Java™: A Beginner’s Guide, 9th Edition PDF by Herbert Schildt

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Java™: A Beginner’s Guide, Ninth Edition

By Herbert Schildt

Java™: A Beginner’s Guide, 9th Edition PDF by Herbert Schildt

Contents:

Introduction .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii

1 Java Fundamentals ………………………………………………………………………………. 1

The History and Philosophy of Java …………………………………………………………………….. 3

The Origins of Java …………………………………………………………………………………… 3

Java’s Lineage: C and C++ ………………………………………………………………………… 4

How Java Impacted the Internet …………………………………………………………………. 4

Java’s Magic: The Bytecode ………………………………………………………………………. 6

Moving Beyond Applets ……………………………………………………………………………. 8

A Faster Release Schedule …………………………………………………………………………. 8

The Java Buzzwords …………………………………………………………………………………. 9

Object-Oriented Programming ……………………………………………………………………………. 10

Encapsulation …………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

Polymorphism ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Inheritance ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

The Java Development Kit …………………………………………………………………………………. 12

A First Simple Program ……………………………………………………………………………………… 13

Entering the Program ………………………………………………………………………………… 14

Compiling the Program ……………………………………………………………………………… 14

The First Sample Program Line by Line ……………………………………………………… 15

Handling Syntax Errors ……………………………………………………………………………………… 17

A Second Simple Program …………………………………………………………………………………. 18

Another Data Type ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

Try This 1-1: Converting Gallons to Liters …………………………………………………………… 21

Two Control Statements …………………………………………………………………………………….. 22

The if Statement ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 23

The for Loop ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 24

Create Blocks of Code ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 26

Semicolons and Positioning ……………………………………………………………………………….. 27

Indentation Practices …………………………………………………………………………………………. 28

Try This 1-2: Improving the Gallons-to-Liters Converter ……………………………………….. 28

The Java Keywords ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 29

Identifiers in Java ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30

The Java Class Libraries …………………………………………………………………………………….. 31

Chapter 1 Self Test ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 31

2 Introducing Data Types and Operators ………………………………………………… 33

Why Data Types Are Important …………………………………………………………………………… 34

Java’s Primitive Types ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 34

Integers …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 35

Floating-Point Types …………………………………………………………………………………. 37

Characters ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37

The Boolean Type ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 39

Try This 2-1: How Far Away Is the Lightning? ……………………………………………………… 40

Literals …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41

Hexadecimal, Octal, and Binary Literals ……………………………………………………… 42

Character Escape Sequences ………………………………………………………………………. 42

String Literals ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43

A Closer Look at Variables …………………………………………………………………………………. 44

Initializing a Variable ………………………………………………………………………………… 44

Dynamic Initialization ………………………………………………………………………………. 45

The Scope and Lifetime of Variables …………………………………………………………………… 45

Operators …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48

Arithmetic Operators …………………………………………………………………………………………. 48

Increment and Decrement ………………………………………………………………………….. 49

Relational and Logical Operators ………………………………………………………………………… 50

Short-Circuit Logical Operators ………………………………………………………………………….. 52

The Assignment Operator …………………………………………………………………………………… 53

Shorthand Assignments ……………………………………………………………………………………… 53

Type Conversion in Assignments ………………………………………………………………………… 55

Casting Incompatible Types ……………………………………………………………………………….. 56

Operator Precedence …………………………………………………………………………………………. 58

Try This 2-2: Display a Truth Table for the Logical Operators ………………………………… 59

Expressions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60

Type Conversion in Expressions …………………………………………………………………. 60

Spacing and Parentheses ……………………………………………………………………………. 62

Chapter 2 Self Test ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 62

