MATLAB® Programming for Engineers, 6th Edition PDF by Stephen J. Chapman

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MATLAB® Programming for Engineers, Sixth Edition

By Stephen J. Chapman

MATLAB® Programming for Engineers, 6th Edition

Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to MATLAB 1

1.1 The Advantages of MATLAB 2

1.2 Disadvantages of MATLAB 3

1.3 The MATLAB Environment 4

1.3.1 The MATLAB Desktop 4

1.3.2 The Command Window 6

1.3.3 The Toolstrip 7

1.3.4 The Command History Window 8

1.3.5 The Document Window 8

1.3.6 Figure Windows 11

1.3.7 Docking and Undocking Windows 12

1.3.8 The MATLAB Workspace 12

1.3.9 The Workspace Browser 14

1.3.10 The Current Folder Browser 14

1.3.11 Getting Help 15

1.3.12 A Few Important Commands 18

1.3.13 The MATLAB Search Path 19

1.4 Using MATLAB as a Calculator 21

1.5 MATLAB Script Files 23

1.5.1 Setting Up a Problem to Solve 24

1.5.2 Creating a Simple MATLAB Script File 24

1.6 Summary 28

1.6.1 MATLAB Summary 28

1.7 Exercises 29

Chapter 2 MATLAB Basics 33

2.1 Variables and Arrays 33

2.2 Creating and Initializing Variables in MATLAB 37

2.2.1 Initializing Variables in Assignment Statements 37

2.2.2 Initializing with Shortcut Expressions 40

2.2.3 Initializing with Built-In Functions 41

2.2.4 Initializing Variables with Keyboard Input 41

2.3 Multidimensional Arrays 43

2.3.1 Storing Multidimensional Arrays in Memory 45

2.3.2 Accessing Multidimensional Arrays with One Dimension 46

2.4 Subarrays 46

2.4.1 The end Function 47

2.4.2 Using Subarrays on the Left-Hand Side of an Assignment Statement 47

2.4.3 Assigning a Scalar to a Subarray 49

2.5 Special Values 49

2.6 Displaying Output Data 51

2.6.1 Changing the Default Format 52

2.6.2 The disp Function 53

2.6.3 Formatted Output with the fprintf Function 54

2.7 Data Files 55

2.8 Scalar and Array Operations 58

2.8.1 Scalar Operations 58

2.8.2 Array and Matrix Operations 58

2.9 Hierarchy of Operations 62

2.10 Built-in MATLAB Functions 65

2.10.1 Optional Results 65

2.10.2 Using MATLAB Functions with Array Inputs 65

2.10.3 Common MATLAB Functions 66

2.11 Introduction to Plotting 67

2.11.1 Using Simple xy Plots 68

2.11.2 Printing a Plot 69

2.11.3 Multiple Plots 70

2.11.4 Line Color, Line Style, Marker Style, and Legends 71

2.12 Examples 75

2.13 MATLAB Applications: Vector Mathematics 82

2.13.1 Vector Addition and Subtraction 84

2.13.2 Vector Multiplication 85

2.14 MATLAB Applications: Matrix Operations and Simultaneous Equations 90

2.14.1 The Matrix Inverse 91

2.15 Debugging MATLAB Programs 92

2.16 Summary 94

2.16.1 Summary of Good Programming Practice 95

2.16.2 MATLAB Summary 96

2.17 Exercises 99

Chapter 3 Two-Dimensional Plots 111

3.1 Additional Plotting Features for Two-Dimensional Plots 111

3.1.1 Logarithmic Scales 111

3.1.2 Controlling x- and y-axis Plotting Limits 116

3.1.3 Plotting Multiple Plots on the Same Axes 117

3.1.4 Creating Multiple Figures 117

3.1.5 Subplots 121

3.1.6 Controlling the Spacing between Points on a Plot 122

3.1.7 Enhanced Control of Plotted Lines 126

3.1.8 Enhanced Control of Text Strings 127

3.2 Polar Plots 130

3.3 Annotating and Saving Plots 132

3.4 Additional Types of Two-Dimensional Plots 135

3.5 Using the plot Function with Two-Dimensional Arrays 140

3.6 Plots with Two y Axes 142

