 1415 • Types of

Clutch Covers 1415 • Coil Spring Clutch 1415 •

Diaphragm Clutch 1416 • Pilot Bearing or

Bushing 1418 • Release Bearing 1418 • Clutch

Fork 1419 • Clutch Release Methods 1419 • Clutch

Cable 1419 • Hydraulic Clutch Operation 1420 •

Clutch Free Travel 1420 • Dual Clutch

Transmissions 1421

CHAPTER 70

Clutch Diagnosis and Service 1423

Introduction 1423 • Diagnosis of Clutch

Problem 1423 • Clutch Noises 1423 • Transmission

Noise 1424 • Pedal Problems 1424 • Slipping

Clutch 1424 • Dragging Clutch 1425 • Oily

Clutch Facings 1425 • Damaged Friction

Surfaces 1426 • Chattering or Grabbing Clutch 1426 •

Clutch Service 1427 • Servicing Hydraulic

Components 1427 • Clutch Replacement 1428 •

Removing a Transmission or Transaxle 1429 •

Clutch Removal 1429 • Flywheel Removal 1430 •

Flywheel Starter Ring Gear Replacement 1430 •

Flywheel Installation 1431 • Inspect New

Parts 1431 • Pilot Bearing and Bushing

Service 1432 • Clutch Disc Service 1433 •

Clutch Cover/Pressure Plate Service 1433 •

Clutch Installation 1433 • Release Bearing

Service 1435 • Clutch Housing Installation 1436

CHAPTER 71

Manual Transmission Fundamentals 1439

Introduction 1439 • Purpose of a

Transmission 1439 • Using Gears to Increase

Torque 1439 • Gear Ratio 1440 • Transmission

Gear Ranges 1440 • Fifth Gear 1441 •

Overdrive 1441 • Final Drive Ratio 1441 • Gear

Types and Operation 1441 • Spur Gears 1442 •

Helical Gears 1443 • Idler Gears 1443 •

Transmission Parts 1443 • Transmission

Lubrication 1444 • Transmission Bearings 1444 •

Transmission Gears and Shafts 1445 • Synchronizer

Assembly 1445 • Gear Shift Mechanisms 1447 •

Shift Patterns 1448 • Transmission Power Flow 1449 •

Four-Speed Transmission Power Flow 1449 •

Five-Speed Transmission 1452 • Speedometer

Output 1452 • Switches and Sensors 1453

CHAPTER 72

Manual Transmission Diagnosis and Repair 1455

Introduction 1455 • Transmission Diagnosis 1455 •

Lubricant Checks 1456 • Transmission

Removal 1456 • Transmission Disassembly 1457 •

Disassemble the Mainshaft Assembly 1459 •

Synchronizer Service 1459 • Synchronizer

Inspection 1460 • Inspect Blocker Rings 1461 •

Inspect Input Shaft and Mainshaft 1461 • Replace

Worn Bearings 1462 • Reassemble the

Transmission 1462 • Reassemble the

Synchronizers 1462 • Reassemble the

Mainshaft 1462 • End Play 1463 • Needle Bearing

Installation 1463 • Install New Gaskets 1464 •

Complete the Transmission Reassembly 1464 •

Install the Transmission 1465 • Add

Lubricant 1465 • Test Drive 1465

CHAPTER 73

Automatic Transmission Fundamentals 1468

Introduction 1468 • Automatic Transmission

Parts 1468 • Power Transmission 1469 •

Flexplate 1469 • Torque Converter 1470 • Torque

Multiplication 1470 • Torque Converter

Operation 1470 • Stator Clutch Operation 1473 •

Stall Speed 1473 • Lock-Up Torque

Converters 1474 • Planetary Gears 1475 • Simple

Planetary Gearset 1475 • Simple Planetary

Operation 1476 • Simpson Compound Planetary

Operation 1477 • Driving and Holding

Devices 1482 • Clutches 1482 • Clutch

Operation 1482 • One-Way Clutches 1484 • Dog

Clutches 1484 • Accumulator 1486 • Hydraulic

System 1486 • Fluid Pump 1486 • Types of

Pumps 1486 • Transmission Valves 1488 •

Pressure Regulator 1488 • Hydraulic Valve

Body 1489 • Transmission Automatic Shift

Selection 1490 • Automatic Transmission Fluid