3 Program Control Statements ……………………………………………………………….. 65

Input Characters from the Keyboard ……………………………………………………………………. 66

The if Statement ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67

Nested ifs …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69

The if-else-if Ladder ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70

The Traditional switch Statement ………………………………………………………………………… 71

Nested switch Statements …………………………………………………………………………………… 75

Try This 3-1: Start Building a Java Help System …………………………………………………… 75

The for Loop …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 77

Some Variations on the for Loop …………………………………………………………………………. 79

Missing Pieces ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80

The Infinite Loop ……………………………………………………………………………………… 81

Loops with No Body …………………………………………………………………………………………. 81

Declaring Loop Control Variables Inside the for Loop …………………………………………… 82

The Enhanced for Loop ……………………………………………………………………………………… 83

The while Loop ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 83

The do-while Loop ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 85

Try This 3-2: Improve the Java Help System ………………………………………………………… 87

Use break to Exit a Loop ……………………………………………………………………………………. 90

Use break as a Form of goto ……………………………………………………………………………….. 91

Use continue …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 96

Try This 3-3: Finish the Java Help System …………………………………………………………… 97

Nested Loops ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 101

Chapter 3 Self Test ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 102

4 Introducing Classes, Objects, and Methods …………………………………………… 105

Class Fundamentals …………………………………………………………………………………………… 106

The General Form of a Class ……………………………………………………………………… 107

Defining a Class ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 108

How Objects Are Created …………………………………………………………………………………… 110

Reference Variables and Assignment …………………………………………………………………… 111

Methods …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112

Adding a Method to the Vehicle Class …………………………………………………………. 112

Returning from a Method …………………………………………………………………………………… 114

Returning a Value ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 115

Using Parameters ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 117

Adding a Parameterized Method to Vehicle …………………………………………………. 119

Try This 4-1: Creating a Help Class …………………………………………………………………….. 121

Constructors …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 126

Parameterized Constructors ………………………………………………………………………………… 128

Adding a Constructor to the Vehicle Class ……………………………………………………………. 128

The new Operator Revisited ……………………………………………………………………………….. 130

Garbage Collection ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 130

The this Keyword ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 131

Chapter 4 Self Test ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 133

5 More Data Types and Operators ………………………………………………………….. 135

Arrays ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 136

One-Dimensional Arrays …………………………………………………………………………… 137

Try This 5-1: Sorting an Array ……………………………………………………………………………. 140

Multidimensional Arrays ……………………………………………………………………………………. 142

Two-Dimensional Arrays …………………………………………………………………………… 142

Irregular Arrays ………………………………………………………………………………………… 143

Arrays of Three or More Dimensions ………………………………………………………….. 144

Initializing Multidimensional Arrays …………………………………………………………… 144

Alternative Array Declaration Syntax ………………………………………………………………….. 145

Assigning Array References ……………………………………………………………………………….. 146

Using the length Member …………………………………………………………………………………… 147

Try This 5-2: A Queue Class ………………………………………………………………………………. 149

The For-Each Style for Loop ………………………………………………………………………………. 153

Iterating Over Multidimensional Arrays ………………………………………………………. 156

Applying the Enhanced for ………………………………………………………………………… 157

Strings ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158

Constructing Strings …………………………………………………………………………………. 159

Operating on Strings …………………………………………………………………………………. 160

Arrays of Strings ………………………………………………………………………………………. 162

Strings Are Immutable ………………………………………………………………………………. 162

Using a String to Control a switch Statement ……………………………………………….. 163

Using Command-Line Arguments ……………………………………………………………………….. 166

Using Type Inference with Local Variables …………………………………………………………… 167

