Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences, 7th Edition PDF by Robert Lilly, Francis T Cullen and Richard A Ball


Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences, Seventh Edition

By Robert Lilly, Francis T. Cullen and Richard A. Ball

Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences, 7th Edition

Detailed Contents



CHAPTER 1 The Context and Consequences of Theory

Theory in Social Context

Theory and Policy: Ideas Have Consequences

Context, Theory, and Policy: Plan of the Book

Inventing Criminology: Mainstream Theories

Social Turmoil and the Rise of Critical Theories

Criminological Theory in the Conservative Era

Criminological Theory in the 21st Century


Further Readings

CHAPTER 2 The Search for the “Criminal Man”


The Classical School: Criminal as Calculator

The Positivist School: Criminal as Determined

The Birth of the Positivist School: Lombroso’s Theory of the Criminal Man

Lombroso’s Legacy: The Italian Criminological Tradition

The Continuing Search for the Individual Roots of Crime

The Consequence of Theory: Policy Implications

The Positivist School and the Control of the Biological Criminal

The Positivist School and Criminal Justice Reform


Further Readings

CHAPTER 3 Rejecting Individualism: The Chicago School

The Chicago School of Criminology: Theory in Context

Shaw and McKay’s Theory of Juvenile Delinquency

Burgess’s Concentric Zone Theory

Disorganization and Delinquency

Transmission of Criminal Values

The Empirical Status of Social Disorganization Theory


Sutherland’s Theory of Differential Association

Differential Social Organization

Differential Association

Theoretical Applications

The Chicago School’s Criminological Legacy

Control and Culture in the Community

Collective Efficacy Theory

Cultural Attenuation Theory

Cultural Deviance Theory

Anderson’s Code of the Street

Akers’s Social Learning Theory

Becoming a Learning Theorist

Extending Sutherland: Akers’s Theory

Assessing Social Learning Theory

The Consequences of Theory: Policy Implications

Change the Individual

Change the Community


Further Readings

CHAPTER 4 Crime in American Society: Anomie and Strain Theories

Merton’s Strain Theory

America as a Criminogenic Society

Strain Theory in Context

Status Discontent and Delinquency

Delinquent Boys

Delinquency and Opportunity

The Criminological Legacy of “Classic” Strain Theory

Agnew’s General Strain Theory

Becoming a Strain Theorist

Three Types of Strain

Coping With Strain

Assessing General Strain Theory

Two Theoretical Extensions

A Theory of African American Offending

Crime and the American Dream: Institutional-Anomie Theory

Inventing Institutional-Anomie Theory

The American Dream and Anomie

Institutional Balance of Power

Assessing Institutional-Anomie Theory

The Market Economy and Crime

The Future of Strain Theory

The Consequences of Theory: Policy Implications

Expand Opportunities

Taming the American Dream


Further Readings

CHAPTER 5 Society as Insulation: The Origins of Control Theory

Forerunners of Control Theory

Durkheim’s Anomie Theory

The Influence of the Chicago School

Early Control Theories

Reiss’s Theory of Personal and Social Controls

Nye’s Family-Focused Theory of Social Controls

Reckless’s Containment Theory

The Social Psychology of the Self

Pushes and Pulls

Factors in Outer Containment

Factors in Inner Containment


Sykes and Matza: Neutralization and Drift Theory

Techniques of Neutralization

Subterranean Values

Drift Theory

Control Theory in Context

The Context of the 1950s

The Context of the 1960s

Further Readings

CHAPTER 6 The Complexity of Control: Hirschi’s Two Theories and Beyond

Hirschi’s First Theory: Social Bonds and Delinquency

Hirschi’s Forerunners

Hirschi’s Sociological Perspective

Why Social Control Matters

The Four Social Bonds

Assessing Social Bond Theory

Hirschi’s Second Theory: Self-Control and Crime

Self-Control and Crime

Assessing Self-Control Theory

Self-Control and Social Bonds

Hirschi’s Revised Social Control Theory

Self-Control and Vulnerability to Victimization

The Complexity of Control

Hagan’s Power-Control Theory

Tittle’s Control Balance Theory

Colvin’s Differential Coercion Theory

Beyond Control: Cullen’s Social Support Theory

The Consequences of Theory: Policy Implications


Further Readings

CHAPTER 7 The Irony of State Intervention: Labeling Theory

The Social Construction of Crime

Labeling as Criminogenic: Creating Career Criminals

Early Statements of Labeling Theory

Labeling as a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Assessing Labeling Theory

