## McGraw-Hill Education Preparation for the GED® Test, Fourth Edition

By McGraw-Hill Education

Contents

How to Use This Book

Introducing the GED® Test

About the GED® Test

How Do I Register?

Question Formats

The Reasoning Through Language Arts (RLA) Test

The Mathematical Reasoning Test

The Science Test

The Social Studies Test

More About the Test Interface

How the Tests Are Scored

General Test-Taking Tips

Analyze Documents

Read Critically

Use the Process of Elimination

Watch Out for Extreme Answer Choices

Find the Answer in the Passage

Use the Answers

Estimate Values

Essay Tips

Time Management Tips

Test Day Tips

How to Use This Book to Set Up a Study Plan

Reasoning Through Language Arts (RLA) One-Month Study Plan

Mathematical Reasoning One-Month Study Plan

Science One-Month Study Plan

Social Studies One-Month Study Plan

PRETESTS

How to Use the Pretests

Reasoning Through Language Arts (RLA) Pretest

Part 1: Multiple Choice

Part 2: Extended Response

Part 3: Multiple Choice

Answers and Explanations

Evaluation Chart

**Mathematical Reasoning Pretest**

Mathematics Formula Sheet

Part 1, Questions 1–5: No calculator allowed

Part 2: Calculator allowed

Answers and Explanations

Evaluation Chart

Science Pretest

Answers and Explanations

Evaluation Chart

Social Studies Pretest

Answers and Explanations

Evaluation Chart

REASONING THROUGH LANGUAGE ARTS

(RLA)

INTRODUCTION

The Reasoning Through Language Arts (RLA) Test

The Reasoning Through Language Arts (RLA) Review

The Top 25 Things You Need to Know for the GED® RLA Test

CHAPTER 1 Testing Basic English Usage

Standard English

“Drop Down” Questions

Editing Mechanics

Capitalization

Punctuation

Sentence Fragments

Run-on Sentences

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers

Parallel Structure

Improving Awkward Sentences

Eliminating Informal or Nonstandard Words

Subject-Verb Agreement

Verb Tenses

Pronoun Usage

Apostrophes and Possessive Nouns

Transitional Words and Expressions

Frequently Confused Words

Practice: Testing Basic English Usage

CHAPTER 2 Testing Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension on the GED® Test