Local Variable Type Inference with Reference Types ……………………………………. 169

Using Local Variable Type Inference in a for Loop ……………………………………….. 171

Some var Restrictions ……………………………………………………………………………….. 171

The Bitwise Operators ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 172

The Bitwise AND, OR, XOR, and NOT Operators ……………………………………….. 173

The Shift Operators …………………………………………………………………………………… 177

Bitwise Shorthand Assignments …………………………………………………………………. 179

Try This 5-3: A ShowBits Class ………………………………………………………………………….. 180

The ? Operator ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 182

Chapter 5 Self Test ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 184

6 A Closer Look at Methods and Classes …………………………………………………. 187

Controlling Access to Class Members …………………………………………………………………. 188

Java’s Access Modifiers …………………………………………………………………………….. 189

Try This 6-1: Improving the Queue Class …………………………………………………………….. 193

Pass Objects to Methods …………………………………………………………………………………….. 194

How Arguments Are Passed ……………………………………………………………………….. 196

Returning Objects ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 198

Method Overloading ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 200

Overloading Constructors …………………………………………………………………………………… 205

Try This 6-2: Overloading the Queue Constructor …………………………………………………. 207

Recursion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 210

Understanding static ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 212

Static Blocks ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 215

Try This 6-3: The Quicksort ……………………………………………………………………………….. 216

Introducing Nested and Inner Classes ………………………………………………………………….. 219

Varargs: Variable-Length Arguments …………………………………………………………………… 222

Varargs Basics ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 223

Overloading Varargs Methods ……………………………………………………………………. 226

Varargs and Ambiguity ……………………………………………………………………………… 227

Chapter 6 Self Test ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 228

7 Inheritance ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 231

Inheritance Basics …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 232

Member Access and Inheritance …………………………………………………………………………. 235

Constructors and Inheritance ………………………………………………………………………………. 238

Using super to Call Superclass Constructors ………………………………………………………… 240

Using super to Access Superclass Members …………………………………………………………. 244

Try This 7-1: Extending the Vehicle Class ……………………………………………………………. 245

Creating a Multilevel Hierarchy ………………………………………………………………………….. 248

When Are Constructors Executed? ………………………………………………………………………. 250

Superclass References and Subclass Objects ………………………………………………………… 252

Method Overriding ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 256

Overridden Methods Support Polymorphism ………………………………………………………… 259

Why Overridden Methods? ………………………………………………………………………………… 261

Applying Method Overriding to TwoDShape ……………………………………………….. 261

Using Abstract Classes ………………………………………………………………………………………. 265

Using final ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 269

final Prevents Overriding …………………………………………………………………………… 269

final Prevents Inheritance ………………………………………………………………………….. 269

Using final with Data Members ………………………………………………………………….. 270

The Object Class ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 271

Chapter 7 Self Test ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 272

8 Packages and Interfaces ………………………………………………………………………. 275

Packages ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 276

Defining a Package …………………………………………………………………………………… 277

Finding Packages and CLASSPATH …………………………………………………………… 278

A Short Package Example …………………………………………………………………………. 278

Packages and Member Access …………………………………………………………………………….. 280

A Package Access Example ……………………………………………………………………….. 281

Understanding Protected Members ……………………………………………………………………… 282

Importing Packages …………………………………………………………………………………………… 284

Java’s Class Library Is Contained in Packages ……………………………………………………… 286

Interfaces …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 286

Implementing Interfaces …………………………………………………………………………………….. 287

Using Interface References ………………………………………………………………………………… 291

Try This 8-1: Creating a Queue Interface ……………………………………………………………… 293

Variables in Interfaces ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 298

