An Invitation to Health Taking Charge of Your Health, 19th Edition PDF by Dianne Hales

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An Invitation to Health Taking Charge of Your Health, 19th Edition

By Dianne Hales

An Invitation to Health Taking Charge of Your Health, 19th Edition

Contents

Chapter 1

Taking Charge of Your Health 3

Health and Wellness 4

The Dimensions of Health 4

Physical Health 4

Psychological Health 4

Spiritual Health 4

Social Health 4

Intellectual Health 5

Environmental Health 5

Occupational and Financial Health 5

Community Health 5

Health in America 5

Healthy People 2020 6

Health Disparities 6

Why Race Matters 7

Cancer 7

Cardiovascular Disease 7

Diabetes 7

Infant Mortality 8

Mental Health 8

Infectious Disease 8

HIV/AIDS 8

Sex, Gender, and Health 8

Health on Campus 9

College and Health 10

How Healthy Are Today’s Students? 10

The Future Starts Now 12

Student Health Norms 12

The Promise of Prevention 12

Protecting Yourself 13

Informing Yourself 13

Evaluating Online Health Information 13

Getting Medical Facts Straight 13

Understanding Risky Behaviors 14

Making Healthy Changes 15

Understanding Health Behavior 15

Predisposing Factors 15

Enabling Factors 16

Reinforcing Factors 16

How People Change 16

Health Belief Model 16

Self-Determination Theory 16

Motivational Interviewing 17

Self-Affirmation Theory 17

Transtheoretical Model 17

Taking Charge of Your Health 20 • Self-Survey 20 • Review Questions 21

Chapter 2

Psychological and Spiritual

Well-Being 23

Emotional and Mental Well-Being 23

The Lessons of Positive Psychology 24

Boost Self-Esteem 25

Develop Self-Compassion 26

Boost Emotional Intelligence 26

Meet Your Needs 26

Pursue Happiness 26

The Roots of Happiness 27

What Does and Doesn’t Make Us Happy 28

The Benefits of Happiness 28

Become Optimistic 29

Manage Your Moods 29

Take Control 29

Develop Autonomy 30

Assert Yourself 30

Spiritual Health 30

Spirituality and Physical Health 31

Deepen Your Spiritual Intelligence 31

Clarify Your Values 32

Enrich Your Spiritual Life 32

Consider the Power of Prayer 33

Cultivate Gratitude 33

Forgive 34

Sleep and Health 34

Sleepless on Campus 34

What Happens When We Sleep? 35

How Much Sleep Do You Need? 35

Sleep’s Impact on Health 36

Breathing Disorders (Snoring and Sleep Apnea) 37

Movement Disorders 37

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders 37

Getting a Better Night’s Sleep 38

Sleeping Pills 38

Taking Charge of Your Health 39 • Self-Survey 40 • Review Questions 41

Chapter 3

Caring for Your Mind 45

The Brain: The Last Frontier 45

Inside the Brain 46

Sex Differences in the Brain 47

The Teenage and 20-Something Brain 47

Understanding Mental Health 48

What Is a Mental Disorder? 48

Mental Health on Campus 48

Students at Risk 50

The Impact of Mental Disorders 50

Depressive Disorders 51

Depression in Students 51

Gender and Depression 52

Female Depression 52

Male Depression 52

Major Depressive Disorder 53

Treating Depression 53

Bipolar Disorder 54

Anxiety Disorders 55

Specific Phobia 55

Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder 55

Generalized Anxiety Disorder 56

Other Common Disorders 56

Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder 56

Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder 57

ADHD on Campus 57

Treating ADHD 57

Autism Spectrum Disorder 58

ASD on Campus 58

Schizophrenia 58

Self-Injury and Suicide 59

Suicide on Campus 59

Risk Factors 60

Overcoming Problems of the Mind 61

Self-Care Strategies 61

Eating Right 61

Exercise 62

Books and Websites 62

Virtual Support 62

Peer Support 62

Where to Turn for Help 62

Types of Therapists 63

Choosing a Therapist 64

Types of Therapy 64

Psychodynamic Psychotherapy 64

Interpersonal Therapy 64

Other Treatment Options 64

Psychiatric Drugs 64

Alternative Mind—Mood Products 65

Taking Charge of Your Health 65 • Self-Survey 66 • Review

Questions 66

Chapter 4

Stress Management 69

What Is Stress? 69

Eustress, Distress, and Neustress 70

Stress and the Dimensions of Health 71

Physical 71

Psychological 71

Spiritual 71

