Understanding Nutrition, 3rd Edition PDF by Eleanor Whitney, Sharon Rady Rolfes, Tim Crowe, David Cameron-Smith and Adam Walsh

By

Understanding Nutrition, 3rd Edition

By Eleanor Whitney, Sharon Rady Rolfes, Tim Crowe, David Cameron-Smith and Adam Walsh

Understanding Nutrition, 3rd Edition

Contents:

Guide to the text x

Guide to the online resources xiv

Features matrix xvi

Preface xviii

About the authors xx

Acknowledgements xxi

CHAPTER 1

An overview of nutrition 1

Food choices 2

The nutrients 4

The science of nutrition 11

Nutrient reference values 18

Nutrition assessment 22

Diet and health 26

Chapter activities 30

HIGHLIGHT 1 Nutrition information and misinformation – on the net and in the news 33

CHAPTER 2

Planning a healthy diet 40

Principles and guidelines 41

Diet-planning guides 45

Food labels 54

Chapter activities 59

HIGHLIGHT 2 Vegetarian diets 62

CHAPTER 3

Digestion, absorption and transport 67

Digestion 68

Absorption 76

The circulatory systems 79

The health and regulation of the GI tract 81

Chapter activities 86

HIGHLIGHT 3 Common digestive problems 88

CHAPTER 4

The carbohydrates: sugars, starches and dietary fibre 96

The chemist’s view of carbohydrates 97

The simple carbohydrates 98

The complex carbohydrates 101

Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates 104

Glucose in the body 108

Health effects and recommended intakes of sugars 114

Alternative sweeteners 117

Health effects and recommended intakes of starch and dietary fibre 122

Chapter activities 128

HIGHLIGHT 4 Carbs, kJ and controversies 131

CHAPTER 5

The lipids: triglycerides, phospholipids and sterols 137

The chemist’s view of fatty acids and triglycerides 138

The chemist’s view of phospholipids and sterols 145

Digestion, absorption and transport of lipids 147

Lipids in the body 154

Health effects and recommended intakes of saturated fats, trans fats and cholesterol 157

Health effects and recommended intakes mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats 160

From guidelines to groceries 163

Chapter activities 169

HIGHLIGHT 5 High-fat foods – friend or foe? 172

CHAPTER 6

Protein: amino acids 180

The chemist’s view of proteins 181

Digestion and absorption of protein 185

Proteins in the body 187

Protein in foods 197

Health effects and recommended intakes of protein 199

Chapter activities 207

HIGHLIGHT 6 Nutritional genomics 210

CHAPTER 7

Metabolism: transformations and interactions 216

Chemical reactions in the body 217

Breaking down nutrients for energy 221

Energy balance 237

Chapter activities 243

HIGHLIGHT 7 Alcohol and nutrition 246

CHAPTER 8

Energy balance and body composition 257

Energy balance 258

Energy in: the kilojoules foods provide 259

Energy out: the kilojoules the body expends 263

Body weight, body composition and health 269

Chapter activities 278

HIGHLIGHT 8 Eating disorders 281

CHAPTER 9

Weight management: overweight, obesity and underweight 291

Overweight and obesity 292

Causes of overweight and obesity 295

Problems of overweight and obesity 303

Aggressive treatments for obesity 307

Weight-loss strategies 309

Underweight 321

Chapter activities 324

HIGHLIGHT 9 The latest and greatest weight-loss diet – again 327

CHAPTER 10

The water-soluble vitamins: B group vitamins and vitamin C 336

The vitamins – an overview 337

The B group vitamins – as individuals 340

The B group vitamins – in concert 365

Vitamin C 367

Chapter activities 375

HIGHLIGHT 10 Vitamin and mineral supplements 378

CHAPTER 11

The fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E and K 384

Vitamin A and beta-carotene 385

Vitamin D 393

Vitamin E 398

Vitamin K 400

The fat-soluble vitamins – in summary 403

Chapter activities 404

HIGHLIGHT 11 Is it time to shine for vitamin D? 406

CHAPTER 12

Water and the major minerals 412

Water and the body fluids 413

The minerals – an overview 425

Sodium 427

Chloride 431

Potassium 432

Calcium 435

Phosphorus 442

Magnesium 444

Sulphate 447

Chapter activities 449

HIGHLIGHT 12 Osteoporosis and calcium 452

CHAPTER 13

The trace minerals 460

The trace minerals – an overview 461

Iron 462

Zinc 472

Iodine 476

Selenium 478

Copper 480

Manganese 481

Fluoride 482

Chromium 484

Molybdenum 485

Other trace minerals 485

Contaminant minerals 486

Closing thoughts on the nutrients 487

Chapter activities 489

HIGHLIGHT 13 Phytochemicals and functional foods 492

CHAPTER 14

Fitness: physical activity, nutrients and body adaptations 501

Fitness 502

Energy systems and fuels to support activity 509

Vitamins and minerals to support activity 518

Fluids and electrolytes to support activity 520

Diets for physically active people 525

Chapter activities 528

HIGHLIGHT 14 Supplements as ergogenic aids 530

CHAPTER 15

Life cycle nutrition: pregnancy and lactation 538

Nutrition prior to pregnancy 539

Growth and development during pregnancy 540

Maternal weight 546

Nutrition during pregnancy 549

High-risk pregnancies 556

Nutrition during lactation 563

Chapter activities 569

HIGHLIGHT 15 Foetal alcohol syndrome 572

CHAPTER 16

Life cycle nutrition: infancy, childhood and adolescence 578

Nutrition during infancy 579

Nutrition during childhood 591

Nutrition during adolescence 603

Chapter activities 607

HIGHLIGHT 16 Childhood obesity and the early development of chronic diseases 610

CHAPTER 17

Life cycle nutrition: adulthood and the later years 617

Nutrition and longevity 619

The ageing process 623

Energy and nutrient needs of older adults 626

Nutrition-related concerns of older adults 630

Food choices and eating habits of older adults 635

Chapter activities 639

HIGHLIGHT 17 Nutrient–drug interactions 642

CHAPTER 18

Diet-related disease 649

Nutrition and infectious diseases 650

Nutrition and chronic diseases 652

Cardiovascular disease 654

Hypertension 663

Diabetes mellitus 667

Cancer 672

Recommendations for chronic disease prevention 677

Chapter activities 679

HIGHLIGHT 18 Complementary and alternative medicine 681

CHAPTER 19

Consumer concerns about foods and water 691

Food safety and food-borne illnesses 693

Environmental contaminants 702

Natural toxins in foods 705

Pesticides 705

Food additives 709

Consumer concerns about water 713

Chapter activities 717

HIGHLIGHT 19 Food biotechnology 719

Appendix A Cells, hormones and nerves 727

Appendix B Basic chemistry concepts 733

Appendix C Biochemical structures and pathways 742

Appendix D Measures of protein quality 760

Appendix E Nutrition assessment 763

Appendix F Physical activity and energy requirements 784

Appendix G Aids to calculation 787

Answers 789

Glossary 794

Index 814

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