Interfaces Can Be Extended ……………………………………………………………………………….. 299

Default Interface Methods ………………………………………………………………………………….. 300

Default Method Fundamentals …………………………………………………………………… 301

A More Practical Example of a Default Method …………………………………………… 303

Multiple Inheritance Issues ………………………………………………………………………… 304

Use static Methods in an Interface ………………………………………………………………………. 305

Private Interface Methods …………………………………………………………………………………… 306

Final Thoughts on Packages and Interfaces ………………………………………………………….. 307

Chapter 8 Self Test ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 307

9 Exception Handling ……………………………………………………………………………… 309

The Exception Hierarchy …………………………………………………………………………………… 311

Exception Handling Fundamentals ……………………………………………………………………… 311

Using try and catch …………………………………………………………………………………… 312

A Simple Exception Example …………………………………………………………………….. 312

The Consequences of an Uncaught Exception ………………………………………………………. 314

Exceptions Enable You to Handle Errors Gracefully ……………………………………… 316

Using Multiple catch Statements …………………………………………………………………………. 317

Catching Subclass Exceptions …………………………………………………………………………….. 318

Try Blocks Can Be Nested …………………………………………………………………………………. 319

Throwing an Exception ……………………………………………………………………………………… 320

Rethrowing an Exception …………………………………………………………………………… 321

A Closer Look at Throwable ………………………………………………………………………………. 322

Using finally …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 324

Using throws …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 326

Three Additional Exception Features …………………………………………………………………… 327

Java’s Built-in Exceptions ………………………………………………………………………………….. 329

Creating Exception Subclasses ……………………………………………………………………………. 331

Try This 9-1: Adding Exceptions to the Queue Class …………………………………………….. 333

Chapter 9 Self Test ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 337

10 Using I/O …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 339

Java’s I/O Is Built upon Streams …………………………………………………………………………. 341

Byte Streams and Character Streams …………………………………………………………………… 341

The Byte Stream Classes ……………………………………………………………………………………. 341

The Character Stream Classes …………………………………………………………………………….. 342

The Predefined Streams ……………………………………………………………………………………… 343

Using the Byte Streams ……………………………………………………………………………………… 344

Reading Console Input ……………………………………………………………………………… 345

Writing Console Output …………………………………………………………………………….. 346

Reading and Writing Files Using Byte Streams …………………………………………………….. 347

Inputting from a File …………………………………………………………………………………. 347

Writing to a File ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 351

Automatically Closing a File ………………………………………………………………………………. 353

Reading and Writing Binary Data ……………………………………………………………………….. 356

Try This 10-1: A File Comparison Utility …………………………………………………………….. 359

Random-Access Files ………………………………………………………………………………………… 360

Using Java’s Character-Based Streams ………………………………………………………………… 362

Console Input Using Character Streams ………………………………………………………. 364

Console Output Using Character Streams ……………………………………………………. 368

File I/O Using Character Streams ……………………………………………………………………….. 369

Using a FileWriter ……………………………………………………………………………………. 369

Using a FileReader …………………………………………………………………………………… 370

Using Java’s Type Wrappers to Convert Numeric Strings ………………………………………. 372

Try This 10-2: Creating a Disk-Based Help System ………………………………………………. 374

Chapter 10 Self Test ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 381

11 Multithreaded Programming ……………………………………………………………….. 383

Multithreading Fundamentals …………………………………………………………………………….. 384

The Thread Class and Runnable Interface ……………………………………………………………. 385

Creating a Thread ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 386

One Improvement and Two Simple Variations ……………………………………………… 389

Try This 11-1: Extending Thread ………………………………………………………………………… 393

Creating Multiple Threads ………………………………………………………………………………….. 396

Determining When a Thread Ends ………………………………………………………………………. 399

Thread Priorities ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 402

Synchronization ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 406

Using Synchronized Methods …………………………………………………………………………….. 406

The synchronized Statement ………………………………………………………………………………. 409

Thread Communication Using notify( ), wait( ), and notifyAll( ) ……………………………. 412

An Example That Uses wait( ) and notify( ) …………………………………………………. 413

Suspending, Resuming, and Stopping Threads ……………………………………………………… 418

Try This 11-2: Using the Main Thread …………………………………………………………………. 422

Chapter 11 Self Test ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 424

12 Enumerations, Autoboxing, Annotations, and More ………………………………. 425

Enumerations ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 426

Enumeration Fundamentals ……………………………………………………………………….. 427

Java Enumerations Are Class Types …………………………………………………………………….. 429

The values( ) and valueOf( ) Methods ………………………………………………………………….. 429

Constructors, Methods, Instance Variables, and Enumerations ……………………………….. 431

Two Important Restrictions ……………………………………………………………………….. 433

Enumerations Inherit Enum ……………………………………………………………………………….. 433

Try This 12-1: A Computer-Controlled Traffic Light …………………………………………….. 435

Autoboxing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 440

Type Wrappers ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 440

Autoboxing Fundamentals …………………………………………………………………………………. 442

Autoboxing and Methods …………………………………………………………………………………… 443

Autoboxing/Unboxing Occurs in Expressions ………………………………………………………. 445

A Word of Warning …………………………………………………………………………………… 446

Static Import …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 447

Annotations (Metadata) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 450

Introducing instanceof ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 453

Chapter 12 Self Test ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 455

