CompTIA Network+ N10-008 Exam Cram PDF by Emmett Dulaney

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CompTIA® Network+ N10-008 Exam Cram

By Emmett Dulaney

CompTIA Network+ N10-008 Exam Cram

Table of Contents

Introduction

CHAPTER 1:

Network Technologies, Topologies, and Types

Wired and Wireless Network Topologies

Bus Topology

Ring Topology

Star Topology (Hub-and-Spoke)

Mesh Topology

Hybrid Topology

Bringing Wireless to a Topology

Infrastructure Wireless Topology

Ad Hoc Wireless Topology

Wireless Mesh Topology

Network Types and Characteristics

To Server or Not

LANs

WLANs

WANs

MANs

CANs

SANs

PANs

SDWANs

MPLS

mGRE

Network Links and Concepts

DSL Internet Access

Cable Broadband

The Public Switched Telephone Network

Leased Lines

T3 Lines

Metro-Optical

Satellite Internet Access

Termination Points

Demarc, Demarc Extension, and Smart Jacks

CSUs/DSUs

Verify Wiring Installation and Termination

Virtual Networking

What’s Next?

CHAPTER 2:

Models, Ports, Protocols, and Network Services

The OSI Networking Model

The OSI Seven-Layer Model

Physical Layer (Layer 1)

Data Link Layer (Layer 2)

Network Layer (Layer 3)

Transport Layer (Layer 4)

Session Layer (Layer 5)

Presentation Layer (Layer 6)

Application Layer (Layer 7)

OSI Model Summary

Comparing OSI to the Four-Layer TCP/IP Model

Identifying the OSI Layers at Which Various Network

Components Operate

Data Encapsulation/Decapsulation and OSI

Ports and Protocols

Connection-Oriented Protocols Versus Connectionless

Protocols

Internet Protocol

Transmission Control Protocol

How TCP Works

User Datagram Protocol

Internet Control Message Protocol

IPSec

Generic Routing Encapsulation

File Transfer Protocol

Secure Shell

Secure File Transfer Protocol

Telnet

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

Domain Name System (DNS)

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

Trivial File Transfer Protocol

Hypertext Transfer Protocol

Network Time Protocol (NTP)

Post Office Protocol Version 3/Internet Message Access

Protocol Version 4

Simple Network Management Protocol

Components of SNMP

SNMP Management Systems

SNMP Agents

Management Information Bases

SNMP Communities

SNMPv3

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure

Server Message Block

Syslog

SMTP TLS

LDAPS

IMAP over SSL

POP3 over SSL

SQL, SQLnet, and MySQL

Remote Desktop Protocol

Session Initiation Protocol

Understanding Port Functions

Network Services

Domain Name Service (DNS)

The DNS Namespace

Types of DNS Entries

DNS Records

DNS in a Practical Implementation

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

The DHCP Process

DHCP and DNS Suffixes

DHCP Relays and IP Helpers

Network Time Protocol

What’s Next?

CHAPTER 3:

Addressing, Routing, and Switching

IP Addressing

IPv4

IP Address Classes

Subnet Mask Assignment

Subnetting

Identifying the Differences Between IPv4 Public and Private

Networks

Private Address Ranges

Classless Interdomain Routing

Default Gateways

Virtual IP

IPv4 Address Types

Unicast Address

Broadcast Address

Multicast

IPv6 Addressing

Where Have All the IPv4 Addresses Gone?

Identifying IPv6 Addresses

IPv6 Address Types

Global Unicast Addresses

Link-Local Addresses

Site-Local Addresses

Neighbor Discovery

Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 Addressing

Assigning IP Addresses

Static Addressing

Dynamic Addressing

BOOT Protocol (BOOTP)

Automatic Private IP Addressing

Identifying MAC Addresses

NAT and PAT

NAT

PAT

SNAT

DNAT

Managing Routing and Switching

The Default Gateway

Routing Tables

Static Routing

Default Route

Switching Methods

Packet Switching

Circuit Switching

Comparing Switching Methods

Dynamic Routing

Distance-Vector Routing

Link-State Routing

Hybrid Routing Protocols

Network Traffic

Routing Metrics

Virtual Local-Area Networks

VLAN Membership

VLAN Segmentation

The Spanning Tree Protocol

Interface Configuration and Switch Management

MDI-X

Trunking

Port Mirroring

Port Authentication

Power over Ethernet (PoE and PoE+)

MAC Address Table

Switch Management

Managed and Unmanaged

Quality of Service

Traffic Shaping

Access Control Lists

ARP and RARP

What’s Next?

