Psychology (Australian and New Zealand edition), 3rd Edition PDF by Douglas A. Bernstein, Julie Ann Pooley, Lynne Cohen, Stephen Provost, Jacquelyn Cranney, Bethanie Gouldthorp and Neil Drew

By

Psychology (Australian and New Zealand edition), 3rd Edition

By Douglas A. Bernstein, Julie Ann Pooley, Lynne Cohen, Stephen Provost, Jacquelyn Cranney, Bethanie Gouldthorp and Neil Drew

Psychology (Australian and New Zealand edition), 3rd Edition

Contents

Features List Xii

Guide To The Text Xiii

Guide To The Online Resources Xvii

Preface Xix

About The Authors Xxi

Acknowledgements Xxiii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCING PSYCHOLOGY 2

1.1 The world of psychology: an overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Subfields of psychology 4

Linkages within psychology and beyond 10

1.2 A brief history of psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Wundt and the structuralism of Titchener 13

Gestalt psychologists 14

Freud and psychoanalysis 14

William James and functionalism 15

John B. Watson and behaviourism 15

Psychology today 16

1.3 Approaches to the science of psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Biological approach 17

Evolutionary approach 18

Psychodynamic approach 18

Behavioural approach 19

Cognitive approach 19

Humanistic approach 20

1.4 Human diversity and psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Impact of sociocultural diversity on psychology 22

1.5 Studying and working in psychology in

Australia and New Zealand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Psychological literacy and the Accreditation

Standards: Foundational graduate competencies (Level 1) 25

Careers in psychology 28

CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY 36

2.1 Thinking critically about psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Critical thinking and scientific research 40

Role of theories 41

2.2 Research methods in psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Observational methods 43

Case studies: taking a closer look 44

Surveys: looking at the big picture 45

Correlational studies: looking for relationships 47

Experiments: exploring cause and effect 48

Selecting human participants for research 52

Qualitative methodology 53

Linkages: Psychological research methods and behavioural genetics 54

2.3 Statistical analysis of research results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Descriptive statistics 58

Inferential statistics 61

Statistics and research methods as tools in

critical thinking 61

2.4 Ethical guidelines for psychologists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Ethical conduct with humans 63