3.7 Summary 149

3.7.1 Summary of Good Programming Practice 150

3.7.2 MATLAB Summary 151

3.8 Exercises 151

Chapter 4 Branching Statements and Program Design 157

4.1 Introduction to Top-Down Design Techniques 157

4.2 Use of Pseudocode 161

4.3 The logical Data Type 162

4.3.1 Relational and Logic Operators 162

4.3.2 Relational Operators 163

4.3.3 A Caution About the == and ~= Operators 164

4.3.4 Logic Operators 165

4.3.5 Logical Functions 169

4.4 Branches 171

4.4.1 The if Construct 171

4.4.2 Examples Using if Constructs 173

4.4.3 Notes Concerning the Use of if Constructs 179

4.4.4 The switch Construct 182

4.4.5 The try/catch Construct 183

4.5 More on Debugging MATLAB Programs 189

4.6 Code Sections 196

4.7 MATLAB Applications: Roots of Polynomials 198

4.8 Summary 201

4.8.1 Summary of Good Programming Practice 201

4.8.2 MATLAB Summary 202

4.9 Exercises 203

Chapter 5 Loops and Vectorization 207

5.1 The while Loop 207

5.2 The for Loop 213

5.2.1 Details of Operation 220

5.2.2 Vectorization: A Faster Alternative to Loops 222

5.2.3 The MATLAB Just-In-Time (JIT) Compiler 223

5.2.4 The break and continue Statements 227

5.2.5 Nesting Loops 228

5.3 Logical Arrays and Vectorization 229

5.3.1 Creating the Equivalent of if/else Constructs

with Logical Arrays 230

5.4 The MATLAB Profiler 232

5.5 Additional Examples 235

5.6 The textread Function 250

5.7 MATLAB Applications: Statistical Functions 252

5.8 MATLAB Applications: Curve Fitting and Interpolation 255

5.8.1 General Least-Squares Fits 255

5.8.2 Cubic Spline Interpolation 262

5.8.3 Interactive Curve-Fitting Tools 267

5.9 Summary 271

5.9.1 Summary of Good Programming Practice 271

5.9.2 MATLAB Summary 272

5.10 Exercises 272

Chapter 6 Basic User-Defined Functions 283

6.1 Introduction to MATLAB Functions 284

6.2 Variable Passing in MATLAB: The Pass-by-Value Scheme 290

6.3 Optional Arguments 300

6.4 Sharing Data Using Global Memory 305

6.5 Preserving Data between Calls to a Function 313

6.6 Built-In MATLAB Functions: Sorting Functions 318

6.7 Built-In MATLAB Functions: Random Number Functions 320

6.8 Summary 320

6.8.1 Summary of Good Programming Practice 321

6.8.2 MATLAB Summary 321

6.9 Exercises 322

Chapter 7 Advanced Features of User-Defined Functions 331

7.1 Function Functions 331

7.2 Function Handles 336

7.3 Functions eval and feval 341

7.4 Local Functions, Private Functions, and Nested Functions 342

7.4.1 Local Functions 342

7.4.2 Private Functions 344

7.4.3 Nested Functions 345

7.4.4 Order of Function Evaluation 348

7.4.5 Function Handles and Nested Functions 348

7.4.6 The Significance of Function Handles 350

7.5 An Example Application: Solving Ordinary

Differential Equations 351

7.6 Anonymous Functions 358

7.7 Recursive Functions 359

7.8 Plotting Functions 360

7.9 Histograms 362

7.10 An Example Application: Numerical Integration 368

7.11 Summary 374

7.11.1 Summary of Good Programming Practice 374

7.11.2 MATLAB Summary 375

7.12 Exercises 375

Chapter 8 Complex Numbers and Additional Plots 385

8.1 Complex Data 385

8.1.1 Complex Variables 387

8.1.2 Using Complex Numbers with Relational Operators 387

8.1.3 Complex Functions 388

8.1.4 Plotting Complex Data 394

8.2 Multidimensional Arrays 397

8.3 Gallery of MATLAB Plots 399

8.4 Line Plots 410

8.4.1 The plot3 Function 410