Question Types

Multiple-Choice Questions

“Drag and Drop” Questions

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

Basic Critical Reading Skills

Identifying the Main Idea in a Text

Finding Details in a Text

Analyzing Implicit Main Ideas

Making Inferences and Drawing Conclusions

Identifying Textual Evidence

Making Connections Between Ideas

Practice: Testing Reading Comprehension

CHAPTER 3 Structure and Author’s Choices

Sequence of Events

Structural Relationships

Author’s Language

Transitional Words

Context Clues

Connotation

Tone

Figurative Language

Practice: Structure and Author’s Choices

CHAPTER 4 Literary Texts

Using Textual Evidence to Analyze Elements of Fiction

Theme

Plot or Events in a Story

Characters

Motivation

Character Traits

Interaction Between Characters

Setting

Character and Narrator Viewpoint

Practice: Literary Texts

CHAPTER 5 Informational Texts

Foundational Texts

Inferring Relationships Between Ideas

Cause and Effect

Compare and Contrast

Parallel Ideas

Author’s Viewpoint and Purpose

Analyzing Arguments

Fact Versus Opinion

Source Reliability

Evaluating Claims

Rhetorical Techniques

Author’s Response to Conflicting Viewpoints and Bias

Comparing Texts

Practice: Informational Texts

CHAPTER 6 RLA Extended Response

Elements of a Persuasive Essay

Opening Statement

Supporting Evidence

Answering Opposing Arguments

Concluding Statement

Scoring Rubric

Writing a Persuasive Essay

Practice: RLA Extended Response

Reasoning Through Language Arts (RLA) Answers and Explanations

MATHEMATICAL REASONING

INTRODUCTION

The Mathematical Reasoning Test

The Mathematical Reasoning Review

The Top 25 Things You Need to Know for the GED® Mathematical

Reasoning Test

CHAPTER 1 Whole Numbers and Operations

Addition

Subtraction

Multiplication

Division

Calculators and the GED® Mathematical Reasoning Test

Word Problems Involving Basic Operations

CHAPTER 2 Exponents, Roots, and Number

Properties

Exponents

Negative Exponents

The Rules of Exponents

Rule 1: When Multiplying Two Terms with the Same Base, Add the

Exponents

Rule 2: When Dividing Two Terms with the Same Base, Subtract the

Exponents

Rule 3: To Take a Term with an Exponent to a Power, Multiply the

Powers

Square Roots and Cube Roots

Exponents and Roots on the TI-30XS

Exponents

Roots

Order of Operations

The Distributive Property

CHAPTER 3 Decimal Numbers and Operations

Decimals and Place Value

Rounding Decimals

Comparing Decimals

Scientific Notation

Scientific Notation on the Calculator

Adding and Subtracting Decimals

Multiplying Decimals

Dividing Decimals

Dividing a Decimal by a Whole Number

Dividing a Whole Number by a Decimal

Dividing a Decimal by a Decimal

CHAPTER 4 Fractions and Operations

Equivalent Fractions

Reducing Fractions to Lowest Terms

Reducing Fractions on the Calculator

Fractions and Decimals

Converting Between Fractions and Decimals on the Calculator

Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers

Converting Between Mixed Numbers and Improper Fractions on the

Calculator

Comparing Fractions

Comparing Fractions and Decimals

Adding and Subtracting Fractions

Multiplying Fractions

Dividing Fractions

Operations with Fractions, Whole Numbers, and Mixed Numbers

Operations with Fractions on the Calculator

CHAPTER 5 Ratios, Rates, and Proportions

Ratios and Rates

Word Problems with Ratios and Rates

Proportions

Word Problems with Proportions

CHAPTER 6 Percents and Applications

Converting Between Fractions, Decimals, and Percents

Converting a Percent to a Fraction

Converting a Percent to a Decimal

Converting a Decimal to a Percent

Working with Percents

Word Problems with Percents

Simple Interest

CHAPTER 7 The Number Line and Negative

Numbers

The Number Line

Absolute Value

Adding and Subtracting Negative Numbers

Multiplying and Dividing Negative Numbers

Negative Numbers on the Calculator

CHAPTER 8 Probability and Counting

Basic Probability

Compound Probabilities

“And” Events

“Or” Probabilities

Counting

CHAPTER 9 Statistics and Data Analysis

Analyzing Data Sets

The Mean

The Median

The Mode

Weighted Averages

The Range

Summarizing Data with Pictures

Bar Charts

Circle Graphs

Dot Plots

Box Plots

Histograms

Relationships Between Data Sets

Line Graphs

Scatter Plots

CHAPTER 10 Algebraic Expressions

Variables, Terms, and Expressions

Evaluating Expressions

Combining Like Terms

Adding and Subtracting Polynomials

Multiplying Polynomials

Multiplying Single Terms

Multiplying Single Terms and Larger Polynomials

Multiplying Two Binomials

Multiplying Polynomials with More than Two Terms

Factoring

Factoring Using the Greatest Common Factor

Factoring by Reversing FOIL

Difference of Squares

Rational Expressions

Simplifying Rational Expressions

Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions

Multiplying Rational Expressions

Dividing Rational Expressions

Writing Expressions

CHAPTER 11 Solving Equations and Inequalities

Linear Equations

Two-Step Equations

Multiple-Step Equations

Inequalities

Solving Inequalities

Graphing Solutions

Writing Linear Equations and Inequalities

Word Problems with Equations and Inequalities

Systems of Two Equations with Two Unknowns

Word Problems and Systems of Equations

Solving Quadratic Equations with the Square Root Rule

Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring

Solving with the Quadratic Formula

Writing Quadratic Equations

CHAPTER 12 Graphing Equations

Plotting Points

Graphing Lines

Intercepts

Slope

Calculating the Slope

Parallel and Perpendicular Lines

Interpreting Slope

Finding the Equation of a Line

Graphs and Systems of Equations

CHAPTER 13 Functions

Evaluating Functions

Recognizing Functions

Properties of Functions

Key Features of Function Graphs

Increasing and Decreasing Functions

Relative Maximums and Minimums

Positive and Negative Values

End Behavior and Periodic Functions

CHAPTER 14 Geometry

Polygons

Circles

3-Dimensional Objects

Complex Figures

Mathematical Reasoning Answers and Explanations

SCIENCE

INTRODUCTION

The Science Test

The Science Review

The Top 25 Things You Need to Know for the GED® Science Test

PART 1 Life Science

CHAPTER 1 Structures and Functions of Life

Cells, Tissues, and Organs

Specialized Cells

Levels of Organization