Ethical research with animals 64

CHAPTER 3 BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PSYCHOLOGY 72

3.1 Nervous system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Cells of the nervous system 75

Action potential 76

Synapses and communication between neurons 78

Organisation and functions of the nervous system 80

3.2 Peripheral nervous system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Somatic nervous system 82

Autonomic nervous system 83

3.3 Central nervous system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Spinal cord 84

Brain 85

Focus on research: Manipulating genes in animal

models of human disease 90

Cerebral cortex 92

Exploring the brain 96

Thinking critically: What can fMRI tell

us about behaviour and mental processes? 98

The divided brain in a unified self 100

Plasticity in the central nervous system 103

Linkages: Human development and the

changing brain 106

3.4 Chemistry of psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

Main classes of neurotransmitters 109

3.5 Endocrine system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

Hormones 112

Role of the brain 113

Feedback systems 114

CHAPTER 4 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 124

4.1 Sensory systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

How we sense 126

The problem of encoding 127

Absolute thresholds: is something out there? 128

Linkages: Sensation and biological aspects of

psychology 129

Signal detection theory 130

Judging differences: has anything changed? 131

Magnitude estimation: how intense is that? 131

4.2 Hearing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

Sound 132

The ear 134

4.3 Vision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

Light 139

Focusing light 140

Converting light into images 141

Seeing colour 143

Interaction of the senses: synaesthesia 146

4.4 Chemical senses: smell and taste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

Olfaction 148

Gustation 150

Smell, taste and flavour 151

4.5 Sensing your body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

Touch and temperature 153

Pain 154

Thinking critically: Does acupuncture

relieve pain? 156

Proprioception: sensing body position 157

Focus on research: The case of the mysterious

spells 159

4.6 Perception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

The perception paradox 161

Three approaches to perception 162

4.7 Organising the perceptual world. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

Basic processes in perceptual organisation 164

Perception of location and distance 166

Perception of motion 169

Perceptual constancy 170

4.8 Recognising the perceptual world. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

Bottom-up processing 173

Top-down processing 174

Network processing 176

Culture, experience and perception 177

Linkages: Perception and human development 178

4.9 Attention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

Directing attention 180

Ignoring information 180

Dividing attention 181

Attention and automatic processing 182

Attention and the brain 182

CHAPTER 5 CONSCIOUSNESS 194

5.1 Scope of consciousness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

Functions of consciousness 197

Levels of consciousness 197

Mental processing without awareness 199

Thinking critically: Can subliminal messages

change your behaviour? 201

Focus on research: Subliminal messages in

popular music 202

Neuropsychology of consciousness 203

5.2 Sleeping and dreaming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205

Stages of sleep 205

Why do people sleep? 206

Sleep disorders 209

Dreams and dreaming 212

5.3 Hypnosis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

Experiencing hypnosis 214

Explaining hypnosis 215

Applications of hypnosis 217

Linkages: Meditation, health and stress 217

5.4 Psychoactive drugs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

Psychopharmacology 219

Drug abuse 219

Expectations and drug effects 221

CNS depressant drugs 221

CNS stimulating drugs 223

Hallucinogenic drugs 226

Thinking critically: Is marijuana dangerous? 228

CHAPTER 6 LEARNING 248

6.1 Learning about stimuli. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

Habituation and sensitisation 250

Opponent process theory 250

Learnt association 251

6.2 Classical conditioning: learning signals

and associations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

Pavlov’s discovery 252

Conditioned responses over time 253

Stimulus generalisation and discrimination 254

Signalling of significant events 255

Some applications of classical conditioning 258

6.3 Operant conditioning: learning the

consequences of behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

From the puzzle box to the Skinner box 261

Basic components of operant conditioning 262

Forming and strengthening operant behaviour 265

Why reinforcers work 269

Punishment 270

Some applications of operant conditioning 272

Linkages: Neural networks and learning 273

6.4 Cognitive processes in learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275

Learnt helplessness 276

Focus on research: An experiment on human

helplessness 276

Latent learning and cognitive maps 277

Insight and learning 278

Observational learning: learning by imitation 279

Thinking critically: Does watching violence

on television make people more violent? 281

6.5 Using research on learning to help people learn. . . . . 283

Skill learning 283

CHAPTER 7 MEMORY 294

7.1 The nature of memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

Basic memory processes 295

Types of memory 297

Explicit and implicit memory 298

Models of memory 298

7.2 Storing new memories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

Sensory memory 302

Short-term memory and working memory 302

Long-term memory 306

Distinguishing between short-term and

long-term memory 308

7.3 Retrieving memories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

Retrieval cues and encoding specificity 309

Context and state dependence 309

Focus on research: I could swear

I heard it! 310

Retrieval from semantic memory 311

7.4 Constructing memories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313

Relating semantic and episodic memory: PDP models 314

Schemas 314

Linkages: Memory, perception and eyewitness

testimony 316

7.5 Forgetting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

How do we forget? 319

Why do we forget? The roles of decay and interference 320

Thinking critically: Can traumatic memories

be repressed and then recovered? 322

Collective memories and forgetting 325

Prospective memory 326

Ageing and memory 326

Other interesting phenomena 327

7.6 Biological bases of memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

Biochemistry of memory 328

Brain structures and memory 330

7.7 Improving your memory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333

Mnemonic strategies 333

Guidelines for more effective studying 334

Reading a textbook 335

Lecture notes 336

Design for memory 337

CHAPTER 8 THOUGHT, LANGUAGE AND INTELLIGENCE 352

8.1 Basic functions of thought. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

Circle of thought 353

8.2 Mental representations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356

Concepts 356

Propositions 357

Schemas, scripts and mental models 357

Images and cognitive maps 360

8.3 Thinking strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

Formal reasoning 361

Informal reasoning 362

8.4 Problem-solving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

Strategies for problem-solving 365

Obstacles to problem-solving 366

Building problem-solving skills 369

Problem-solving by computer 370

Computer-assisted problem-solving 372

Creative thinking 372

8.5 Decision-making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

Evaluating options 374

Biases and flaws in decision-making 375

Linkages: Group processes in problem-solving

and decision-making 376

8.6 Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378

Development of language 379

How is language acquired? 380

8.7 Understanding intelligence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383

Psychometric approach 384

Information-processing model 385

Triarchic theory of intelligence 386

Multiple intelligences 386

8.8 Testing intelligence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390

Intelligence tests today 391

Aptitude and achievement measures 393

8.9 Evaluating intelligence tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

Statistical reliability 395

Statistical validity 396

Linkages: Emotionality and the measurement

of cognitive abilities 398

Innate and environmental influences on IQ 399

Conditions that can raise IQ 403

IQ in the classroom 404

Thinking critically: Are intelligence tests unfairly biased against certain groups? 406