8.4.2 Changing the Viewpoint of Three-dimensional Plots 414

8.4.3 The fplot3 Function 414

8.4.4 The fimplicit Function 415

8.5 Discrete Data Plots 417

8.5.1 The stem3 Function 419

8.5.2 The scatter Function 420

8.5.3 The scatter3 Function 424

8.6 Polar Plots 426

8.6.1 The compass Function 429

8.6.2 The ezpolar Function 429

8.7 Contour Plots 431

8.7.1 Function contour 431

8.7.2 Function contourf 433

8.7.3 Function contour3 435

8.7.4 Function fcontour 435

8.8 Surface and Mesh Plots 436

8.8.1 Creating Surface and Mesh Plots 437

8.8.2 Creating Three-Dimensional Objects using Surface

and Mesh Plots 442

8.8.3 Ribbon Plots 444

8.8.4 Function pcolor 445

8.8.5 Functions fsurf and fmesh 447

8.8.6 Function fimplicit3 448

8.9 Pie Charts, Bar Plots, and Histograms 450

8.9.1 The area Function 451

8.9.2 Bar Plots 452

8.9.3 Two-Dimensional Histograms 456

8.10 Color Order, Color Maps, and Color Bars 457

8.10.1 Plot Color Order 457

8.10.2 Color Maps 459

8.10.3 Color Bars 459

8.11 Summary 463

8.11.1 Summary of Good Programming Practice 463

8.11.2 MATLAB Summary 463

8.12 Exercises 464

Chapter 9 Additional Data Types 471

9.1 Character Arrays versus Strings 472

9.1.1 Character Arrays 472

9.1.2 Strings 473

9.2 Character Arrays and Character Functions 473

9.2.1 Character Array Conversion Functions 474

9.2.2 Creating Two-Dimensional Character Arrays 475

9.2.3 Concatenating Character Arrays 476

9.2.4 Comparing Character Arrays 476

9.2.5 Searching/Replacing Characters within a Character Array 480

9.2.6 Uppercase and Lowercase Conversion 481

9.2.7 Trimming Whitespace from Strings 482

9.2.8 Numerical-to-Character Array Conversions 482

9.2.9 String-to-Numerical Conversions 484

9.3 The string Data Type 490

9.3.1 Creating Strings 491

9.3.2 Converting Data into Strings 491

9.3.3 Converting Strings to Other Data Types 493

9.3.4 Concatenating Strings 494

9.3.5 Comparing Strings 494

9.3.6 Searching for Substrings within a String 495

9.3.7 Extracting Substrings from a String 496

9.3.8 Inserting Strings into a String 497

9.3.9 Replacing Characters within a String 497

9.3.10 Erasing Characters in a String 498

9.3.11 Uppercase and Lowercase Conversion 499

9.3.12 Trimming Whitespace from Strings 499

9.4 Summary of Character Array and String Functions 499

9.5 The single Data Type 503

9.6 Integer Data Types 504

9.7 Limitations of the single and Integer Data Types 505

9.8 The datetime and duration Data Types 507

9.8.1 The datetime Data Type 507

9.8.2 The duration Data Type 508

9.8.3 Calendar Duration Arrays 508

9.8.4 Time Calculations 509

9.8.5 Using Time Data in MATLAB 511

9.9 Summary 513

9.9.1 Summary of Good Programming Practice 513

9.9.2 MATLAB Summary 513

9.10 Exercises 514

Chapter 10 Sparse Arrays, Cell Arrays, Structures, and Tables 517

10.1 Sparse Arrays 517

10.1.1 The sparse Attribute 519

10.2 Cell Arrays 525

10.2.1 Creating Cell Arrays 527

10.2.2 Using Braces {} as Cell Constructors 528

10.2.3 Viewing the Contents of Cell Arrays 528

10.2.4 Extending Cell Arrays 529

10.2.5 Deleting Cells in Arrays 531

10.2.6 Using Data in Cell Arrays 532

10.2.7 Cell Arrays of Strings 532

10.2.8 The Significance of Cell Arrays 534

10.2.9 Summary of cell Functions 538

10.3 Structure Arrays 539

10.3.1 Creating Structure Arrays 539