Labeling Theory in Context

The Consequences of Theory: Policy Implications



Due Process


Extending Labeling Theory

Braithwaite’s Theory of Shaming and Crime

Sherman’s Defiance Theory

Tyler’s Procedural Justice Theory

Rose and Clear’s Coerced Mobility Theory

Policy Implications: Restorative Justice and Prisoner Reentry


Further Readings

CHAPTER 8 Social Power and the Construction of Crime:Conflict Theory

Forerunners of Conflict Theory

Marx and Engels: Capitalism and Crime

Simmel: Forms of Conflict

Bonger: Capitalism and Crime

Sutherland and Sellin: Culture Conflict and Crime

Vold: Conflict and Crime

Theory in Context: The Turmoil of the 1960s

Advancing Conflict Theory: Turk, Chambliss, and Quinney

Turk: The Criminalization Process

Chambliss: Crime, Power, and Legal Process

Quinney: Social Reality, Capitalism, and Crime

Conflict Theory and the Causes of Crime

Consequences of Conflict Theory

Marxist Approach

Peacemaking Criminology


Further Readings

CHAPTER 9 The Variety of Critical Theory

Looking Back at Early British and European Influences

Background: The New Criminology

Theoretical Arguments

Critique of the New Criminology

Early Left Realism

The Theory

Consequences of New Criminology/Left Realism

The New Criminology Revisited: A Shift in Context

Left Realism Today

Taking Stock

Late Modernity and Globalization: Major Historical Changes

Changing Social Context: 2015–2018

Early Cultural Criminology

The Beginning

Consequences of Early Cultural Criminology

Cultural Criminology Today

Green/Cultural Criminology

Background and Emergence of Green Criminology

Environmental Justice

Ecological Justice

Animal Rights

Convict/Cultural Criminology

Background: Primarily an American Contribution

Consequences of the “New School of Convict Criminology”

