Making Sense of the Social World: Methods of Investigation, 6th Edition PDF by Daniel F. Chambliss and Russell K. Schutt


Making Sense of the Social World: Methods of Investigation, Sixth Edition

By Daniel F. Chambliss and Russell K. Schutt

Making Sense of the Social World Methods of Investigation, 6th Edition

Detailed Contents

About The Authors



Chapter 1. Science, Society, and Social Research

Learning About the Social World


Selective or Inaccurate Observation

Illogical Reasoning

Resistance to Change

Research That Matters

Can Social Scientists See the Social World More Clearly?

Social Research in Practice

Description: How Often Do Americans “Neighbor”?

Exploration: How Do Athletic Teams Build Player Loyalty?

Explanation: Does Social Context Influence Adolescent Outcomes?

Research in the News | Social Media and Political Polarization?

Evaluation: Does More Social Capital Result in More Community Participation?

How Well Have We Done Our Research?

Careers and Research: Jessica LeBlanc, Research Assistant

Measurement Validity


Causal Validity


Key Terms


Student Study Site


Chapter 2. The Process and Problems of Social Research

What Is the Question?

What Is the Theory?

What Is the Strategy?

Deductive Research

Research in the News | Control and Fear: What Mass Killings and Domestic Violence Have in


Domestic Violence and the Research Circle

Inductive Research

Research That Matters

An Inductive Study of Response to a Disaster

Descriptive Research: A Necessary Step

What Is the Design?

Cross-Sectional Designs

Longitudinal Designs

Trend Designs

Panel Designs

Cohort Designs

Units and Levels of Analysis

Careers and Research: Kristin M. Curtis, Senior Research Program Coordinator


Key Terms


Student Study Site


Chapter 3. Ethics in Research

Historical Background

Ethical Principles

Protecting Research Subjects

Avoid Harming Research Participants

Obtain Informed Consent

Avoid Deception in Research, Except in Limited Circumstances

Maintain Privacy and Confidentiality

Research That Matters

Maintaining Honesty and Openness

Achieving Valid Results

Research in the News | Some Social Scientists Are Tired of Asking for Permission

Encouraging Appropriate Application

Careers and Research: Manan Nayak, Senior Project Director


Key Terms


Student Study Site


Chapter 4. Conceptualization and Measurement

What Do We Have in Mind?


Research That Matters

Variables and Constants

Research in the News | Are Teenagers Replacing Drugs With Smartphones?

How Will We Know When We’ve Found It?

Using Available Data

Content Analysis

Constructing Questions

Single Questions

Indexes and Scales

Making Observations

Combining Measurement Operations

How Much Information Do We Really Have?

Nominal Level of Measurement

Ordinal Level of Measurement

Interval Level of Measurement

Ratio Level of Measurement

Comparison of Levels of Measurement

Careers and Research: Dana Hunt, PhD, Principal Scientist

Did We Measure What We Wanted to Measure?

Measurement Validity

Face Validity

Criterion Validity

Construct Validity


Can We Achieve Both Reliability and Validity?


Key Terms


Student Study Site


Chapter 5. Sampling and Generalizability

How Do We Prepare to Sample?

Define Sample Components and the Population

Evaluate Generalizability

Assess the Diversity of the Population

Consider a Census

What Sampling Method Should We Use?

Research That Matters

Probability Sampling Methods

Simple Random Sampling

Research in the News | What Are Best Practices for Sampling Vulnerable Populations?

Systematic Random Sampling

Cluster Sampling

Stratified Random Sampling

Nonprobability Sampling Methods

Availability Sampling

Careers and Research: Ross Koppel, PhD, Sociologist

Quota Sampling

Purposive Sampling

Snowball Sampling


Key Terms


Student Study Site


Chapter 6. Causation and Experimental Design

Causal Explanation

What Causes What?

Research in the News | Police and Black Drivers


Research That Matters

Time Order




Why Experiment?

Careers and Research: Sruthi Chandrasekaran, Senior Research Associate

What If a True Experiment Isn’t Possible?

Nonequivalent Control Group Designs

Before-and-After Designs

Ex Post Facto Control Group Designs

What Are the Threats to Validity?

Threats to Internal (Causal) Validity

Noncomparable Groups

Endogenous Change



Treatment Misidentification

Threats to Generalizability

Sample Generalizability

Cross-Population Generalizability

Interaction of Testing and Treatment

How Do Experimenters Protect Their Subjects?


Selective Distribution of Benefits


Key Terms


Student Study Site


Chapter 7. Survey Research

Why Is Survey Research So Popular?

How Should We Write Survey Questions?

Research in the News | Social Interaction Critical for Mental and Physical Health

Be Clear; Avoid Confusing Phrasing

Minimize Bias

Allow for Disagreement

Don’t Ask Questions They Can’t Answer

Allow for Uncertainty

Make Response Categories Exhaustive and Mutually Exclusive

How Should Questionnaires Be Designed?

Build on Existing Instruments

Refine and Test Questions

Maintain Consistent Focus

Order the Questions

Make the Questionnaire Attractive

Careers and Research: Grant A. Bacon, Research Associate

What Are the Alternatives for Administering Surveys?