Focus on research: Tracking cognitive abilities over the life span 407

8.10 Diversity in intelligence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410

Unusual intelligence 410

CHAPTER 9 MOTIVATION AND EMOTION 430

9.1 Concepts and theories of motivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

Sources of motivation 432

Instinct doctrine and its descendants 432

Drive reduction theory 435

Arousal theory 436

Incentive theory 437

9.2 Hunger and eating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438

Biological signals for hunger and satiation 438

Hunger and the brain 439

Flavour, sociocultural experience and food selection 440

Unhealthy eating 442

9.3 Sexual behaviour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447

Focus on research: A survey of human

sexual behaviour 448

Biology of sex 449

Social and cultural factors in sexuality 450

Sexual orientation 451

Thinking critically: What shapes sexual

orientation? 452

9.4 Achievement motivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455

Need for achievement 455

Achievement and success in the workplace 457

Achievement and wellbeing 458

Relations and conflicts among motives 459

Linkages: Conflicting motives and stress 461

Opponent processes, motivation and emotion 462

9.5 Nature of emotion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463

Defining characteristics 463

Biology of emotion 464

9.6 Theories of emotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468

James’ peripheral theory 468

Cannon’s central theory 471

Cognitive theories of emotion 472

9.7 Communicating emotion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474

Innate expressions of emotion 475

Social and cultural influences on emotional expression 475

CHAPTER 10 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 494

10.1 Exploring human development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496

Genes and the environment 496

10.2 Beginnings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499

Prenatal development 499

The newborn 501

10.3 Infancy and childhood: cognitive development . . . . 504

Changes in the brain 505

Development of knowledge: Piaget’s theory 505

Modifying Piaget’s theory 509

Information processing during childhood 511

Linkages: Development and memory 512

The social world and cognitive development 512

Individual variations in cognitive development 513

10.4 Infancy and childhood: social

and emotional development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516

Individual temperament 517

Attachment 519

Thinking critically: Does day care harm

the emotional development of infants? 522

Relationships with parents and peers 523

Focus on research: Exploring developing minds 527

Gender roles 528

Risk and resilience 531

10.5 Adolescence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532

Changes in body, brain and thinking 532

Adolescent feelings and behaviour 533

Identity and development of the self 536

Moral development 538

10.6 Adulthood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540

Physical changes 540

Cognitive changes 541

Social changes 543

Longevity, death and dying 547

CHAPTER 11 HEALTH, STRESS AND COPING 568

11.1 Health psychology: stress and stressors. . . . . . . . . . . 569

Health psychology 569

Understanding stress and stressors 571

Psychological stressors 571

Measuring stressors 572

11.2 Stress responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574

Physical responses 574

Psychological responses 576

Linkages: Stress and psychological disorders 578

11.3 Stress mediators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579

How stressors are perceived 580

Predictability and control 580

Coping resources and coping methods 581

Social support 582

Stress, personality and gender 584

Focus on research: Personality and health 586

11.4 Physiology and psychology of health and illness . . . . . 587

Stress, illness and the immune system 587

Stress, illness and the cardiovascular system 589

Thinking critically: Does hostility increase

the risk of heart disease? 589

11.5 Promoting healthy behaviour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591

Health beliefs and health behaviours 592

Changing health behaviours: stages of readiness 592

Programs for coping with stress and promoting health 593

CHAPTER 12 PERSONALITY 606

12.1 Psychodynamic approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607

Structure and development of personality 608

Variations on Freud’s personality theory 611

Contemporary psychodynamic theories 612

Evaluating the psychodynamic approach 612

12.2 Trait approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614

Traits versus types 614

Allport’s trait theory 615

Five-factor personality model 615

Biological trait theories 616

Evaluating the trait approach 618

Thinking critically: Are personality traits inherited? 619

12.3 Social-cognitive approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621

Historical basis of the social-cognitive approach 621

Prominent social-cognitive theories 622

Evaluating the social-cognitive approach 624

12.4 Humanistic approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625

Prominent humanistic theories 626

Evaluating the humanistic approach 628

Linkages: Personality, culture and

human development 629

Focus on research: Personality

development over time 630

12.5 Assessing personality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632

Projective personality measures 632

Non-projective personality measures 633

Personality tests and employee selection 635

CHAPTER 13 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS AND TREATMENT 646