10.3.2 Adding Fields to Structures 542

10.3.3 Removing Fields from Structures 542

10.3.4 Using Data in Structure Arrays 543

10.3.5 The getfield and setfield Functions 544

10.3.6 Dynamic Field Names 545

10.3.7 Using the size Function with Structure Arrays 546

10.3.8 Nesting Structure Arrays 547

10.3.9 Summary of structure Functions 548

10.4 Table Arrays 548

10.4.1 Creating Table Arrays 548

10.4.2 Accessing Data in a Table 551

10.4.3 Table Metadata (Properties) 552

10.4.4 Examining the Contents and Properties of a Table 553

10.4.5 Table Summary 554

10.5 Summary 560

10.5.1 Summary of Good Programming Practice 560

10.5.2 MATLAB Summary 561

10.6 Exercises 561

Chapter 11 Input-Output Functions 565

11.1 The textread Function 565

11.2 More about the load and save Commands 567

11.3 An Introduction to MATLAB File Processing 570

11.4 File Opening and Closing 571

11.4.1 The fopen Function 571

11.4.2 The fclose Function 574

11.5 Binary I/O Functions 575

11.5.1 The fwrite Function 575

11.5.2 The fread Function 575

11.6 Formatted I/O Functions 580

11.6.1 The fprintf Function 580

11.6.2 Understanding Format Conversion Specifiers 581

11.6.3 How Format Strings Are Used 583

11.6.4 The sprintf Function 585

11.6.5 The fscanf Function 587

11.6.6 The fgetl Function 588

11.6.7 The fgets Function 589

11.7 Comparing Formatted and Binary I/O Functions 589

11.8 File Positioning and Status Functions 594

11.8.1 The exist Function 595

11.8.2 The ferror Function 597

11.8.3 The feof Function 598

11.8.4 The ftell Function 598

11.8.5 The frewind Function 598

11.8.6 The fseek Function 598

11.9 The textscan Function 604

11.10 Function uiimport 606

11.11 Summary 609

11.11.1 Summary of Good Programming Practice 610

11.11.2 MATLAB Summary 610

11.12 Exercises 611

Chapter 12 User-Defined Classes and

Object-Oriented Programming 615

12.1 An Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming 615

12.1.1 Objects 616

12.1.2 Messages 617

12.1.3 Classes 617

12.1.4 Static Methods 618

12.1.5 Class Hierarchy and Inheritance 620

12.1.6 Object-Oriented Programming 620

12.2 The Structure of a MATLAB Class 621

12.2.1 Creating a Class 622

12.2.2 Adding Methods to a Class 624

12.2.3 Listing Class Types, Properties, and Methods 628

12.2.4 Attributes 629

12.3 Value Classes versus Handle Classes 633

12.3.1 Value Classes 634

12.3.2 Handle Classes 635

12.4 Destructors: The delete Method 638

12.5 Access Methods and Access Controls 640

12.5.1 Access Methods 640

12.5.2 Access Controls 642

12.5.3 Example: Creating a Timer Class 642

12.5.4 Notes on the MyTimer Class 647

12.6 Static Methods 648

12.7 Defining Class Methods in Separate Files 649

12.8 Overriding Operators 650

12.9 Events and Listeners 655

12.9.1 Property Events and Listeners 658

12.10 Exceptions 659

12.10.1 Creating Exceptions in Your Own Programs 660

12.10.2 Catching and Fixing Exceptions 661

12.11 Superclasses and Subclasses 662

12.11.1 Defining Superclasses and Subclasses 663

12.11.2 Example Using Superclasses and Subclasses 668

12.12 Summary 678

12.12.1 Summary of Good Programming Practice 679

12.12.2 MATLAB Summary 679

12.13 Exercises 680

Chapter 13 Handle Graphics and Animation 685

13.1 Handle Graphics 685

13.2 The MATLAB Graphics System 686

13.3 Object Handles 688

13.4 Examining and Changing Object Properties 689