Cell Functions and Components

Cell Components

Cell Division

Mitosis

Meiosis

CHAPTER 2 Life Functions and Energy Intake

Photosynthesis

Respiration

Fermentation

CHAPTER 3 Heredity

DNA and Chromosomes

Chromosomes

Alleles and Traits

Assortment of Alleles

Environmental Altering of Traits

Expression of Traits

Simple Inheritance

Probability of Inheriting Traits

CHAPTER 4 Evolution

Evolutionary Relationships

Cladograms

Evolution by Natural Selection

Requirements for Selection

Evolutionary Change

Speciation

CHAPTER 5 Ecosystems

Energy in Ecosystems

Flow of Energy

Conservation of Energy

Matter in Ecosystems

Food Chains

Food Webs

Capacity for Change

Limiting Factors

Relationships in Ecosystems

Predator-Prey

Symbiosis

Disruption of Ecosystems

Extinction

CHAPTER 6 The Human Body and Health

Body Systems

Interaction Between Body Systems

Homeostasis

Effects of External Environments

Nutrition

Nutrition Concepts

Disease and Pathogens

Prevention of Disease

Effects of Disease on Populations

Practice: Life Science

PART 2 Physical Science

CHAPTER 7 Chemical Interactions

Structures of Matter

Atomic Particles

Ions and Isotopes

Molecules, Elements, and Compounds

Physical and Chemical Properties

States of Matter

Chemical Formulas and Equations

Conservation of Mass

Balancing Chemical Equations

Limiting Reactants

Types of Chemical Reactions

Solutions and Solubility

Solubility

Saturation

Weak and Strong Solutions

CHAPTER 8 Energy

Types of Energy

Energy Transformations

Waves

Parts of Waves

Types of Electromagnetic Radiation

Uses and Dangers of Electromagnetic Radiation

Heat

Heat Transfer

Energy in Reactions

Endothermic Reactions

Exothermic Reactions

Sources of Energy

CHAPTER 9 Motion and Force

Motion

Momentum and Collisions

Force

Newton’s Laws

Gravity

Mass and Weight

Work and Machines

Simple Machines

Mechanical Advantage and Power

Practice: Physical Science

PART 3 Earth and Space Science

CHAPTER 10 Space Systems

The Age of Earth

The Solar System

Interactions Between Earth and the Solar System

The Universe

Age and Development of the Universe

Age and Development of Stars

CHAPTER 11 Earth Systems

The Structure of Earth

Tectonic Plates

Earth’s Atmosphere

Atmospheric Gases

Effects of Gases on Earth

Weathering and Erosion

Wind

The Oceans

Ocean Currents

Coral Reefs

CHAPTER 12 Interactions Between Earth’s Systems

and Living Things

Cycles in Nature

Nitrogen Cycle

Carbon Cycle

Oxygen Cycle

Water Cycle

Natural Hazards

Effects of Natural Hazards

Hazard Mitigation

Natural Resources

Sustainability of Resources

Practice: Earth and Space Science

Science Answers and Explanations

SOCIAL STUDIES

INTRODUCTION

The Social Studies Test

The Social Studies Review

The Top 25 Things You Need to Know for the GED® Social Studies Test

CHAPTER 1 Civics and Government

Types of Historical and Modern Governments

Basic Principles of American Constitutional Democracy

Structure and Design of the U.S. Federal Government

The Legislative Branch

The Executive Branch

The President’s Cabinet

The Judicial Branch

Amending the Constitution

The Bill of Rights

Citizens’ Rights and Civic Responsibilities

Political Parties

Political Campaigns, Elections, and the Electoral Process

Contemporary Public Policy

Practice: Civics and Government

CHAPTER 2 United States History

European Exploration of the Americas

The English Colony in Virginia

English Colonies in New England and Maryland

The Thirteen Colonies Take Shape

Tensions Rise Between the Colonies and Great Britain

The First Continental Congress and the Beginning of the American

Revolution

The Second Continental Congress and the Declaration of Independence

The Revolutionary War

From the Articles of Confederation to the U.S. Constitution

The War of 1812

The Monroe Doctrine

U.S. Policy Toward Native Americans

Manifest Destiny

Civil War and Reconstruction

The United States Becomes a Major Industrial Nation

The United States Becomes a World Power

World War I

The Great Depression

World War II

Postwar America

The Cold War

The Civil Rights Movement and the Women’s Movement

The Great Society, the Vietnam War, and Watergate

Presidencies in the Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries

Issues Facing the United States at the Start of the 21st Century

Practice: United States History

CHAPTER 3 Economics

Fundamental Economic Concepts

Microeconomics and Macroeconomics

Microeconomics

Macroeconomics

Banking and Credit

The Role of Government in the National Economy

International Trade

Key Economic Events in U.S. History

Practice: Economics

CHAPTER 4 Geography and the World

Ecosystems

Geography and the Development of Human Societies

Human Changes to the Environment

Human Migration

Population Trends and Issues

Geography Tools and Skills

Practice: Geography and the World

CHAPTER 5 Focusing Themes

What Are Focusing Themes on the Social Studies Test?

The Earliest Civilizations

Early China

Early India

Classical Greece

Rome

The Great Migration and the Middle Ages

Feudalism

The Middle East and Africa

Civilizations in the Americas

Renaissance and Reformation in Europe

The Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, and the Industrial

Revolution

The Age of Exploration

Building Empires

Revolutions in Britain and France

New Political Ideas in the 19th Century

Political Developments in 19th-Century Europe

World War I and the Russian Revolution

The Rise of Fascism

World War II

The End of European Dominance and the Formation of the European

Union

The End of the Soviet Union

China Today

The Arab World

Practice: Focusing Themes

Social Studies Answers and Explanations

POSTTESTS

How to Use the Posttests

Reasoning Through Language Arts (RLA) Posttest

Part 1: Multiple Choice

Part 2: Extended Response

Part 3: Multiple Choice

Answers and Explanations

Evaluation Chart

Mathematical Reasoning Posttest

Mathematics Formula Sheet

Part 1, Questions 1–5: No calculator allowed

Part 2: Calculator allowed

Answers and Explanations

Evaluation Chart

Science Posttest

Answers and Explanations

Evaluation Chart

Social Studies Posttest

Answers and Explanations

Evaluation Chart

GLOSSARY

Important GED® RLA Terms

Important GED® Math Terms

Important GED® Science Terms

Important GED® Social Studies Terms