Principles of Spinning: Fibres and Blow Room Cotton Processing in Spinning PDF by Ashok R. Khare

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Principles of Spinning: Fibres and Blow Room Cotton Processing in Spinning

By Ashok R. Khare

Principles of Spinning: Fibres and Blow Room Cotton Processing in Spinning

Contents List of Tables………………………………………………………………………………xi
Preface………………………………………………………………………………………………………xiii
Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………………………xv
About the Author………………………………………………………………………………………xvii

Chapter 1 Fibres………………………………………………………………….1

1.1 History of Fibres……………………………………………………………1
1.2 Natural Fibres……………………………………………………………….1
1.3 Some Other Vegetable Originated Fibres…………………………2
1.4 Fibres from Animals………………………………………………………2
1.5 Fibres from Minerals……………………………………………………..2
1.6 Artificial Fibres……………………………………………………………..2
1.7 Fibre As a Molecular Chain……………………………………………3
1.8 Vegetable Fibres……………………………………………………………3
1.9 Importance of Fibre Quality……………………………………………4
1.10 Essential Pre-Requisites………………………………………………….5
1.11 Desirable Pre-Requisites…………………………………………………6
1.12 Some Typical Bast Fibres………………………………………………7
1.13 Fibres from Leaves………………………………………………………11
1.14 Fibres from Fruits………………………………………………………..12
1.15 Fibres from Stalk…………………………………………………………13
1.16 Animal Fibres……………………………………………………………..13
1.17 Man-Made Fibres…………………………………………………………20

1.17.1 Regenerated Fibres……………………………………….20
1.17.2 Polyamide Fibres………………………………………….22
1.17.3 Polyester……………………………………………………..23
1.17.4 Acrylic Fibre………………………………………………..24
1.17.5 Polypropylene Fibres (PP)…………………………….25
1.17.6 Aramid Fibre……………………………………………….25
1.17.7 Polyethylene………………………………………………..26
1.17.8 Elastomers [Elastic Polymers]……………………….27
1.17.9 Polyurethane (PUR or PU)……………………………28
1.17.10 Carbon Fibre………………………………………………..29

Chapter 2 Cotton and Its Cultivation………………………………………………………..31
2.1 General Information……………………………………………………..31
2.2 Overall Cotton Cultivation……………………………………………32
2.3 Area & Yield………………………………………………………………35
2.4 Coloured Cotton…………………………………………………………..36
2.5 Genetic Modification……………………………………………………37
2.5.1 Other Side of BT Cotton………………………………….38
2.5.2 BT Cotton in India…………………………………………..40
2.5.3 Possible Causes & Their Solutions……………………40

2.6 Organic Cotton Production……………………………………………41
2.6.1 Control on Adverse Effects by Growing Organic Cotton………………………………………………..42
2.6.2 Organic vs. Conventional Cotton………………………43
2.6.3 Awareness in Restricting Pesticides…………………..45

2.7 Cotton Harvesting………………………………………………………..45
2.8 Molecular Structure of Cotton Fibre………………………………46
2.9 Cotton Plant & Genus………………………………………………….46
2.10 Crystalline-Amorphous Regions & Their Influence ……….48
2.11 Bi-Refringence…………………………………………………………….50
2.12 Agricultural Practices…………………………………………………..50
2.12.1 Seeds…………………………………………………………….51
2.12.2 Availability of Water……………………………………..51
2.12.3 Manurial Treatment………………………………………..51
2.12.4 Cultural Treatment…………………………………………52
2.12.5 Flowering & Fruiting……………………………………..52
2.12.6 General Conditions…………………………………………52

2.13 Cotton Fibre and its Maturity……………………………………….53
2.14 Fibre Properties & Spinnability…………………………………….55
2.15 Concept of Highest Standard Warp Count (H.S.W.C.)……55
2.16 Fibre Quality Index (FQI)…………………………………………….58
2.17 Agricultural Research in India………………………………………60
2.18 Pace & Policy of Cotton………………………………………………61
2.19 Need for Centralizing the Facilities……………………………….63

Chapter 3 Picking, Baling & Ginning………………………………………………………65
3.1 Picking…………………………………………………………………………65
3.2 Pre-Ginning Process………………………………………………………66
3.3 Ginning…………………………………………………………………………68
3.3.1 Saw Gin……………………………………………………………68
3.3.2 Air Blast-Saw Gin……………………………………………..69
3.3.3 Macarthy Gin…………………………………………………….69