Social 71

Intellectual 71

Occupational 71

Environmental 71

Types of Stressors 71

Stress in America 72

Stress on Campus 73

Stress and Student Health 73

Gender Differences 73

Students under Age 25 74

Students over Age 25 74

Minority Students 75

Entering Freshmen 75

Test Stress 76

Other Stressors 76

Financial Stress 76

Occupational Stress 77

Burnout 77

Illness and Disability 77

Traumatic Life Events 78

Acute Stress Disorder 78

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 79

Inside Stress 79

General Adaptation Syndrome 79

Fight or Flight 80

Freezing 80

Submission 81

Challenge Response Model 81

Tend-and-Befriend Model 81

Transactional or Cognitive-Relational Model 82

Yerkes-Dodson Law 82

The Impact of Stress 83

Stress and the Heart 83

Stress and Immunity 84

Stress and the Gastrointestinal System 84

Stress and Cancer 84

Other Stress Symptoms 84

Managing Stress 85

Journaling 85

Exercise 85

Routes to Relaxation 85

Meditation and Mindfulness 86

Yoga 87

Resilience 87

Stress Prevention: Taking Control of Your Time 88

Time Management 88

Overcoming Procrastination 89

Managing Your Money 89

Financial Homeostasis 90

Organizing Basics 90

Making a Budget 91

Personal Finances 101 92

Your Credit Score 92

Banking Basics 92

Avoid Debit and Credit Card Stress 93

Digital Financial Management 94

Protect Your Private Information 94

Taking Charge of Your Health 95 • Self-Survey 96 • Review

Questions 96

Chapter 5

Personal Nutrition 99

Dietary Guidelines for Americans 100

The Building Blocks of Good Nutrition 100

Water 101

Protein 102

Protein Sources 103

Carbohydrates 103

Fiber 104

Gluten 104

Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load 104

Low-Carb Foods 105

Refined Grains 105

Fats 105

Vitamins 106

Folic Acid 107

Vitamin D 107

Minerals 107

Calcium 108

Sodium 108

Calories 108

Alcohol 109

Healthy Eating Patterns 109

MyPlate 109

The USDA Food Patterns 110

The DASH Eating Plan 110

The Mediterranean Diet 110

Vegetables and Fruits 111

Vegetarian Diets 112

Ethnic Cuisines 113

Campus Cuisine: How College Students Eat 114

Nutrition Knowledge 114

Fast Food: Eating on the Run 114

You Are What You Drink 114

Soft Drinks 115

Energy Drinks 115

Choosing Healthful Snacks 116

Taking Charge of What You Eat 117

Portions and Servings 117

Nutrition Labels 117

What Is an “Organic” Food? 117

Genetically Engineered Foods 118

Dietary Supplements 119

Food Safety 119

Fight BAC! 120

Avoiding E. Coli Infection 120

Food Poisoning 120

Pesticides 121

Food Allergies 121

Nutritional Quackery 121

Taking Charge of Your Health 122 • Self-Survey 122 • Review

Questions 124

Chapter 6

Weight Management and the Obesity

Epidemic 127

Obesity in America 127

Weight on Campus 128

Body Composition 130

Body Mass Index 130

Waist Circumference 131

Waist-to-Hip Ratio 131

Measuring Body Fat 132

Skinfold Measurement 132

Home Body Fat Analyzers 132

Laboratory Methods 132

Understanding Weight Problems 133

How Did So Many Get So Fat? 133

Health Dangers of Excess Weight 133

The Impact on the Body 134

Other Health Problems 135

Premature Death 135

The Emotional and Social Toll 135

If You’re Too Thin: How to Gain Weight 135

A Practical Guide to a Healthy Weight 136

Understanding Why We Overeat 136

Preventing Weight Gain 136

Weight Loss Diets 136

High-Protein Diets 137

Low-Carbohydrate, Low-Fat Diets 137

Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diets 137

The Bottom Line 137

Do Weight Loss Programs Work? 138

Physical Activity and Exercise 138

Complementary and Alternative

Medicine for Obesity 139

Common Diet Traps 139

Maintaining Weight Loss 140

Treating Severe Obesity 140

Obesity Medications 140

Obesity Surgery 141

Unhealthy Eating on Campus 141

Body Image 142

“Fat Talk” 142

Disordered Eating 143

Extreme Dieting 143

Compulsive Overeating 143

Binge Eating 144

Eating Disorders 144

Anorexia Nervosa 145

What Causes Anorexia Nervosa? 145

Health Dangers and Treatment 145

Bulimia Nervosa 146

What Causes Bulimia Nervosa? 146

Health Dangers and Treatment 147

