Chemistry in Focus Year 12, 2nd Edition PDF by Anna Davis, Anne Disney and Debra Smith

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Chemistry in Focus Year 12, 2nd Edition

By Anna Davis, Anne Disney and Debra Smith

Chemistry in Focus Year 12, 2nd Edition

Contents:

Introduction .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . Viii

Author Team.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . X

Author Acknowledgements . X

Publisher Acknowledgements. X

Using Chemistry In Focus. Xi

Outcome Grid .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . Xiii

  1. Working scientifically and depth studies 1

1.1 The nature of chemistry. 2

1.2 Solving scientific problems – depth studies . 4

1.3 Designing your investigation. 7

1.4 Conducting your investigation. 12

1.5 Analysing data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . … . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15

1.6 Communicating your understanding. 18

1.7 Ideas for depth studies. 21

Chapter summary. 22

MODULE FIVE » EQUILIBRIUM AND ACID REACTIONS 23

  1. Qualitative equilibrium 24

2.1 Non-equilibrium systems. 25

2.2 Reversible reactions. 28

2.3 Dynamic equilibrium. 34

2.4 Changes to equilibrium. 39

Chapter summary. 50

Chapter review questions. 51

  1. Calculating the equilibrium constant 53

3.1 Equilibrium constant. 54

3.2 Measuring equilibrium constants. 61

3.3 Uses of equilibrium constants. 67

3.4 Effect of temperature on the equilibrium constant . 71

3.5 Applications of Keq for different types of chemical reactions. 72

Chapter summary. 78

Chapter review questions. 79

  1. Solution equilibria 81

4.1 Revision. 82

4.2 Dissolution of ionic compounds. 85

4.3 Measuring solubility. 87

4.4 Australia’s first peoples – removing toxicity from foods. 91

4.5 Solubility rules. 94

4.6 Solubility equilibrium. 100

4.7 Relationship between the Ksp and solubility . 102

4.8 The common ion effect. 107

Chapter summary. 113

Chapter review questions. 114

End-of-module 5 review 115

MODULE SIX » ACID/BASE REACTIONS 117

  1. Properties of acids and bases 118

5.1 Naming inorganic compounds. 119

5.2 Properties of common inorganic acids and bases. 122

5.3 Reactions of acids. 125

5.4 Neutralisation reactions. 128

5.5 Changes in understanding of acids and bases. 135

Chapter summary. 140

Chapter review questions. 141

  1. Using Brønsted–Lowry theory 143

6.1 Brønsted–Lowry revisited. 144

6.2 The pH scale. 146

6.3 Concentration versus strength of acids and bases. 152

6.4 Self-ionisation of water. 158

6.5 Defining and calculating pOH. 162

6.6 Applying dissociation constants for acids . 165

6.7 Dissociation constants for bases . 173

6.8 Revisiting neutralisation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . .. . . . . . . .178

Chapter summary. 186

Chapter review questions. 187

  1. Using quantitative analysis 189

7.1 Volumetric analysis – the basics. 190

7.2 Primary standard solutions. 195

7.3 Performing volumetric analysis. 198

7.4 Other types of titrations. 203

7.5 Keeping the balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . .221

7.6 Applying analysis techniques. 227

Chapter summary. 231

Chapter review questions. 232

End-of-module 6 review 234

MODULE SEVEN » ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 237

  1. Hydrocarbons 238

8.1 Bonding in carbon. 239

8.2 Alkanes. 242

8.3 Alkenes. 246

8.4 Alkynes. 249

8.5 Halogenated organic compounds. 250

8.6 Isomers. 253

8.7 Benzene. 254

8.8 Properties of alkanes. 256

Chapter summary. 259

Chapter review questions. 260

  1. Functional group compounds 262

9.1 Functional groups. 263

9.2 Alcohols. 264

9.3 Aldehydes and ketones. 273

9.4 Carboxylic acids. 276

9.5 Amines and amides. 280

Chapter summary. 286

Chapter review questions. 287

  1. Hydrocarbon reactions 289

10.1 Using organic substances safely. 290

10.2 Unsaturated hydrocarbon reactions. 295

10.3 Saturated hydrocarbon reactions. 299

10.4 Implications of obtaining and using hydrocarbons. 303

Chapter summary. 312

Chapter review questions. 313

  1. Alcohols 315

11.1 Combustion of alcohols. 316

11.2 Dehydration of alcohols. 322

11.3 Substitution with hydrogen halides (HX). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322

11.4 Oxidation of alcohols. 323

11.5 Production of alcohols. 327

11.6 Fuels from different sources. 333

Chapter summary. 338

Chapter review questions. 339

  1. Reactions of organic acids and bases 341

12.1 Esters. 342

12.2 Preparing esters. 344

12.3 Organic acids and bases. 349

12.4 Soaps and detergents. 352

12.5 Summarising organic compounds and reactions. 360

12.6 Designing and constructing flow charts for chemical synthesis. 362

Chapter summary. 365

Chapter review questions. 366

  1. Polymers 367

13.1 Synthetic polymers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369

13.2 Addition polymers. 371

13.3 Relating properties, uses and structure. 381

13.4 Condensation polymers. 387

13.5 Natural polymers. 393

Chapter summary. 398

Chapter review questions. 399

End-of-module 7 review 401

MODULE 8 » APPLYING CHEMICAL IDEAS 403

  1. Analysis of inorganic substances 404

14.1 Why monitor the environment?. 405

14.2 Identifying ions in solution . 407

14.3 Identifying of cations in solution . 409

14.4 Identifying anions in solution. 419

14.5 Quantitative analysis of ions. 425

14.6 Instrumental quantitative techniques . 434

Chapter summary. 443

Chapter review questions. 444

  1. Analysis of organic substances 447

15.1 Chemical tests for functional groups . 448

15.2 Analytical techniques: Faster and better. 453

15.3 Mass spectroscopy. 454

15.4 NMR spectroscopy. 461

15.5 Infrared spectroscopy. 469

15.6 Ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. 475

15.7 Combining techniques. 480

Chapter summary. 482

Chapter review questions. 483

  1. Chemical synthesis and design 487

16.1 Synthesis reactions. 488

16.2 Designing synthesis reactions. 490

16.3 Yields of reactions. 492

16.4 Issues associated with chemical synthesis. 503

16.5 Green polymers – a case study in greening the plastics industry. 506

Chapter summary. 510

Chapter review questions. 511

End-of-module 8 review 512

MODULE 8 » APPLYING CHEMICAL IDEAS 403

Appendix 1: Periodic Table. 517

Appendix 2: Relative Atomic Masses (Atomic Weights) Of Common Elements. 518

Appendix 3: Guidelines For Using Significant Figures .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  .  .  .  . 519

Appendix 4: Common Ions, Ion Colours, Flame Colours And Solubilities . 520

Appendix 5: Common Units Of Measurement.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   .  .  .  .  .  .  . 522

Appendix 6: Acid–Base Indicators.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 523

Appendix 7: Relative Acid Strengths.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 524

Appendix 8: Standard Electrode Potentials At 25°C .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  .  .  .  . 526

Appendix 9: Data Tables . 527

Student Book Answers .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 530

Glossary .. 540

Index.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 547

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