CHAPTER 4:

Network Implementations

Common Networking Devices

Firewall

IDS/IPS

Router

Switch

Hub and Switch Cabling

Multilayer Switch

Hub

Bridge

DSL and Cable Modems

Access Point

Media Converter

Voice Gateway

Repeater

Wireless LAN Controller

Load Balancer

Proxy Server

VPN Concentrators and Headends

Networked Devices

Networking Architecture

Three-Tiered Architecture

Core Layer

Distribution/Aggregation Layer

Access/Edge Layer

Software-Defined Networking

Application Layer

Control Layer

Infrastructure Layer

Management Plane

Spine and Leaf

Traffic Flows

Datacenter Location Types

Storage-Area Networks

iSCSI

Fibre Channel and FCoE

Network-Attached Storage

What’s Next?

CHAPTER 5:

Cabling Solutions and Issues

General Media Considerations

Broadband Versus Baseband Transmissions

Simplex, Half-Duplex, and Full-Duplex Modes

Data Transmission Rates

Types of Network Media

Twisted-Pair Cabling (Copper)

Coaxial Cables

Twinaxial Cables

Fiber-Optic Cables

Plenum Versus PVC Cables

Types of Media Connectors

BNC Connectors

RJ-11 Connectors

RJ-45 Connectors

F-Type Connectors and RG-59 and RG-6 Cables

Fiber Connectors

Transceivers

Media Couplers/Converters

TIA/EIA 568A and 568B Wiring Standards

Straight-Through Versus Crossover Cables

Rollover and Loopback Cables

Components of Wiring Distribution

Network Cross-Connects

Horizontal Cabling

Vertical Cables

Patch Panels

Fiber Distribution Panels

66 and 110 Blocks (T568A, T568B)

MDF and IDF Wiring Closets

Ethernet Copper and Fiber Standards

10BASE-T

100BASE-TX

1000BASE-T

10GBASE-T

40GBASE-T

1000BASE-LX and 1000BASE-SX

10GBASE-LR and 10GBASE-SR

Multiplexing Options

Troubleshooting Common Cable Connectivity Issues

Limitations, Considerations, and Issues

Throughput, Speed, and Distance

Cabling Specifications/Limitations

Cabling Considerations

Cabling Applications

Attenuation and dB Loss

Interference

Incorrect Pinout

Bad Ports

Open/Short

LED Status Indicators

Incorrect Transceivers

Duplexing Issues

TX/RX Reversed

Dirty Optical Cables

Common Tools

Cable Crimpers, Strippers, and Snips/Cutters

Punchdown Tools

Tone Generator

Loopback Adapter

OTDR

Multimeter

Cable Tester

Wire Map

Tap

Fusion Splicer

Spectrum Analyzer

Fiber Light Meter

What’s Next?

CHAPTER 6:

Wireless Solutions and Issues

Understanding Wireless Basics

Wireless Channels and Frequencies

Cellular Technology Access

Speed, Distance, and Bandwidth

Channel Bonding

MIMO/MU-MIMO/Directional/Omnidirectional

Antenna Ratings

Antenna Coverage

Establishing Communications Between Wireless Devices

Configuring the Wireless Connection

Troubleshooting Wireless Issues

Site Surveys

Factors Affecting Wireless Signals

Interference

Reflection, Refraction, and Absorption

Troubleshooting AP Coverage

What’s Next?

CHAPTER 7:

Cloud Computing Concepts and Options

Cloud Concepts

Service Models

Software as a Service

Platform as a Service

Infrastructure as a Service

Desktop as a Service

Deployment Models

Private Cloud

Public Cloud

Hybrid and Community Clouds

Infrastructure as Code

Connectivity Options

Multitenancy

Elasticity

Scalability

Security Implications

The Relationship Between Resources

What’s Next?

CHAPTER 8:

Network Operations

Organizational Documents and Policies

Wiring and Port Locations

Troubleshooting Using Wiring Schematics

Physical and Logical Network Diagrams

Baseline Configurations

Policies, Procedures, Configurations, and Regulations

Policies

Password-Related Policies

Procedures

Change Management Documentation

Configuration Documentation

Regulations

Labeling

High Availability and Disaster Recovery

Backups

Full Backups

Differential Backups

Incremental Backups

Snapshots

Backup Best Practices

Using Uninterruptible Power Supplies

Why Use a UPS?