Taking Charge of Your Health 147 • Self-Survey 148 • Review

Questions 148

Chapter 7

Physical Activity and Fitness 151

The Dangers of Inactivity 152

Physical Activity and Fitness 152

Fitness and the Dimensions

of Health 153

Working Out on Campus 153

Physical Activity and Exercise 154

The Benefits of Exercise 154

Longer and Healthier Life 154

Healthier Heart and Blood Vessels 155

Healthier Lungs 156

Protection against Cancer 157

Better Bones 157

Lower Weight 157

Better Mental Health and Functioning 157

Benefits for Students 157

Brighter Mood and Less Stress 158

A More Active and Healthy Old Age 158

Enhanced Sexuality 158

Exercise Risks 158

Physical Activity

Guidelines for Americans 159

How Much Exercise Is Enough? 160

Your Exercise Prescription 161

The Principles of Exercise 161

Overload Principle 161

FITT 162

Frequency 162

Intensity 162

Time (Duration) 162

Type (Specificity) 162

Reversibility Principle 162

Improving Cardiorespiratory

Fitness 163

Monitoring Exercise Intensity 163

High-Tech Gadgets 163

Nontech Methods 164

Target Heart Rate 164

The Karvonen Formula 164

Rating of Perceived Exertion 165

Designing an Aerobic Workout 165

Warm-up 165

Aerobic Activity 165

Cooldown 165

Your Long-Term Fitness Plan 165

Aerobic Options 166

Stepping Out: Walk the Walk 166

America on the Move 166

Jogging and Running 167

High-Intensity Interval Training 167

Other Aerobic Activities 168

Building Muscular Fitness 169

Muscles at Work 169

Designing a Muscle Workout 171

Free Weights versus Machines 171

Recovery 171

Core Strength Conditioning 172

Muscle Dysmorphia 173

Drugs Used to Boost Athletic Performance 173

Becoming More Flexible 174

The Benefits of Flexibility 174

Stretching 176

Stretching and Warming Up 176

Stretching and Athletic Performance 176

Mind-Body Approaches 177

Yoga 177

Pilates 177

T’ai Chi 178

Keeping Your Back Healthy 178

Evaluating Fitness Products and Programs 178

Exercise Equipment 178

Athletic Shoes 179

Barefoot Running and Alternative

Running Shoes 179

Fitness Centers 180

Sports Nutrition 181

Water 181

Sports Drinks 181

Dietary Supplements 182

Energy Bars 182

Safe and Healthy Workouts 182

Temperature 183

Heat Cramps 183

Heat Syndromes 183

Heat Exhaustion 183

Heat Stroke 183

Protecting Yourself from Cold 183

Exercise Injuries 184

PRICE 184

Overtraining 184

Exercise Addiction 185

Taking Charge of Your Health 186 • Self-Survey 186 • Review

Questions 187

Chapter 8

Communicating and Connecting 191

The Social Dimension of Health 191

Communicating 192

Learning to Listen 193

Being Agreeable but Assertive 193

How Men and Women Communicate 193

Men 194

Women 194

Nonverbal Communication 194

Forming Relationships 194

Friendship 195

Loneliness 195

Shyness and Social Anxiety Disorder 195

Building a Healthy Community 196

Doing Good 197

Living in a Wired World 197

Social Networking on Campus 197

Self-Disclosure and Privacy in a Digital Age 199

Digital Dating 199

Problematic Smartphone and Internet Use 200

Loving and Being Loved 201

Intimate Relationships 201

What Attracts Two People to Each Other? 202

Infatuation 202

The Science of Romantic Love 202

A Psychological View 202

An Anthropological View 203

A Biochemical View 203

Mature Love 203

Dysfunctional Relationships 203

Intimate Partner Violence 203

Emotional Abuse 204

Codependency 205

Signs of Codependency 205

Enabling 205

When Love Ends 205

Partnering across the Lifespan 206

The New Transition to Adulthood 206

Cohabitation 207

Long-Term Relationships 207

Marriage 208

Preparing for Marriage 208

The Benefits of Marriage 208

Same-Sex Marriage 209

Issues Couples Confront 209

Money 209

Sex 210

Extramarital Affairs 210

Two-Career Couples 210

Conflict in Marriage 211

Saving Marriages 211

Divorce 211

Family Ties 212

Diversity within Families 212

Unmarried Parents 213

Taking Charge of Your Health 214 • Self-Survey 214 • Review

Questions 216

Chapter 9

Sexual Health 219

Sexual Health 220

Sexuality and the Dimensions of Health 220

Biological Sex 220

How Hormones Work 221

Women’s Sexual Health 222

Female Sexual Anatomy 222