3.4 Post-Ginning Operations………………………………………………..70
3.4.1 Care During Ginning………………………………………….71
3.4.2 Trash Before Packing Into Bales…………………………71

3.5 Cotton Baling………………………………………………………………..72

Chapter 4 Cotton through Blow Room……………………………………………………..75
4.1 Blow Room Operation – Why?…………………………………….75
4.2 Contamination……………………………………………………………..76
4.3 Mixing of Cotton…………………………………………………………77
4.4 Trash in Raw Cotton……………………………………………………78
4.5 Conditioning and Mixing Methods………………………………..79
4.6 Cleaning Points – Primary & Secondary Cleaning…………..80
4.7 Opening and Cleaning in Blow Room…………………………..81
4.7.1 Hopper Bale Breaker………………………………………..82
4.7.2 Hopper Feeder…………………………………………………84
4.7.2.1 Comparison of Bale Breaker & Hopper Feeder……………………………………85
4.7.2.2 Principles of Feed Regulation……………..87
4.7.2.3 Evener Roller Setting………………………….88
4.7.3 Automatic Hopper Feeder…………………………………89

4.8 Beaters & Cleaners………………………………………………………91
4.8.1 Porcupine Opener…………………………………………..92
4.8.2 Crighten Opener…………………………………………….95
4.8.2.1 Beater Functioning……………………………96
4.8.2.2 Factors Influencing Crighten Opener Cleaning Efficiency…………………………..98
4.8.2.3 Periodic Observations of Droppings Under the Beater………………………………98
4.8.2.4 Building-Up of Droppings Under the Beaters……………………………………….98
4.8.3 Step Cleaner………………………………………………….98
4.8.4 Axi Flow……………………………………………………..100
4.8.5 Mono-Cylinder Cleaner…………………………………102
4.8.6 ERM Cleaner……………………………………………….104
4.8.7 SRRL Opener………………………………………………106
4.8.8 Rieter’s Striker Cleaner…………………………………107
4.8.9 Shirley Opener……………………………………………..109
4.8.10 Air-Stream Cleaner……………………………………….110

4.9 Blending in Blow Room…………………………………………….112
4.9.1 Auto Mixer……………………………………………………114

4.10 Bladed Beaters…………………………………………………………..116
4.10.1 Striking Distance………………………………………….118
4.10.2 Grid Bars…………………………………………………….118
4.10.3 Stripping Rail………………………………………………119

4.11 Cages………………………………………………………………………..119
4.12 Filters……………………………………………………………………….122
4.13 Kirschner Beater & Lap Forming………………………………..123
4.14 Feed Regulation…………………………………………………………124
4.15 Contour of the Cone Drum…………………………………………127
4.16 Lap Formation…………………………………………………………..131
4.16.1 Pressure on the Lap Spindle………………………….131
4.16.2 Lap Length Measuring Motion………………………133
4.16.3 Blow Room Machinery Sequence………………….134

4.17 Single Processing……………………………………………………….135
4.17.1 Features of Conventional Single Process Blow Room Line………………………………………….135
4.17.1.1 Single Processing………………………….135
4.17.1.2 Automatic Doffing………………………..136
4.17.1.3 Economical…………………………………..136
4.17.1.4 Good Blending……………………………..136
4.17.1.5 New Beaters…………………………………136
4.17.1.6 Automatic Feed Regulation……………136
4.17.1.7 Trash Content……………………………….137
4.17.1.8 By-Passing Arrangements………………137

4.18 Action of Various Conventional Machines…………………..137
4.19 Processing of Man-Made Fibre & Blends…………………….139
4.20 Control of Blow Room Lap Weight…………………………….141
4.21 Preventive Maintenance………………………………………………142
4.22 Typical Single Process Lines………………………………………143
4.23 Use of Gravity Seed Traps………………………………………….146
4.24 Related Research……………………………………………………….148

Chapter 5 Modern Blow Room Machinery……………………………………………..151
5.1 Concept………………………………………………………………………151
5.2 Automatic Bale Feeding & Opening……………………………..151
5.2.1 Stationary Bales……………………………………………….152
5.2.2 Multiple Bale Opener: (Hergeth-Hollingworth)…..152
5.2.3 Bale Feeding in Blendomat………………………………154
5.2.4 Detacher Unit………………………………………………….156