(ATF) 1491 • Automatic Transmission

Cooling 1491 • Auxiliary Cooler/Heat

Exchanger 1494 • Park Pawl 1494 • Electronic

Automatic Transmissions 1494 • Electronic

Automatic Transmission Operation 1497 •

Electronic Torque Converter Control 1498 •

Electronic Pressure Control 1498 •

Transmission Shift Control 1498 • Continuously

Variable Transmission 1500 • Hybrid Planetary

Transmission Operation 1501

CHAPTER 74

Automatic Transmission Diagnosis and Service 1503

Introduction 1503 • Automatic Transmission

Identification 1503 • Automatic Transmission

Maintenance 1504 • Transmission Fluid

Service 1504 • Fluid Level 1505 • Check Fluid

Condition 1505 • Changing Transmission

Fluid 1506 • Transmission Filter Service 1506 •

Remove and Replace the Filter 1507 • Refill the

Transmission 1507 • Diagnosing and Repairing

Leaks 1508 • Leaks from the Converter

Housing 1508 • Pump Bushing Replacement 1511 •

Reinstalling the Transmission 1511 • Rear Oil Seal

and Bushing Replacement 1512 • Automatic

Transmission Problem Diagnosis 1512 •

Test-Drive 1513 • Slippage 1513 • Transmission

Drainback 1513 • Noises 1517 • Flexplate 1517 •

Transmission Tests 1517 • Valve Body

Removal 1520 • Electronic Transmission

Service 1522 • More Tests Before Transmission

Removal 1525 • Hybrid Automatic Transmission

Service 1525 • Remanufactured Automatic

Transmissions and Transaxles 1525 • Transmission

Rebuilding 1525 • Transmission Reassembly 1528

CHAPTER 75

Driveline Operation 1531

Introduction 1531 • Driveshaft (RWD) 1531 • Slip

Yoke 1532 • Universal Joints 1533 • Two-Piece

Driveshaft 1534 • Driveshaft Angle 1535 •

Constant Velocity Joints 1536 • Differential 1537 •

Differential Construction 1538 • Differential

Housing 1538 • Differential Operation 1539 •

Differential Gears 1540 • Gearsets 1540 • Axle

Ratio 1541 • Limited-Slip Differential 1541 • Types

of Limited-Slip Differentials 1541 • Viscous

Coupling Differentials 1546 • Drive Axles and

Bearings 1547 • Semi-Floating Axle Bearing

Types 1547 • Independent Rear Suspension

Axles 1548 • Gear Oils 1548 • Four-Wheel

Drive 1549 • Four-Wheel-Drive Axle

Assembly 1549 • Transfer Case 1550 •

Locking Hubs 1552 • All-Wheel Drive 1552

CHAPTER 76

Driveline Diagnosis and Service 1556

Introduction 1556 • Driveshaft Diagnosis 1556 •

Universal Joint Diagnosis and Service 1557 •

Driveshaft Service 1557 • Universal Joint

Disassembly 1557 • Universal Joint Reassembly 1559 •

Driveshaft Installation 1561 • Two-Piece Driveshaft

Service 1561 • Differential and Axle Diagnosis and

Service 1561 • Problem Diagnosis 1561 • Axle

Bearing Diagnosis 1562 • Axle Bearing Service 1563 •

Removing a Bearing-Retained Axle 1563 • Axle

Bearing Replacement 1564 • Axle Bearing

Installation 1565 • Reinstall the Axle 1565 •

Full-Floating Axle Service 1566 • Differential

Pinion Seal Replacement 1567 • Differential

Repair 1568 • Removing a Third Member 1568 •

Disassembling a Salisbury Axle 1569 • Clean and

Inspect Parts 1569 • Differential Reassembly 1570 •

Adjusting a Differential 1570 • Pinion Gear

Depth 1570 • Ring Gear Backlash 1571 • Side

Bearing Preload 1572 • Contact Pattern 1573 •

Backlash Pattern Change 1574 • Pinion Depth

Pattern Change 1574 • Pinion Bearing Preload 1575 •

Ring and Pinion Noise 1575 • Four-Wheel-Drive

Service and Repair 1575

CHAPTER 77

Front-Wheel-Drive (Transaxle and CV Joint)