The Menstrual Cycle 223

Premenstrual Syndrome 225

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder 226

Menstrual Cramps 226

Amenorrhea 226

Toxic Shock Syndrome 226

Men’s Sexual Health 226

Male Sexual Anatomy 226

Circumcision 227

The Gender Spectrum 228

Responsible Sexuality 229

Creating a Sexually Healthy Relationship 229

Making Sexual Decisions 229

Saying No to Sex 231

Sexual Behavior 231

Sexual Initiation: “Having Sex” for the First Time 232

Sex on Campus 233

Hooking Up 233

Friends with Benefits 234

Choosing Sexual Partners 234

Romantic Relationships 234

Ethnic Variations 234

Sex in America 235

Sexual Diversity 235

Heterosexuality 236

Bisexuality 236

Homosexuality 236

Roots of Homosexuality 237

Coming Out 237

Sexual Activity 237

Celibacy 237

Abstinence 238

Fantasy 238

Pornography 239

Masturbation 239

Nonpenetrative Sexual Activity (Outercourse) 240

Intercourse 240

Oral Sex 240

Anal Stimulation and Intercourse 241

Sexual Response 241

Excitement 242

Plateau 242

Orgasm 242

Resolution 242

Other Models of Sexual Response 242

Sexual Concerns 243

Sexual Difficulties and Dysfunctions 243

Erectile Dysfunction 244

Orgasm Problems in Men 245

Female Sexual Dysfunction 245

Sex Therapy 246

Drugs and Sex 246

Atypical Behavior 246

Sexual Addiction 246

Sexual Deviations 247

The Business of Sex 247

Taking Charge of Your Health 248 • Self-Survey 248 • Review

Questions 249

Chapter 10

Reproductive Options 253

Reproductive Responsibility 253

Conception 254

Abstinence and Nonpenetrative Sexual Activity 255

Contraception 256

The Benefits and Risks of Contraceptives 256

Birth Control in America 260

Reproductive Coercion 261

Contraception Choices 261

Birth Control on Campus 261

Hormonal Contraceptives 263

Oral Contraceptives 263

Combination Oral Contraceptives 263

Progestin-Only Pills 264

Before Using Oral Contraceptives 264

A Special Caution 264

Long-Acting Oral Contraceptives 265

Seasonale and Seasonique 265

Lybrel, the “No-Period” Pill 265

Contraceptive Patch 266

Contraceptive Vaginal Ring 266

Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives 267

Intrauterine Device 267

Contraceptive Injection 268

Contraceptive Implant 268

Barrier Contraceptives 269

Condoms 270

Male Condom 270

Female Condom 271

Contraceptive Sponge 272

Vaginal Spermicides and Film 273

Diaphragm 273

Cervical Cap 274

FemCap 274

Fertility Awareness and Digital Birth

Control 275

Digital Birth Control 276

Emergency Contraception 276

Sterilization 277

Male Sterilization 277

Female Sterilization 278

When Pregnancy Occurs 279

Unwanted Pregnancy 279

Abortion 279

The Psychological Impact of Abortion

280

The Politics of Abortion 280

Pregnancy 281

Preconception Care 281

Home Pregnancy Tests 282

Prenatal Care 282

A Healthy Diet 282

Exercise 282

Avoid Smoking and Smoke 282

Don’t Use Alcohol or Drugs 282

A Woman’s Bodily Changes During

Pregnancy 282

Neonatal Development 283

Complications of Pregnancy 283

Ectopic Pregnancy 284

Miscarriage 284

Infections 284

Zika Virus 284

Genetic Disorders 284

Preterm Labor 285

Childbirth 285

Preparing for Childbirth 285

Labor and Delivery 285

Cesarean Birth 286

Infertility 286

Options for Infertile Couples 287

Artificial Insemination 287

Assisted Reproductive Technology 287

Transgender Individuals 287

Adoption 287

Taking Charge Of Your Health 288 • Self-Survey 288 • Review

Questions 289

Chapter 11

Sexually Transmitted Infections 291

Sexually Transmitted Infections and Diseases 292

Zika Virus 292

Risk Factors for Sexually Transmitted Infections 293

Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infections 295

The ABCs of Safer Sex 295

A Is for Abstain 295

B Is for Be Faithful 295

C Is for Condoms 296

STIs and Gender 296

If You Are a Woman 296

If You Are a Man 297

STIs on Campus 297

What College Students Don’t Know about STIs 298

Common STIs and STDs 298

Human Papillomavirus 298

Incidence 299

HPV Vaccination 299

HPV Vaccination on Campus 300

Signs and Symptoms 300

Diagnosis and Treatment 300

Genital Herpes 300

Incidence 301

Signs and Symptoms 301

