Intercultural Communication in Contexts, 8th Edition PDF by Judith N. Martin and Thomas K. Nakayama

By

Intercultural Communication in Contexts, Eighth Edition

By Judith N. Martin and Thomas K. Nakayama

Intercultural Communication in Contexts, 8th Edition

Contents:

Preface xix

To the Student xxxi

PART I FOUNDATIONS OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION 1

Chapter 1 Why Study Intercultural Communication? 2

The Self-Awareness Imperative 3

The Demographic Imperative 5

Changing U.S. Demographics 5

Changing Immigration Patterns 6

The Economic Imperative 14

The Environmental Imperative 18

Floods and Droughts Lead to Migration 18

Wildfires 19

Water Rights 19

The Technological Imperative 20

Technology and Human Communication 20

Access to Communication Technology 24

The Peace Imperative 25

The Ethical Imperative 28

Relativity Versus Universality 28

Being Ethical Students of Culture 31

Internet Resources 34

Summary 35

Discussion Questions 35

Activities 35

Key Words 36

References 36

Credits 40

Chapter 2 The Study of Intercultural Communication 41

The Early Development of the Discipline 42

Interdisciplinary Contributions 43

Perception and Worldview of the Researcher 44

Three Approaches to Studying Intercultural Communication 46

The Social Science Approach 48

The Interpretive Approach 54

The Critical Approach 60

A Dialectical Approach to Understanding Culture and Communication 66

Combining the Three Traditional Paradigms: The Dialectical Approach 66

Six Dialectics of Intercultural Communication 68

Keeping a Dialectical Perspective 71

Internet Resources 71

Summary 72

Discussion Questions 72

Activities 73

Key Words 73

References 74

Credits 77

Chapter 3 Culture, Communication, Context, and Power 78

What is Culture? 79

Social Science Definitions: Culture as Learned, Group-Related Perceptions 82

Interpretive Definitions: Culture as Contextual Symbolic Patterns of Meaning, Involving Emotions 83

Critical Definitions: Culture as Heterogeneous, Dynamic, and a Contested Zone 85

What is Communication? 87

The Relationship Between Culture and Communication 88

How Culture Influences Communication 88

How Communication Reinforces Culture 101

Communication as Resistance to the Dominant Cultural System 104

The Relationship Between Communication and Context 105

The Relationship Between Communication and Power 106

Internet Resources 111

Summary 111

Discussion Questions 112

Activities 112

Key Words 113

References 113

Credits 115

Chapter 4 History and Intercultural Communication 116

From History to Histories 118

Political, Intellectual, and Social Histories 119

Family Histories 120

National Histories 121

Cultural-Group Histories 123

History, Power, and Intercultural Communication 125

The Power of Texts 126

The Power of Other Histories 128

Power in Intercultural Interactions 130

History and Identity 130

Histories as Stories 131

Nonmainstream Histories 132

Intercultural Communication and History 143

Antecedents of Contact 143

The Contact Hypothesis 144

Negotiating Histories Dialectically in Interaction 149

Internet Resources 150

Summary 151

Discussion Questions 152

Activities 152

Key Words 153

References 153

Credits 156

PART II INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION PROCESSES 157

Chapter 5 Identity and Intercultural

Communication 158

Thinking Dialectically About Identity 159

The Social Science Perspective 161

The Interpretive Perspective 164

The Critical Perspective 165

Identity Development Issues 168

Minority Identity Development 169

Majority Identity Development 172

Social and Cultural Identities 175

Gender Identity 175

Sexual Identity 178

Age Identity 178

Racial and Ethnic Identities 180

Characteristics of Whiteness 183

Religious Identity 187

Class Identity 188

National Identity 191

Regional Identity 193

Personal Identity 194

Multicultural People 194

Identity, Stereotypes, and Prejudice 200

Identity and Communication 204

Internet Resources 206

Summary 207

Discussion Questions 207

Activities 207

Key Words 208

References 208

Credits 213

Chapter 6 Language and Intercultural Communication 215

Social Science Perspective on Language 217

Language and Perception 218

Language and Thought: Metaphor 220

Cultural Variations in Communication Style 221

Influence of Interactive Media Use on Language and Communication Style 225

Slang and Humor in Language Use 225

Interpretive Perspective on Language 228

Variations in Contextual Rules 228

Critical Perspective on Language 229

Co-Cultural Communication 229

Discourse and Social Structure 233

The “Power” Effects of Labels 233

Moving Between Languages 235

Multilingualism 235

Translation and Interpretation 240

Language and Identity 243

Language and Cultural Group Identity 243

Code Switching 245

Language Politics and Policies 247

Language and Globalization 250

Internet Resources 254

Summary 254

Discussion Questions 255

Activities 255

Key Words 256

References 256

Credits 258

Chapter 7 Nonverbal Codes and Cultural Space 260

Thinking Dialectically About Nonverbal Communication: Defining Nonverbal Communication 262