Mailed, Self-Administered Surveys

Group-Administered Surveys

Telephone Surveys

Reaching Sampling Units

In-Person Interviews

Maximizing Response to Interviews

Research That Matters

Electronic Surveys

A Comparison of Survey Designs

Ethical Issues in Survey Research


Key Terms


Student Study Site


Chapter 8. Elementary Quantitative Data Analysis

Why Do Statistics?

Case Study: The Likelihood of Voting

How to Prepare Data for Analysis

What Are the Options for Displaying Distributions?


Frequency Distributions

What Are the Options for Summarizing Distributions?

Measures of Central Tendency

Research in the News | Why Key State Polls Were Wrong About Trump




Median or Mean?

Measures of Variation

Research That Matters


Interquartile Range


Standard Deviation

How Can We Tell Whether Two Variables Are Related?

Reading the Table

Controlling for a Third Variable

Secondary Data Analysis

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research

U.S. Census Bureau

Careers and Research: Claire Wulf Winiarek, MA, Director of Collaborative Policy Engagement

Bureau of Labor Statistics

Human Relations Area Files

Big Data

Big Data, Big Ethics Issues


Key Terms


Student Study Site


Chapter 9. Qualitative Methods: Observing, Participating, Listening

What Are Qualitative Methods?

Case Study: Beyond Caring


Careers and Research: Dzenan Berberovic, Director of Development



Research in the News | Family Life Wrecked After Hurricane Harvey in Houston, 2017

How Does Participant Observation Become a Research Method?

Choosing a Role

Complete Observation

Mixed Participation or Observation

Complete Participation

Entering the Field

Developing and Maintaining Relationships

Sampling People and Events

Research That Matters

Taking Notes

Analyzing Field Notes

Managing the Personal Dimensions

Systematic Observation

How Do You Conduct Intensive Interviews?

Establishing and Maintaining a Partnership

Asking Questions and Recording Answers

Interviewing Online

How Do You Run Focus Groups?

Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research


Key Terms


Student Study Site


Chapter 10. Qualitative Data Analysis

What Is Distinctive About Qualitative Data Analysis?

Qualitative Data Analysis as an Art

Qualitative Compared With Quantitative Data Analysis

What Techniques Do Qualitative Data Analysts Use?


Conceptualization, Coding, and Categorizing

Examining Relationships and Displaying Data

Authenticating Conclusions

Research That Matters


What Are Some Alternatives in Qualitative Data Analysis?

Grounded Theory

Narrative Analysis

Conversation Analysis

Careers and Research: Laurel Person Mecca, MA, Assistant Director and Senior Research

Specialist, Qualitative Data Analysis Program

Visual Sociology

Why Are Mixed Methods Helpful?

Research in the News | How to Understand Solitary Confinement

How Can Computers Assist Qualitative Data Analysis?

What Ethical Issues Arise in Doing Qualitative Data Analysis?


Key Terms


Student Study Site


Chapter 11. Unobtrusive Measures

Creative Sources

Physical Traces



Contrived Observation

Content Analysis

Identify a Population of Documents or Other Textual Sources

Determine the Units of Analysis

Design Coding Procedures for the Variables to Be Measured

Select a Sample of Units From the Population

Code Documents and Apply Appropriate Statistical Analyses

Historical Methods

Event-Structure Analysis

Oral History

Comparative Methods

Cross-Sectional Comparative Research

Careers and Research: Kurt Taylor Gaubatz, PhD, Independent Scholar

Research in the News | Britain Cracking Down on Gender Stereotypes in Ads

Longitudinal Comparative Research

Research That Matters

Cautions for Comparative Analysis

Ethical Issues in Unobtrusive Methods


Key Terms


Student Study Site


Chapter 12. Evaluation Research

What Is the History of Evaluation Research?

What Is Evaluation Research?

Careers and Research: Mary Anne Casey, PhD, Consultant

What Are the Alternatives in Evaluation Designs?

Black Box or Program Theory

Researcher or Stakeholder Orientation

Quantitative or Qualitative Methods

Simple or Complex Outcomes

What Can an Evaluation Study Focus On?

Needs Assessment

Research in the News | No-Cost Talk Therapy?

Evaluability Assessment

Process Evaluation

Research That Matters

Impact Analysis

Efficiency Analysis

Ethical Issues in Evaluation Research


Key Terms


Student Study Site


Chapter 13. Reviewing, Proposing, and Reporting Research

Comparing Research Designs

Reviewing Research

Case Study: “Night as Frontier”

The Research Design

Analysis of the Design

An Overall Assessment

Case Study: When Does Arrest Matter?

Summarize Prior Research

Critique Prior Research

Present Pertinent Conclusions

Proposing New Research

Research That Matters

Case Study: Community Health Workers and Cancer Clinical Trials

Reporting Research

Careers and Research: Ruth Westby, MPH, Research Associate, IFC International

Research in the News | Do Preschool Teachers Need to Be College Graduates?

Writing and Organizing



Key Terms


Student Study Site



Appendix A: Finding Information



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