Diagnosis and Treatment 301

Chlamydia 302

Incidence 302

Signs and Symptoms 302

Diagnosis and Treatment 303

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 303

Incidence 303

Signs and Symptoms 303

Diagnosis and Treatment 303

Gonorrhea 303

Incidence 303

Signs and Symptoms 303

Diagnosis and Treatment 304

Nongonococcal Urethritis 304

Syphilis 304

Incidence 305

Signs and Symptoms 305

Diagnosis and Treatment 305

Chancroid 305

Pubic Lice and Scabies 306

Trichomoniasis 306

Bacterial Vaginosis 306

HIV and AIDS 306

Incidence 307

Who Is at Risk? 307

Reducing the Risk of HIV Transmission 308

Sexual Transmission 308

Nonsexual Transmission 309

Preventing HIV Infection 309

Recognizing and Treating HIV/AIDS 309

HIV Testing 310

Diagnosing AIDS 310

Prevention and Protection 310

Treatment 310

Taking Charge of Your Health 311 • Self-Survey 311 • Review

Questions 313

Chapter 12

Major Diseases 315

Your Cardiometabolic

Health 316

Cardiometabolic Risk Factors 316

Risk Factors You Can Control 317

Overweight/Obesity 317

Body Fat 317

Waist Circumference 317

Physical Inactivity 318

Prolonged Sitting 318

Healthy Diet 318

Tobacco Use 318

High Blood Glucose 318

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) 318

Lipoprotein Levels 319

Risk Factors You Can’t Control 319

Family History 319

Race and Ethnicity 319

Socioeconomic Status 320

Age 320

Height 320

Metabolic Syndrome 320

Who Is at Risk? 320

What Are the Signs? 321

Diabetes 321

Insulin Resistance 321

Prediabetes 322

Diabetes Mellitus 322

Who Is at Risk? 322

Types of Diabetes 323

Type 1 Diabetes 323

Type 2 Diabetes 323

Gestational Diabetes 324

Detecting Diabetes 324

Diabetes Signs and Symptoms 324

Diabetes Management 324

Treatment 325

Hypertension 325

Hypertension in the Young 326

Who Is at Risk? 327

What Your Blood Pressure Reading

Means 327

Monitoring Your Blood Pressure 328

Lowering High Blood Pressure 328

Reducing Sodium 328

The DASH Eating Pattern 328

Exercise 328

Medications 328

Your Lipoprotein Profile 328

What Is a Healthy Cholesterol Reading? 329

Lowering Cholesterol 329

Lifestyle Changes 329

Medications 330

Cardiovascular (Heart) Disease 331

How the Heart Works 331

Heart Risks on Campus 332

Psychosocial Risk Factors 333

Stress 333

Depression 333

Anger and Hostility 334

Personality Types 334

The Power of Positive Emotions 334

Other Risk Factors 334

Inflammation and C-Reactive Protein 334

Homocysteine 335

Illegal Drugs 335

Bacterial Infection 335

The Heart of a Woman 335

Coronary Artery Disease 336

Atherosclerosis 336

Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction) 336

Is It a Heart Attack? 337

Cardiac Arrest 337

Saving Hearts 337

Stroke 338

Who Is at Risk? 338

Types of Stroke 339

Silent Strokes 339

Transient Ischemic Attacks 339

The Effects of Stroke on the Brain 339

Why Quick Treatment Matters 339

Cancer 341

Understanding Cancer 341

Who Is at Risk? 342

Heredity 342

Racial and Ethnic Groups 342

Obesity 343

Carcinogens 344

Common Types of Cancer 344

Skin Cancer 344

Breast Cancer 346

Cervical Cancer 349

Ovarian Cancer 350

Testicular Cancer 350

Colon and Rectal Cancer 351

Prostate Cancer 351

Other Major Illnesses 352

Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders 352

Asthma 352

Ulcers 353

Taking Charge of Your Health 354 • Self-Survey 355 • Review

Questions 356

Chapter 13

Infectious Diseases 359

Understanding Infection 360

Agents of Infection 360

Viruses 360

Bacteria 361

Fungi 361

Protozoa 361

Helminths (Parasitic Worms) 361

How Infections Spread 362

Animals and Insects 362

People 362

Food 362

Water 362

The Process of Infection 362

Who Develops Infections? 362

How Your Body Protects Itself 363

Immune Response 364

Immunity and Stress 365

Immunity and Gender 365

Immune Disorders 366

Allergic Rhinitis 366

Autoimmune Disorders 366

Immunization 367

Childhood Vaccinations 367

Adult Vaccinations 367

Upper Respiratory Infections 368

Common Cold 368

Preventing Colds 369

Antibiotics 370

Influenza 370

H1N1 Influenza (Swine Flu) 371

The Threat of a Pandemic 371

Meningitis 371