13.1 Defining and explaining psychological disorders. . . . . 648

What is abnormal? 649

Behaviour in context: a practical approach 650

Explaining psychological disorders 651

Biopsychosocial approach 651

Diathesis-stress as an integrative explanation 654

13.2 Classifying psychological disorders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655

A classification system: DSM-5 656

Thinking critically: Is psychological

diagnosis biased? 658

Anxiety disorders 660

Linkages: Anxiety disorders and learning 664

Somatic symptom and related disorders 665

Dissociative disorders 667

Affective disorders 668

Schizophrenia 672

Personality disorders 677

Focus on research: Exploring links between

child abuse and antisocial personality disorder 678

Additional psychological disorders 680

Mental illness and the law 684

13.3 Approaches to treatment of psychological

disorders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686

Basic features of treatment 686

Psychodynamic psychotherapy 687

Humanistic psychotherapy 689

Behaviour therapy 691

Group, family and couples therapy 698

Evaluating psychotherapy 700

Thinking critically: Are all forms of

therapy equally effective? 701

13.4 Biological treatments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706

Psychosurgery 706

Electroconvulsive therapy 706

Psychoactive medications 708

Medications and psychotherapy 712

Linkages: Biological aspects of psychology

and the treatment of psychological disorders 713

13.5 Community psychology: from treatment

to prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714

Community mental health 714

Other factors 715

CHAPTER 14 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 738

14.1 Social influences on the self. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740

Social comparison 740

Focus on research: Self-esteem

and the ultimate terror 741

Social norms 742

Linkages: Motivation and the presence of others 743

Social identity theory 744

Social perception 744

14.2 Forming and changing attitudes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750

Forming attitudes 750

Changing attitudes 750

14.3 Prejudice and stereotypes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 754

Theories of prejudice and stereotyping 755

Reducing prejudice 757

14.4 Interpersonal attraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 759

Keys to attraction 759

Intimate relationships and love 761

14.5 Social impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764

Social norms 764

Conformity and compliance 765

Obedience 769

14.6 Aggression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 774

Why are people aggressive? 774

When are people aggressive? 777

Thinking critically: Do violent video games

make people more aggressive? 778

14.7 Altruism and helping behaviour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 782

Why do people help? 783

14.8 Cooperation, competition and conflict. . . . . . . . . . . . 787

Social dilemmas 788

Promoting cooperation 789

Interpersonal conflict 789

Group processes 790

Linkages: Biological and social psychology 793

CHAPTER 15 CULTURE AND PSYCHOLOGY 810

15.1 What is culture? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 811

Dimensions of culture 812

Culture and identity 815

15.2 Psychology, culture and health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819

Importance of culture to health 821

Does ‘normal’ cross cultures? 822

15.3 Cultural contact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824

Issues with cultural contact 826

Thinking critically: Is ethnic prejudice too

ingrained ever to be eliminated? 828

Consequences of cultural contact 829

15.4 Focus on cultural and cross-cultural

research methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 832

Cultural and cross-cultural researchers 833

CHAPTER 16 INDIGENOUS PSYCHOLOGY 842

16.1 What do we mean by indigenous peoples?. . . . . . . . . 844

Health and wellbeing of indigenous peoples 844

Why is it important to differentiate indigenous

peoples in the study of psychology? 846

16.2 Indigenous peoples of Australia and New Zealand. . . . 848

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples 848

Māori peoples 855

16.3 What is indigenous psychology? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860

Indigenous psychology in Australia 861

Indigenous psychology in New Zealand 861

16.4 Working with indigenous peoples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 863

Developing indigenous cultural competence 864

Psychological and mental health assessment and

indigenous peoples 866

Focus on research: Strategies

for remembering in the Australian landscape 867

16.5 Focus on indigenous research methods . . . . . . . . . . . 869

Decolonising Australian psychological research 870

Decolonising New Zealand psychological research 871

Australian Psychological Society apology 873

CHAPTER 17 NEUROPSYCHOLOGY (ONLINE) 17-2

17.1 Foundations of neuropsychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17-3

A brief history of neuropsychology 17-5

Modules and networks 17-6

Lesion analysis 17-7

Neuropsychological assessment 17-8

Training for neuropsychology 17-8

17.2 Mechanisms of brain dysfunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17-9

Cerebral infarcts 17-9

Traumatic brain injury 17-10

Neurodegenerative diseases 17-11

17.3 Neuropsychological disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17-12

Amnestic disorders 17-12

Consciousness disturbances 17-14

Thinking critically: Can someone be partially

paralysed and not know it? 17-16

Perceptual disturbances 17-17

Focus on research: Studying hemineglect 17-20

Linkages: Language disorders and the brain 17-21

Movement disorders 17-23

Dementia 17-24

CHAPTER 18 BEHAVIOURAL GENETICS (ONLINE) 18-2

18.1 The biology of genetics and heredity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3

18.2 A brief history of genetic research in psychology . . . . 18-4

18.3 The focus of research in behavioural genetics. . . . . . . 18-5

18.4 Genetic factors in psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-6

Genetic influences over the life span 18-6

Genes affecting multiple traits 18-7

Identifying genes related to behaviour 18-7

18.5 Behavioural genetics and environmental influences. . . 18-8

CHAPTER 19 STATISTICS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (ONLINE) 19-2

19.1 Describing data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-3

The histogram 19-3

19.2 Descriptive statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-4

N 19-4

Measures of central tendency 19-5

Measures of variability 19-5

19.3 The normal distribution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-6

Correlation 19-7

19.4 Inferential statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8

Differences between means: the t test 19-8

Beyond the t test 19-10

Appendix A: Careers For Psychology Graduates (Online) 20-2

Appendix B: Searching Psychology Databases (Online) 21-2

Name Index N-1

Subject Index S-1

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