Fundamentals 1581

Introduction 1581 • Front-Wheel Drive 1581 •

Manual Transaxles 1582 • Shift Linkage 1582 •

Transaxle Differential 1582 • Transaxle Power

Flow 1583 • Automatic Transaxle 1586 • Front

Drive Axles 1587 • Axle Shaft Parts 1587 •

CV Joint Construction 1588 • Axle

Shafts 1590 • CV Joint Boots 1590

CHAPTER 78

Front-Wheel-Drive (Transaxle and CV Joint)

Service 1592

Introduction 1592 • Transaxle and Front-Wheel-

Drive Service and Repair 1592 • Leaking CV Joint

Boot 1592 • CV Joint Boot Service 1592 • Axle

Inspection and Diagnosis 1593 • CV Joint

Diagnosis 1593 • Axle Shaft Removal 1593 •

CV Joint Replacement 1596 • Fixed Joint

Disassembly and Inspection 1597 • CV Joint

Boot Clamps 1599 • Servicing an Inner

Tripod Joint 1600 • Double Offset Plunge

Joints 1601 • Cross Groove Joint Service 1601 •

Rebuilt Halfshafts 1601 • Installing the Axle 1601 •

Transaxle Repair 1601 • Transaxle Removal 1602 •

Manual Transaxle Repair 1602 • Automatic

Transaxle Repair 1602 • Transaxle Differential Side

Bearing Adjustment 1603 • Install the Transaxle 1604

CHAPTER 79

Driveline Vibration and Service 1606

Vibration Analysis 1606 • Types of Vibrations 1607 •

Vibration Test Instruments 1607 • Vibration and

Frequency 1608 • Driveshaft Runout 1610 • Other

Causes of Vibration 1610 • Driveshaft

Balance 1610 • Driveshaft Angle 1612

SECTION 13

HYBRID AND ELECTRIC VEHICLES

CHAPTER 80

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fundamentals 1617

Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles 1617 • Series and

Parallel Hybrids 1618 • Hybrid Types and

Levels 1622 • Battery Types: Hybrid Electric

Vehicle and Others 1628 • Capacitors in

Hybrid Vehicles 1632 • Supercapacitors/

Ultracapacitors 1632 • Hybrid Brushless

DC Motors 1634 • Hybrid Vehicle Air

Conditioning 1634 • Hybrid Vehicle

Brakes 1634 • Hybrid Planetary Transmission

Operation 1635

CHAPTER 81

Hybrid Vehicle Safety and Service 1640

Hybrid Vehicle Safety and Service 1640 • Hybrid

Electrical Shock Hazard 1644 • High

Voltage Precautions 1646 • Hybrid Battery

Service 1651 • Hybrid High-Voltage Battery

Service 1653 • High-Voltage Battery

Rebuilding 1655

CHAPTER 82

New Vehicle Technologies: Battery Electric, Fuel Cell

Electric, and Hydraulic Hybrid 1660

Introduction to Battery and Fuel Cell Electric

Vehicles 1660 • Battery Electric Vehicles 1660 •

Lithium-Ion Batteries 1663 • Electric

Vehicle Battery Construction 1666 • Plug-In

Hybrids 1668 • Energy Cost and Electric Vehicle

Economy 1668 • Extended Range Electric

Vehicles 1669 • Electric Vehicle Charging

Systems 1670 • Standards For EV Electrical

Connectors 1672 • Motor/Machine for Electric

Vehicles 1675 • EV Motor Types 1675 •

EV Motor Construction 1678 • Inverter/

Converter/Electronic Controls 1679 • Electric

Vehicle Service 1681 • Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

(FCEVs) 1682 • Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles 1684

APPENDIX 1687

GLOSSARY 1700

INDEX 1734

NOTE TO STUDENT: Learn to use the index. It has been constantly updated and will help you find what you need in the book.

This book is US$10. Order for this book:
(Request for free sample pages click on "Order Now" button)

Book Order
Or, Send email: textileebooks@gmail.com

Share this Book!

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.