Preventing Meningitis 372

Recognizing Meningitis 372

When to Seek Medical Care 373

Hepatitis 373

Hepatitis A 373

Hepatitis B 373

Who Develops Hepatitis B? 374

Hepatitis C 374

Other Infectious Illnesses 375

Epstein-Barr Virus and Infectious

Mononucleosis 375

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue

Syndrome (ME/CFS) 375

Herpes Gladiatorum (Mat Herpes, Wrestler’s Herpes, Mat

Pox) 375

Tuberculosis 376

The “Superbug” Threat: MRSA 376

Preventing MRSA 376

Who Is at Highest Risk? 376

Insect- and Animal-Borne Infections 377

Lyme Disease 377

West Nile Virus 377

Zika Virus 377

Transmission 378

Symptoms 378

Diagnosis and Treatment 378

Prevention 378

Avian Influenza 378

Emerging Infectious Diseases 378

SARS 378

Ebola 379

Smallpox 379

Reproductive and Urinary Tract Infections 379

Vaginal Infections 379

Urinary Tract Infections 380

Taking Charge of Your Health 381 • Self-Survey 381 • Review

Questions 382

Chapter 14

Consumer Health 385

Health Insurance 386

The Affordable Care Act 386

How Health Insurance Works 386

What You Need to Know 387

Consumer-Driven Health Care 388

Evidence-Based Medicine 388

Outcomes Research 388

Personalizing Your Health Care 388

Your Family Health History 389

Gender Differences 389

Mobile Health (mHealth) Apps and Monitors 389

Self-Care 390

Oral Health 391

Becoming a Savvy Health-Care Consumer 392

Making the Most of a Medical Visit 392

Scheduling the Appointment 392

Before Your Appointment 392

At Your Appointment 393

The Physical Examination 393

Talking with Your Health-Care Provider 393

After Your Visit 394

Diagnostic Tests 395

Screening Tests 395

Preventing Medical Errors 396

Your Medical Rights 397

Your Right to Be Treated with Respect and Dignity 397

Your Right to Information 397

Your Right to Privacy and Access to Medical Records 397

Your Right to Quality Health Care 398

Elective Treatments 398

Vision Surgery 398

When Is Vision Surgery Not for You? 398

Cosmetic Surgery 399

Body Art Perils 399

Health Hoaxes and Medical Quackery 400

Nontraditional Health Care 400

Types of CAM 401

Alternative Medical Systems 401

Mind–Body Medicine 402

Biologically Based Therapies 403

Manipulative and Body-Based Methods 403

The Health-Care System 404

Health-Care Practitioners 404

Physicians 404

The Health-Care Team 405

Dentists 405

Chiropractors 405

Health-Care Facilities 405

College Health Centers 405

Outpatient Treatment Centers 405

Hospitals and Medical Centers 406

Emergency Services 406

Inpatient Care 406

Home Health Care 406

Taking Charge of Your Health 407 • Self-Survey 407 • Review

Questions 408

Chapter 15

Addictive Behaviors and Drugs 411

Understanding Addiction 412

Addiction and the Dimensions of Health 412

Preventing Addictions 413

Gambling and Behavioral Addictions 413

Problem Gambling 414

Gambling Disorder 414

Gambling on Campus 415

Risk Factors for Problem Gambling 415

Drug Use on Campus 415

Why Students Don’t Use Drugs 416

Why Students Use Drugs 416

Understanding

Drugs and Their Effects 417

Routes of Administration 418

Dosage and Toxicity 418

Individual Differences 418

Gender and Drugs 419

Setting 419

Types of Action 419

Interaction with Other Drugs or Alcohol 419

Caffeine and Its Effects 419

Caffeine Intoxication 421

Caffeine-Containing Energy Drinks 421

Medications 422

Over-the-Counter Drugs 422

Prescription Drugs 423

Physical Side Effects 423

Psychological Side Effects 423

Drug Interactions 424

Drugs and Alcohol 424

Generic Drugs 424

Buying Drugs Online 424

Substance Use Disorders 425

Dependence 425

Misuse 425

Intoxication and Withdrawal 425

Polyabuse 425

Coexisting Conditions 426

Causes of Substance Use Disorders 426

The Neurobiology of Dependence 426

The Psychology of Vulnerability 426

The Opioid Epidemic 427

How the Epidemic Started 427

The Impact of the Epidemic 427

Who Is at Risk? 428

Recovery 428

Prescription Drug Abuse 428

Prescription Drugs on Campus 429

Prescription Stimulants 429

Prescription Painkillers 430

Commonly Abused Drugs 430

Cannabinoids 430

CBD 431

Risks and Potential Health Consequences 431