Comparing Verbal and Nonverbal Communication 263

What Nonverbal Behavior Communicates 264

The Universality of Nonverbal Behavior 266

Recent Research Findings 266

Nonverbal Codes 267

Stereotype, Prejudice, and Discrimination 278

Semiotics and Nonverbal Communication 280

Defining Cultural Space 283

Cultural Identity and Cultural Space 283

Changing Cultural Space 288

Postmodern Cultural Spaces 290

Internet Resources 293

Summary 293

Discussion Questions 294

Activities 294

Key Words 295

References 295

Credits 298

PART III INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION APPLICATIONS 301

Chapter 8 Understanding Intercultural Transitions 302

Thinking Dialectically About Intercultural Transitions 304

Types of Migrant Groups 306

Voluntary Migrants 307

Involuntary Migrants 308

Migrant–Host Relationships 310

Assimilation 312

Separation 313

Integration 314

Cultural Hybridity 316

Cultural Adaptation 317

Social Science Approach 318

Interpretive Approach 323

Critical Approach: Contextual Influences 332

Internet Resources 338

Summary 338

Discussion Questions 339

Activities 339

Key Words 339

References 340

Credits 343

Chapter 9 Popular Culture and Intercultural Communication 344

Learning About Cultures Without Personal Experience 346

The Power of Popular Culture 346

What is Popular Culture? 347

Consuming and Resisting Popular Culture 351

Consuming Popular Culture 351

Resisting Popular Culture 354

Representing Cultural Groups 356

Migrants’ Perceptions of Mainstream Culture 358

Popular Culture and Stereotyping 359

U.S. Popular Culture and Power 362

Global Circulation of Images and Commodities 362

Cultural Imperialism 365

Internet Resources 369

Summary 369

Discussion Questions 370

Activities 370

Key Words 371

References 371

Credits 373

Chapter 10 Culture, Communication, and Intercultural Relationships 375

Benefits and Challenges of Intercultural Relationships 377

Benefits 377

Challenges 379

Thinking Dialectically About Intercultural Relationships 382

Personal–Contextual Dialectic 383

Differences–Similarities Dialectic 384

Cultural–Individual Dialectic 384

Privilege–Disadvantage Dialectic 385

Static–Dynamic Dialectic 385

History/Past–Present/Future Dialectic 385

Intercultural Relationships 386

Social Science Approach: Cross-Cultural Differences 386

Interpretive Approach: Communicating in Intercultural Relationships 392

Critical Approach: Contextual Influences 403

Internet Resources 408

Summary 408

Discussion Questions 409

Activities 410

Key Words 410

References 410

Credits 413

Chapter 11 Culture, Communication, and Conflict 415

Characteristics of Intercultural Conflict 418

Ambiguity 418

Language 420

Contradictory Conflict Styles 421

The Social Science Approach to Conflict 421

Cultural Values and Conflict 422

Religion and Conflict 422

Family Influences 423

Intercultural Conflict Styles 425

Gender, Ethnicity, and Conflict Styles 429

Interpretive and Critical Approaches to Social Conflict 430

Social Movements 432

Historical and Political Contexts 434

Managing Intercultural Conflict 436

Dealing with Interpersonal Conflict 437

Mediation 441

Peacebuilding 443

Internet Resources 444

Summary 445

Discussion Questions 446

Activities 446

Key Words 446

References 446

Credits 449

Chapter 12 Striving for Engaged and Effective

Intercultural Communication 450

The Components of Competence 451

Social Science Perspective: Individual Components 452

Interpretive Perspective: Competence in Contexts 459

Critical Perspective: Competence for Whom? 461

Applying Knowledge About Intercultural

Communication 463

Entering into Dialogue 463

Becoming Interpersonal Allies 465

Building Coalitions 466

Social Justice and Transformation 467

Forgiveness 471

What The Future Holds 473

Internet Resources 476

Summary 477

Discussion Questions 478

Activities 478

Key Words 478

References 479

Credits 481

Name Index I-1

Subject Index I-9

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