Standard Aircraft Handbook for Mechanics and Technicians, 8th Edition PDF by Ronald Sterkenburg and Peng Hao Wang

By

Standard Aircraft Handbook for Mechanics and Technicians, Eighth Edition

By Ronald Sterkenburg and Peng Hao Wang

Standard Aircraft Handbook for Mechanics and Technicians, 8th Edition

Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

Fuselage Structure

Location Numbering Systems

Wing Structure

Empennage or Tail Assembly

2 Tools and How to Use Them

Safety Considerations

General-Purpose Hand Tools

Hammers

Screwdrivers

Pliers

Punches

Wrenches

Metal-Cutting Tools

Hand Snips

Hacksaws

Chisels

Files

Drilling and Countersinking

Reamers

Layout and Measuring Tools

Rules

Combination Sets

Scriber

Dividers and Calipers

Slide Calipers

Taps and Dies

Shop Equipment

Holding Devices

Squaring Shears

Throatless Shears

Bar Folder

Sheet-Metal Brake

Slip Roll Former

Grinders

Rotary Punch

3 Materials and Fabricating

Aircraft Woods

Wood Substitutions

Plywood

Laminated Wood

Bonding of Wood Structures

Inspection of Wood Structures

Dry Rot and Decay

Adhesive Joints

Cracks

Compression Failure

Surface Crushing

Staining

Corrosion

Slope of a Grain

Wood Repairs

Repair of Damaged Plywood Structures

Aircraft Fabrics

Dopes and Finishing Materials

Supplemental Type Certificates

Minimum Fabric Requirements

Fabric Seams

Covering Methods

Hand Sewing

Rib Lacing

Fabric Inspection

Tears in Fabric

Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

Alloy and Temper Designations

Cast and Wrought Aluminum Alloy Designation System

Aluminum

Aluminum Alloys

Temper Designation System

Characteristics of Aluminum Alloys

Nonheat-Treatable Alloys

Heat-Treatable Alloys

Clad Alloys

Annealing Characteristics

Typical Uses of Aluminum and Its Alloys

Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloys

Identification of Aluminum

Handling Aluminum

Forming Aluminum Alloys

Forming at the Factory

Blanking

Bending

Press-Brake Forming

Stretch Forming

HydroPress Forming

Roll Forming

Flexible-Die Forming

Machining

Drilling

Turret Lathes and Screw Machines

Milling

Routing

Forging

Casting

Chemical Milling

Making Straight-Line Bends

Bend Allowance

Brake or Sight Line

J Chart for Calculating Bend Allowance

Making Layouts

Relief Holes

Miscellaneous Shop Equipment and Procedures

Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys

Heat Treatment of Magnesium Alloys

Titanium and Titanium Alloys

Titanium Designations

Corrosion Characteristics

Treatment of Titanium

Working with Titanium

Machining of Titanium

Milling

Turning

Drilling

Tapping

Grinding

Sawing

Cleaning After Machining

Shop-Forming Titanium

Stress Relief

Ferrous Aircraft Metals

Identification

Types, Characteristics, and Uses of Alloyed Steels

Heat Treatment of Ferrous Metals

4 Drilling and Countersinking

Rivet Hole Preparation

Rivet Hole Location

Drills

Drill Sharpening

Drill Points

Drilling Equipment

Drilling Operations

Chucking the Drill

Drilling Holes

Drill Stops and Drill Bushings

Using an Extension Drill

Drilling Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

Drilling Titanium and Titanium Alloys

Drilling Stainless Steel

Deburring

Countersinking

Types of Countersinking Cutters

Countersinking Holes

Minimum Countersinking Depth

Form Countersinking (Dimpling)