Medical Marijuana 433

Legalized Marijuana 433

Dependence 433

Withdrawal 433

Herbal Drugs 433

Salvia 433

Khat 434

Synthetic Designer Drugs 434

Synthetic Marijuana 434

Synthetic Cathinone 434

Club Drugs 435

Ecstasy 436

Herbal Ecstasy 437

GHB and GBL 437

Nitrites 437

Stimulants 437

Amphetamines 437

Methamphetamine 438

Cocaine 440

Depressants 442

Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates 442

Opioids 443

Fentanyl 444

Hallucinogens 444

Dissociative Drugs 445

Ketamine 445

PCP 445

Inhalants 446

Treatment of Substance

Dependence

and Misuse 447

Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment 447

12-Step Programs 447

Relapse Prevention 448

Taking Charge of Your Health 449 • Self-Survey 449 • Review

Questions 450

Chapter 16

Alcohol 453

Drinking in America 454

Why People Don’t Drink 454

Why People Drink 454

Drinking on Campus 455

Why Students Don’t Drink 456

Why Students Drink 456

High-Risk Drinking on Campus 458

Binge Drinking 458

Who Binge-Drinks in College? 458

Why Students Binge-Drink 458

Binge Drinking and Disordered Eating 459

Predrinking/Pregaming 459

Why Is Predrinking Popular? 460

The Perils of Predrinking 460

Underage Drinking on Campus 460

Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks 460

Why Students Stop Drinking 461

Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus 461

Consequences of Drinking 461

Drinking and Driving 462

“Secondhand” Drinking Problems

463

Understanding Alcohol 463

Blood-Alcohol Concentration 464

Moderate Alcohol Use 467

Alcohol Intoxication 467

Alcohol Poisoning 467

The Impact of Alcohol on the Body 468

Digestive System 469

Weight and Waists 469

Cardiorespiratory System 469

Cancer 469

Brain and Behavior 469

Interaction with Other Drugs 470

Immune System 471

Health Problems Later in Life 471

Increased Risk of Dying 471

Alcohol, Gender, and Race 471

Gender 471

Race 472

African American Community 472

Latino Community 472

Native American Community 473

Asian American Community 473

Alcohol-Related Disorders 473

Alcohol Use Disorder 473

Causes 474

Medical Complications 474

Alcoholism Treatments 475

Detoxification 475

Medications 475

Inpatient or Residential Treatment 476

Outpatient Treatment 476

Behavioral Therapies 476

Moderation Training 476

12-Step Self-Help Programs 476

Harm Reduction Therapy 477

Alternatives to AA 477

Recovery 477

Alcoholism’s Impact on Relationships 478

Growing Up with an Alcoholic Parent 478

Adult Children of Alcoholics 478

Taking Charge of Your Health 479 • Self-Survey 479 • Review

Questions 480

Chapter 17

Tobacco 483

Tobacco Use in America 484

Why People Smoke 484

Limited Education 485

Underestimation of Risks 485

Adolescent Experimentation and Rebellion 485

Stress 485

Parent Role Models 485

Addiction 485

Genetics 485

Weight Control 485

Mental Disorders 486

Substance Abuse 486

Tobacco Use Disorder 486

Tobacco Use on Campus 486

Social Smoking 487

College Tobacco-Control Policies 488

Smoking, Gender, and Race 488

Tobacco’s Immediate

Effects 489

How Nicotine Works 489

Tar and Carbon Monoxide 490

Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking 490

Health Effects on Students 490

Premature Death 490

Heart Disease and Stroke 491

Cancer 492

Respiratory Diseases 492

Other Smoking-Related Problems 493

E-Cigarettes and Vaping 493

Other Forms of Tobacco 494

Water Pipes (Hookahs) 494

Hookah Use on Campus 494

Cigars and Pipes 495

Bidis 496

Clove Cigarettes (Kreteks) 496

Smokeless Tobacco 496

Snus 496

Quitting Tobacco Use 497

Physical Benefits of Quitting 497

Psychological Benefits of Quitting 497

Quitting on Your Own 498

Virtual Support 498

Stop-Smoking Groups 498

Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) 498

Nicotine Gum 498

Nicotine Patches 499

Nicotine Inhaler 499

Electronic Cigarettes 499

Medications and Other Treatments 499

Combined Treatments 500

Quitting and the Risks Associated

with Smoking 500

Environmental Tobacco Smoke 500

Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke 501

Thirdhand Smoke 502

The Fight for Clean Air 502