13.4.1 Changing Object Properties at Creation Time 689

13.4.2 Changing Object Properties after Creation Time 689

13.4.3 Examining and Changing Properties Using Object Notation 690

13.4.4 Examining and Changing Properties Using get/set Functions 692

13.4.5 Examining and Changing Properties Using the Property Editor 694

13.5 Using set to List Possible Property Values 698

13.6 User-Defined Data 700

13.7 Finding Objects 701

13.8 Selecting Objects with the Mouse 703

13.9 Position and Units 706

13.9.1 Positions of figure Objects 706

13.9.2 Positions of axes and polaraxes Objects 707

13.9.3 Positions of text Objects 707

13.10 Printer Positions 710

13.11 Default and Factory Properties 711

13.12 Restoring Default Properties 713

13.13 Graphics Object Properties 713

13.14 Animations and Movies 714

13.14.1 Erasing and Redrawing 714

13.14.2 Creating a Movie 719

13.15 Summary 721

13.15.1 Summary of Good Programming Practice 721

13.15.2 MATLAB Summary 721

13.16 Exercises 722

Chapter 14 MATLAB Apps and Graphical User Interfaces 725

14.1 How a Graphical User Interface Works 726

14.2 Creating and Displaying a Graphical User Interface 732

14.2.1 The Structure of a Callback Function (Method) 738

14.2.2 Adding Application Data to a Figure 739

14.3 Object Properties 739

14.3.1 Key Properties of Numerical Components 741

14.3.2 Key Properties of Text Components 743

14.4 Additional Containers: Panels, Tab Groups, and Button Groups 749

14.4.1 Panels 749

14.4.2 Tab Groups 752

14.4.3 Button Groups 752

14.5 Dialog Boxes 754

14.5.1 Alert Dialog Boxes 755

14.5.2 Confirmation Dialog Boxes 755

14.5.3 Input Dialog Boxes 757

14.5.4 The uigetfile, uisetfile, and uigetdir Dialog Boxes 757

14.5.5 The uisetcolor and uisetfont Dialog Boxes 759

14.6 Menus 760

14.6.1 Creating Your Own Menus 763

14.6.2 Accelerator Keys and Keyboard Mnemonics 763

14.7 Summary 774

14.7.1 Summary of Good Programming Practice 775

14.7.2 MATLAB Summary 775

14.8 Exercises 777

A UTF-8 Character Set 779

B Answers to Quizzes 781

Index 807

Chapter 15 Guide-Based Graphical User Interfaces (On-line Only)

15.1 How a Graphical User Interface Works

15.2 Creating and Displaying a Graphical User Interface

15.2.1 A Look Under the Hood

15.2.2 The Structure of a Callback Subfunction

15.2.3 Adding Application Data to a Figure

15.2.4 A Few Useful Functions

15.3 Object Properties

15.4 Graphical User Interface Components

15.4.1 Static Text Fields

15.4.2 Edit Boxes

15.4.3 Pushbuttons

15.4.4 Toggle Buttons

15.4.5 Checkboxes and Radio Buttons

15.4.6 Popup Menus

15.4.7 List Boxes

15.4.8 Sliders

15.4.9 Tables

15.5 Additional Containers: Panels and Button Groups

15.5.1 Panels

15.5.2 Button Groups

15.6 Dialog Boxes

15.6.1 Error and Warning Dialog Boxes

15.6.2 Input Dialog Boxes

15.6.3 The uigetfile, uisetfile, and uigetdir Dialog Boxes

15.6.4 The uisetcolor and uisetfont Dialog Boxes

15.7 Menus

15.7.1 Suppressing the Default Menu

15.7.2 Creating Your Own Menus

15.7.3 Accelerator Keys and Keyboard Mnemonics

15.7.4 Creating Context Menus

15.8 Tips for Creating Efficient GUIs

15.8.1 Tool Tips

15.8.2 Toolbars

15.8.3 Additional Enhancements

15.9 Summary

15.9.1 Summary of Good Programming Practice

15.9.2 MATLAB Summary

15.10 Exercises

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