New Directions in Criminological Theory: Death and the Birth of New Ideas

Background and Transition

Hall’s New Perspective: 2012–2018

Ultra-Realism Today

The Importance of Other Voices: Jock Young

European Criminology

Contributions and Content: Background

Policy Update


Consequences of Abolitionism


Further Readings

CHAPTER 10 The Gendering of Criminology: Feminist Theory


Prefeminist Pioneers and Themes

Cesare Lombroso

I. Thomas

Sigmund Freud

Otto Pollak

The Emergence of New Questions: Bringing Women In

The Second Wave: From Women’s Emancipation to Patriarchy

Women’s Emancipation and Crime

Patriarchy and Crime

Varieties of Feminist Thought

Early Feminist Perspectives

Contemporary Feminist Perspectives

The Intersection of Race, Class, and Gender

Masculinities and Crime

Doing Gender

Male Peer Support Theory

Gendering Criminology

Gendered Pathways to Lawbreaking

Gendered Crime

Gendered Lives

A Gendered Theory of Offending

The Gender Gap: Further Comments

Postmodernist Feminism and the Third Wave Revisited

Consequences of Feminist Theory: Policy Implications

Consequences of the Diversity of Feminist Perspectives

Consequences of Feminist Criminology for Corrections

Consequences of Feminist Criminology: Background and New Directions


Further Readings

CHAPTER 11 Crimes of the Powerful: Theories of White-Collar Crime

The Discovery of White-Collar Crime: Edwin H. Sutherland

The Philadelphia Address

Becoming the Father of White-Collar Crime

Defining White-Collar Crime

Explaining White-Collar Crime

Organizational Culture

Unethical Cultures

Oppositional Cultures

The Normalization of Deviance

Organizational Strain and Opportunity

Strain and Anomie

Criminogenic Opportunities

Deciding to Offend

Denying the Guilty Mind

White-Collar Crime as a Rational Choice

White-Collar Offenders as Bad Apples

State-Corporate Crime

Consequences of White-Collar Crime Theory: Policy Implications


Further Readings

CHAPTER 12 Bringing Punishment Back In: Conservative Criminology

Context: The United States of the 1980s and Early 1990s

The Economic Decline of the United States

The Persistence of Inequality in the United States

The Rhetoric of Stability

The Legacy of the Conservative Political Agenda

A New Context in Four Parts: 2008 to 2019

The New Conservatism, Shock Doctrine, and Dark Money

The War on Terror and the Rise of Hate Crimes

The Precariousness of the Rule of Law

Big Data and Surveillance

Other Recent Changes in Context

The Great Recession

Inequality Expands in the United States

The Rhetoric of Hope and Change

The Rhetoric of “Make America Great Again”

Law and Order Issues Under Trump

Varieties of Conservative Theory

Crime and Human Nature: Wilson and Herrnstein

The Theory

Assessing Crime and Human Nature

Crime and The Bell Curve: Herrnstein and Murray

The Criminal Mind

Choosing to Be Criminal: Crime Pays

Crime and Moral Poverty

Broken Windows: The Tolerance of Public Disorganization

Consequences of Conservative Theory: Policy Implications

The Embrace of Mass Imprisonment

Incapacitating the Wicked

“Get Tough” Alternatives


Further Readings

CHAPTER 13 Choosing Crime in Everyday Life: Routine Activity and Rational Choice Theories

Routine Activity Theory: Opportunities and Crime

The Chemistry for Crime: Offenders, Targets, and Guardians

View of Offenders

Policy Implications: Reducing Opportunities for Crime

Rational Choice Theory

Rational Choice and Crime

Policy Implications

Are Offenders’ Choices Rational?

Perceptual Deterrence Theory

The Theory

Assessing Perceptual Deterrence Theory

Policy Implications: Certainty, Not Severity

Situational Action Theory


Further Readings

CHAPTER 14 The Search for the “Criminal Man” Revisited: Biosocial Theories

Evolutionary Psychology: Darwin Revisited

Theoretical Diversity


Social Concern Theory: Evolutionary Psychology Revisited

Neuroscience: Neurological and Biochemical Theories

Neurological Theories

Biochemical Theories



Behavior Genetics

Molecular Genetics




Further Readings

CHAPTER 15 New Directions in Biosocial Theory: Perspectives and Policies

Biosocial Risk and Protective Factors

Risk Factors

Protective Factors

Environmental Toxins

The Consequences of Theory: Policy Implications

An Agenda for Research and Policy

Implications for Prevention and Treatment

Problems of Definition and the Social Construction of Crime

Challenges Ahead


Further Readings

CHAPTER 16 The Development of Criminals: Life-Course Theories

Integrated Theories of Crime

Integrated Theorizing

Elliott and Colleagues’ Integrated Strain-Control Paradigm

Thornberry’s Interactional Theory

Hawkins and Catalano’s Social Development Model

Farrington’s ICAP Theory

Policy Implications

Life-Course Criminology: Continuity and Change

Criminology in Crisis: Gottfredson and Hirschi Revisited

Patterson’s Social-Interactional Developmental Model

Early-Onset Delinquency

Late-Onset Delinquency

Intervening With Families

Moffitt’s Life-Course-Persistent/Adolescence-Limited Theory

Life-Course-Persistent Antisocial Behavior

Adolescence-Limited Antisocial Behavior

Assessing Moffitt’s Theory

Sampson and Laub: Social Bond Theory Revisited

An Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social Control

Assessing Sampson and Laub’s Life-Course Theory

Revising the Age-Graded Theory of Crime

Rethinking Crime: Cognitive Theories of Desistance

Maruna’s Theory of Redemption Scripts

Giordano et al.’s Theory of Cognitive Transformation

Paternoster and Bushway’s Theory of the Feared Self

The Consequences of Theory: Policy Implications


Further Readings


Author Index

Subject Index

About the Authors

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