Taking Charge Of Your Health 503 • Self-Survey 504 • Review

Questions 505

Chapter 18

Personal Safety 509

Unintentional Injury 509

Why Accidents Happen 510

Safety on the Road 511

Avoid Distracted Driving 511

Don’t Text or Talk 512

Stay Alert 512

Buckle Up 512

Check for Air Bags 512

Rein in Road Rage 513

Cycle Safely 513

Safety at Work and at Home 514

Computers and Your Health 514

Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMIs) 514

Vision Problems and Neck Pain 514

At Home 515

Which Gender Is at Greater Risk? 515

Violence in America 516

Gun Violence 516

Mass Shootings 517

A Public Health Approach 518

Violence and Crime on Campus 518

Hazing 519

Hate or Bias Crimes 519

Microaggressions 520

Campus Shootings 520

Consequences of Campus Violence 521

Sexual Victimization and Violence 521

Sexual Violence against Women 521

Sexual Violence against Men 522

Cyberbullying and Sexting 522

Sexual Harassment 522

Stalking 523

Intimate Partner (Dating) Violence 523

Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence 524

Disclosure and Support 524

Rape 524

Sexual Assault on Campus 525

Changing the Campus Culture 525

#MeToo 526

Bystander Training 526

Sexual Coercion 526

Incapacitated Sexual Assault and Date-Rape

Drugs 526

Rape on Campus 527

Acquaintance or Date Rape 527

Stranger Rape 528

Male Nonconsensual Sex and Rape 528

Impact of Rape 528

What to Do in Case of Sexual Assault and Rape 529

Helping the Victims of Violence 529

Taking Charge of Your Health 530 • Self-Survey 531 • Review

Questions 532

Chapter 19

A Healthier Environment 535

The Environment and Your Health 535

Climate Change 536

Global Warming 536

The Health Risks 537

The Impact of Pollution 538

The Air You Breathe 539

Ozone 539

Particle Pollution 540

Green Space 540

Working toward Sustainability 540

The Water You Drink 541

Is Bottled Water Better? 543

Portable Water Bottles 543

Indoor Pollutants: The Inside Story 543

Environmental Tobacco Smoke 543

Secondhand Smoke 544

Thirdhand Smoke 544

Radon 544

Molds and Other Biological Contaminants 544

Household Products 545

Formaldehyde 545

Pesticides 546

Asbestos 546

Lead 546

Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen

Dioxide 547

Chemical Risks 547

Agricultural Pesticides 548

Chemical Weapons 548

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity 548

Invisible Threats 549

Electromagnetic Fields 549

Cell Phones 549

Microwaves 550

Ionizing Radiation 550

Diagnostic X-Rays 550

Your Hearing Health 550

How Loud Is That Noise? 551

Effects of Noise 551

Are Earbuds Hazardous to Hearing? 551

Hearing Loss 553

Taking Charge of Your Health 553 • Self-Survey 554 • Review

Questions 554

Chapter 20

A Lifetime of Health 557

Quality and Quantity

of Life 558

Will You Live to 50? 559

Aging Well 559

Physical Activity: It’s Never Too Late 559

Nutrition and Obesity 560

The Aging Brain 560

Cognitive Aging 561

Memory 561

Women at Midlife 561

Menopause 562

Hormone Therapy 562

Men at Midlife 563

Low Testosterone 563

Prostate Problems 563

Sexuality and Aging 563

The Challenges of Age 564

Mild Cognitive Impairment 565

Alzheimer’s Disease 565

Osteoporosis 566

Preparing for Medical

Crises and the End of Life 566

Advance Directives 567

Health-Care Proxies 567

Living Wills 567

The Five Wishes 567

DNR Orders 567

Holographic Wills 568

Ethical Dilemmas 568

The Gift of Life 568

Death and Dying 569

Death Literacy and Education 569

Defining Death 569

Denying Death 570

Emotional Responses to Dying 570

How We Die 571

A “Good” Death 572

Caregiving 572

Hospice: Caring When Curing Isn’t Possible 572

Near-Death Experiences 572

Suicide 573

“Rational” Suicide 573

Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide 573

Right-to-Die Laws 573

The Practicalities of Death 574

Funeral Arrangements 574

Autopsies 574

Grief 574

Grief’s Impact on Students 575

Grief’s Effects on Health 575

Taking Charge of Your Health 576 • Self-Survey 577 • Review

Questions 579

Answers to Review Questions 581

Glossary 583

Index 593

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