100 Degree Combination Predimple and Countersink Method

Hole Preparation for Form Countersinking

Shaving Flush Head Fasteners

Reamers

5 Riveting

Solid-Shank Rivets

Material

Rivet Types and Identification

Riveting Practice

Edge Distance

Rivet Length

Rivet Spacing

Hole Preparation

Use of Clecos

Driving Solid-Shank Rivets

Rivet Sets

Bucking Bars

Riveting Procedure

Blind Bucking

Tapping Code

Hand Riveting

Rivet Squeezers

Inspection After Riveting

Rivet Removal

NACA Method of Double Flush Riveting

Blind Rivets

Mechanical Locked-Stem Self-Plugging Rivets

Removal of Mechanically Locked Blind Rivets

Sheet-Metal Repair

Damage Removal

Repair Material Thickness

Rivet Selection

Rivet Spacing and Edge Distance

Repair Approval

Typical Sheet-Metal Repairs

Patches

Flush Patch

6 Welding

Welding Processes

Types of Weld Joints

Parts of a Weld

Proportions of a Weld

Correct Formation of a Weld

Oxyacetylene Welding Equipment

Acetylene

Oxygen

Acetylene and Oxygen Regulators

Welding Torches

Welding, or Filler, Rod

Safety Equipment

Welding Gloves

Spark Lighter

Setting the Pressure

Lighting the Torch

Oxyacetylene Flames

Backfire and Flashback

Shutting Down the Welding Apparatus

Gas Welding Techniques

Holding the Torch

Forming the Puddle and Adding Filler Material

Torch Motions

Reducing Distortion and Residual Stress

Weld Quality

Gas Welding Aluminum, Magnesium, and Titanium

Types of Inert-Gas Welding

Metal Inert-Gas (MIG) Welding

Advantages of Inert-Gas Welding

Soldering and Brazing

7 Bolts and Threaded Fasteners

Aircraft Bolts

General-Purpose Bolts

Close-Tolerance Bolts

Classification of Threads

Identification and Coding

Aircraft Nuts

Self-Locking Nuts to 250°F

High-Temperature Self-Locking Nuts

Miscellaneous Nut Types

Aircraft Washers

Plain Washers

Lock Washers

Installation of Nuts and Bolts

Torque Tables

Cotter Pin Hole Line-Up

Safetying of Nuts, Bolts, and Screws

Cotter Pin Safetying

Installation: Bolts, Washers, Nuts, and Cotter Pins

Miscellaneous Threaded Fasteners

Screws

Dzus Fasteners

Camloc Fasteners

Hi-Lok ®, Hi-Tigue ®, and Hi-Lite ® Fasteners

Hi-Lok® Fastening System

Hi-Tigue® Fastening System

Hi-Lite® Fastening System

Installation of Hi-Lok®, Hi-Tigue®, and Hi-Lite® Fasteners

Hole Preparation

Pin Grip Length

Installation Tools

Installation Steps for an Interference-Fit Hole

Inspection After Installation

Removal of the Installed Fastener

Lockbolt Fastening Systems

Installation Procedure

Lockbolt Inspection

Lockbolt Removal

Blind Bolts

Cherry Maxibolt® Blind Bolt System

Drive-Nut-Type Blind Bolt

8 Aircraft Plumbing

Fluid Lines

Aluminum Alloy Tubing

Steel

Titanium 3AL-2.5V

Tubing Identification

Sizes

Flexible Hose

Synthetics

Rubber Hose

Teflon Hose

Identification of Hose

Size Designation

Identification of Fluid Lines

Plumbing Connections

Flared-Tube Fittings

Flareless-Tube Fittings

Swaged Fittings

Cryofit Fittings

Tube Cutting

Deburring

Tube Bending

Tube Flaring

Assembling Sleeve-Type Fittings

Proof-Testing After Assembly

Installing Flexible Hose Assemblies

Installing Rigid Tubing

Support Clamps

Rigid Tubing Inspection and Repair

9 Control Cables

Cable Assembly

Fabricating a Cable Assembly

Swaging

Nicopress Process

Turnbuckles

Safety Methods for Turnbuckles

Double-Wrap Method

Cable Tension Adjustment

Cable Guides

10 Electrical Wiring and Installation

Material Selection

Wire Size

Stripping Insulation

Terminals

Aluminum Wire Terminals

Connecting Terminal Lugs to Terminal Blocks

Wiring Identification

Placement of Identification Markings

Wire Groups and Bundles

Spliced Connections in Wire Bundles

Bend Radii

Routing and Installations

Protection Against Chafing

Bonding and Grounding

AN/MS Connectors

Wire Inspection

Electrical Components

Switches

Relays and Solenoids

Fuses

Circuit Breakers

11 Aircraft Drawings

Orthographic Projection

Working Drawings

Detail Drawing

Assembly Drawing

Installation Drawing

Title Block

Bill of Material

Other Data

Sectional Views

The Lines on a Drawing

Rivet Symbols Used on Drawings (Blueprints)

12 Nondestructive Testing (NDT) or Nondestructive Inspection (NDI)

Visual Inspection

NDT Beyond Visual Inspection

Liquid Penetrant Inspection

Eddy-Current Inspection

Ultrasonic Inspection

Phased Array Inspection

Magnetic Particle Inspection

Radiography

Tap or Coin Test

Thermography

Shearography

13 Corrosion Detection and Control

Types of Corrosion

Direct Chemical Attack

Electrochemical Attack

Forms of Corrosion

Surface Corrosion

Filiform Corrosion

Pitting Corrosion

Intergranular Corrosion

Exfoliation Corrosion

Stress Corrosion

Fretting Corrosion

Effects of Corrosion

Corrosion Control

Inspection Requirements

Corrosion Prevention

Corrosion-Prone Areas

Corrosion-Removal Techniques

Surface Damage by Corrosion

14 Composites

Introduction

Definition of Composite Materials

Major Components of a Laminate

Types of Fiber

Fiberglass

Carbon

Kevlar®

Fiber Forms

Roving

Unidirectional (Tape)

Bidirectional (Fabric)

Resin Systems

Mixing Two-Part Resin Systems

Curing Stages of Thermosetting Resins

Dry Fiber and Prepreg

Adhesives

Film Adhesives

Paste Adhesives

Foaming Adhesives

Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

Laminate Structures

Damage and Defects

Delamination and Debonds

Resin Rich or Starved

Fiber Breakage

Matrix Imperfections

Moisture Ingress

Vacuum Bagging Techniques

Release Agents

Bleeder Ply

Peel Ply

Layup Tapes

Perforated Release Film

Solid Release Film

Breather Material

Vacuum Bag

Curing and Curing Equipment

Oven

Autoclave

Heat Bonder

Types of Layups for Repair

Wet Layup

Prepreg Layup

Repairs of Honeycomb and Laminate Structures

Honeycomb Sandwich Repair

Repair of Laminate Structure

Specialty Fasteners Used for Composite Structures

Fastener Materials

Drilling

Countersinking

15 Standard Parts

Standard Parts Identification

Standard Parts Illustrations

Additional Standard Parts (Patented)

16 Weight and Balance

Introduction

FAA Requirements

Weight and Balance Terminology

Aircraft Weighing

17 Regulations, Publications, Maintenance Forms, and Records

Definitions

Maintenance-Related Regulations

Advisory Circulars (AC)

Airworthiness Directives (AD)

Aircraft Specifications

Type Certificate Data Sheets (TCDS)

Supplemental Type Certificates

Manufacturers’ Published Data

Service Bulletins (SB)

Forms

Airworthiness Certificates

FAA Form 337—Major Repair and Alteration

Records

Temporary Records

Permanent Records

Appendix

Glossary

Index

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