Power Threats

Beyond the UPS

Cold, Warm, Hot, and Cloud Sites

High Availability and Recovery Concepts

Active-Active Versus Active-Passive

Monitoring Network Performance

Common Performance Metrics

SNMP Monitors

Management Information Base (MIB)

Network Performance, Load, and Stress Testing

Performance Tests

Load Tests and Send/Receive Traffic

Stress Tests

Performance Metrics

Network Device Logs

Security Logs

Application Log

System Logs

History Logs

Log Management

Patch Management

Environmental Factors

What’s Next?

CHAPTER 9:

Network Security

Common Security Concepts

Access Control

Mandatory Access Control

Discretionary Access Control

Rule-Based Access Control

Role-Based Access Control

Defense in Depth

Network Segmentation

Screened Subnet

Separation of Duties

Honeypots

RADIUS and TACACS+

Kerberos Authentication

Local Authentication

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

Using Certificates

Auditing and Logging

Multifactor Authentication Factors

Additional Access Control Methods

802.1X

Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)

Network Access Control (NAC)

MAC Filtering

Risk Management

Penetration Testing

Security Information and Event Management

Common Networking Attacks

Denial-of-Service and Distributed Denial-of-Service Attacks

Types of DoS Attacks

Other Common Attacks

Social Engineering

Logic Bomb

Rogue DHCP

Rogue Access Points and Evil Twins

Advertising Wireless Weaknesses

Phishing

Ransomware

DNS Poisoning

ARP Cache Poisoning

Spoofing

Deauthentication

Brute Force

On-Path Attack

VLAN Hopping

ARP Spoofing

Vulnerabilities and Prevention

Network Hardening and Physical Security

Disposing of Assets

Implementing Physical Security

Lock and Key

Swipe Card and PIN Access

Biometrics

Two-Factor and Multifactor Authentication

Secured Versus Unsecured Protocols

Hardening Best Practices

Wireless Security

MAC Filtering

Antenna Placement and Power Levels

Isolation

Preshared Keys

Geofencing

Captive Portal

IoT Access Considerations

Remote-Access Methods

Remote File Access

VPNs

Components of the VPN Connection

VPN Connection Types

VPN Pros and Cons

IPSec

SSL/TLS/DTLS

Site-to-Site and Client-to-Site

Virtual Desktops

HTTPS/Management URL

Authentication and Authorization Considerations

Out-of-Band Management

What’s Next?

CHAPTER 10:

Network Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting Steps and Procedures

Identify the Problem

Identify Symptoms

Determine Whether Anything Has Changed

Duplicate the Problem if Possible

Approach Multiple Problems Individually

Establish a Theory of Probable Cause

Test the Theory to Determine the Cause

Establish a Plan of Action

Implement the Solution or Escalate

Determine Whether Escalation Is Necessary

Verify Full System Functionality

Document Findings, Actions, Outcomes, and Lessons

Software Troubleshooting Tools

Wi-Fi Analyzer

Protocol Analyzer

Bandwidth Speed Tester

Port Scanner

iperf

NetFlow Analyzer

TFTP Server

Terminal Emulator

IP Scanner

Command-Line Tools

The Trace Route Utility (tracert/traceroute)

ping

The Destination Host Unreachable Message

The Request Timed Out Message

The Unknown Host Message

The Expired TTL Message

Troubleshooting with ping

hostname

ARP

arp ping

The netstat Command

netstat -e

netstat -a

netstat -r

netstat -s

telnet

ipconfig

ifconfig

nslookup

dig

The tcpdump Command

The route Utility

nmap

Basic Network Platform Commands

Troubleshooting General Networking Issues

Common Considerations

Common Problems to Be Aware Of

Collisions

Broadcast Storm

Multicast Flooding

Asymmetrical Routing

Switching Loops

Routing Loops

Missing Route

Low Optical Link Budget

Incorrect VLAN

DNS Issues

Incorrect Gateway

Incorrect Subnet Mask

Duplicate or Incorrect IP Address

Duplicate MAC Addresses

Expired IP Address

Rogue DHCP Server

Certificate Issues

NTP Issues/Incorrect Time

DHCP Scope Exhaustion

Blocked Ports, Services, or Addresses

Incorrect Firewall Settings

Incorrect ACL Settings

Unresponsive Service

BYOD Challenges

Licensed Feature Issues

Hardware Failure

Network Performance Issues

What’s Next?

Glossary

Index

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