5.3 Some Other Modern Machines……………………………………..160
5.3.1 Rieter’s Uni-Clean……………………………………………160
5.3.2 Cleanomat System……………………………………………162
5.3.2.1 Production Capacity of Cleanomat Machines…………………………………………..167
5.3.3 Separators……………………………………………………….168
5.3.3.1 Separomat ASTA……………………………….168
5.3.4 Dedusting Machine…………………………………………..170
5.3.5 Blending at Blow Room…………………………………..172
5.3.5.1 Blending Machinery Equipment…………..172
5.3.5.2 High Volume Mixer……………………………174
5.3.5.3 Trutzschler’s Multi-Mixer Principle……..175
5.3.5.4 Rieter’s 3-Point Mixing Principle………..176
5.3.5.5 Card Pre-Opening Rollers…………………..177
5.3.5.6 Pre-Cleaner – CL-P (Trutzschler)……….178
5.3.5.7 Multi-Function Separators…………………..180
5.3.5.8 Securomat………………………………………….182

5.4 Modern Blow Room Line & Related Research………………184
5.4.1 Typical Modern Blow Room Lines……………………184
5.4.2 Modern Concepts in Opening……………………………185
5.4.3 Modern Concepts in Cleaning…………………………..187
5.4.3.1 Resistance to Cleaning………………………..188
5.4.3.2 Other Considerations………………………….190
5.4.3.3 Rieter’s Vario-Set concept…………………..190

5.5 Cleaning Efficiency & Fibre Loss…………………………………194
5.5.1 Recombination of Lint & Trash………………………..197

Chapter 6 Defects in Blow Room Product & Machinery………………………….201
6.0 Defects……………………………………………………………………….201
6.1 Uneven Laps……………………………………………………………….201
6.2 Conical Laps or Barrel Shape Laps……………………………….202
6.3 Dirty Laps…………………………………………………………………..202
6.4 Stringy Laps………………………………………………………………..202
6.5 Rich Droppings……………………………………………………………202
6.6 Defective Lap Edges……………………………………………………203 6.7 Lap Licking…………………………………………………………………203

Chapter 7 Blow Room Calculations……………………………………………………….205
7.1 Basic Information………………………………………………………205
7.2 Indirect & Direct System……………………………………………205
7.2.1 Indirect Systems…………………………………………….205
7.2.2 Other Indirect Systems……………………………………206
7.2.3 Important Relations amongst different Indirect Systems…………………………………………………………207
7.2.4 Direct System………………………………………………..207
7.2.5 Some Other Direct Systems…………………………….207

7.3 Solved Examples……………………………………………………….207
7.4 Exercises…………………………………………………………………..209
7.5 Various Types of Drives used……………………………………..210
7.5.1 Pulley Drive…………………………………………………..210
7.5.2 Gear Drive…………………………………………………….211
7.5.2.1 Ordinary and Helical Gears……………….211
7.5.2.2 Worm and Worm Wheel…………………..211
7.5.2.3 Bevel Drive……………………………………..212
7.5.2.4 Chain & Sprocket Wheels and Pawl & Ratchet Drive………………………212
7.5.3 Variable Drive……………………………………………….213

7.6 Beats Per Inch of Bladed Beater………………………………….214
7.6.1 Solved Examples……………………………………………215

7.7 Sensitivity of Feed Regulating Mechanism…………………..215
7.7.1 Solved Examples……………………………………………216

7.8 Draft Calculations………………………………………………………216

7.8.1 Solved Examples……………………………………………218
7.8.2 Exercises……………………………………………………….219

7.9 Typical Motions in Conventional Blow Room……………..219
7.9.1 Load on Calender Rollers……………………………….219
7.9.2 Lap Length Measuring Motion………………………..220
7.9.2.1 Mechanical type……………………………….220
7.9.2.2 Hunter & Cog Knock-off Motion………221
7.9.3 Solved Examples……………………………………………222
7.9.4 Exercises……………………………………………………….223

7.10 Scutcher Production……………………………………………………223
7.10.1 Solved Examples………………………………………….224
7.10.2 Exercises……………………………………………………..226

7.11 Waste Extraction………………………………………………………..226
7.11.1 Solved Examples………………………………………….227

7.12 Cleaning Efficiency……………………………………………………228
7.12.1 Solved Examples………………………………………….228
7.12.2 Exercises……………………………………………………..230

7.13 Lint Loss…………………………………………………………………..231
7.13.1 Solved Examples………………………………………….231
7.13.2 Exercises……………………………………………………..232

Index………………………………………………………………………….235

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