13 Generics ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 457

Generics Fundamentals ……………………………………………………………………………………… 458

A Simple Generics Example ………………………………………………………………………………. 459

Generics Work Only with Reference Types ………………………………………………….. 463

Generic Types Differ Based on Their Type Arguments ………………………………….. 463

A Generic Class with Two Type Parameters …………………………………………………. 464

The General Form of a Generic Class …………………………………………………………. 465

Bounded Types …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 466

Using Wildcard Arguments ………………………………………………………………………………… 469

Bounded Wildcards …………………………………………………………………………………………… 472

Generic Methods ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 475

Generic Constructors …………………………………………………………………………………………. 477

Generic Interfaces ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 478

Try This 13-1: Create a Generic Queue ……………………………………………………………….. 480

Raw Types and Legacy Code ……………………………………………………………………………… 485

Type Inference with the Diamond Operator ………………………………………………………….. 488

Local Variable Type Inference and Generics …………………………………………………………. 489

Erasure …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 489

Ambiguity Errors ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 490

Some Generic Restrictions …………………………………………………………………………………. 491

Type Parameters Can’t Be Instantiated ………………………………………………………… 491

Restrictions on Static Members ………………………………………………………………….. 491

Generic Array Restrictions ………………………………………………………………………… 492

Generic Exception Restriction ……………………………………………………………………. 493

Continuing Your Study of Generics ……………………………………………………………………… 493

Chapter 13 Self Test ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 493

14 Lambda Expressions and Method References ………………………………………… 495

Introducing Lambda Expressions ………………………………………………………………………… 496

Lambda Expression Fundamentals ……………………………………………………………… 497

Functional Interfaces ………………………………………………………………………………… 498

Lambda Expressions in Action …………………………………………………………………… 500

Block Lambda Expressions ………………………………………………………………………………… 505

Generic Functional Interfaces …………………………………………………………………………….. 506

Try This 14-1: Pass a Lambda Expression as an Argument …………………………………….. 508

Lambda Expressions and Variable Capture …………………………………………………………… 513

Throw an Exception from Within a Lambda Expression ………………………………………… 514

Method References ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 516

Method References to static Methods ………………………………………………………….. 516

Method References to Instance Methods ……………………………………………………… 518

Constructor References ……………………………………………………………………………………… 522

Predefined Functional Interfaces …………………………………………………………………………. 525

Chapter 14 Self Test ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 527

15 Modules ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 529

Module Basics ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 531

A Simple Module Example ……………………………………………………………………….. 532

Compile and Run the First Module Example ……………………………………………….. 536

A Closer Look at requires and exports ……………………………………………………….. 537

java.base and the Platform Modules …………………………………………………………………….. 538

Legacy Code and the Unnamed Module ………………………………………………………………. 540

Exporting to a Specific Module …………………………………………………………………………… 541

Using requires transitive …………………………………………………………………………………….. 542

Try This 15-1: Experiment with requires transitive ……………………………………………….. 543

Use Services …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 546

Service and Service Provider Basics …………………………………………………………… 547

The Service-Based Keywords …………………………………………………………………….. 548

A Module-Based Service Example ……………………………………………………………… 548

Additional Module Features ……………………………………………………………………………….. 555

Open Modules ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 555

The opens Statement …………………………………………………………………………………. 556

requires static …………………………………………………………………………………………… 556

Continuing Your Study of Modules ……………………………………………………………………… 556

Chapter 15 Self Test ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 557

16 Switch Expressions, Records, and Other Recently Added Features ……….. 559

Enhancements to switch …………………………………………………………………………………….. 561

Use a List of case Constants ………………………………………………………………………. 563

Introducing the switch Expression and the yield Statement ……………………………. 563

Introducing the Arrow in a case Statement …………………………………………………… 565

A Closer Look at the Arrow case ………………………………………………………………… 567

Try This 16-1: Use a switch Expression to Obtain a City’s Time Zone …………………….. 571

Records ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 573

Record Basics ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 574

Create Record Constructors ……………………………………………………………………….. 576

A Closer Look at Record Getter Methods ……………………………………………………. 581

Pattern Matching with instanceof ………………………………………………………………………… 581

Sealed Classes and Interfaces ……………………………………………………………………………… 583

Sealed Classes ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 583

Sealed Interfaces ………………………………………………………………………………………. 586

Future Directions ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 587

Chapter 16 Self Test ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 588

17 Introducing Swing ……………………………………………………………………………….. 591

The Origins and Design Philosophy of Swing ………………………………………………………. 593

Components and Containers ……………………………………………………………………………….. 595

Components …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 595

Containers ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 596

The Top-Level Container Panes ………………………………………………………………….. 596

Layout Managers ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 597

A First Simple Swing Program …………………………………………………………………………… 597

The First Swing Example Line by Line ……………………………………………………….. 599

Swing Event Handling ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 602

Events …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 603

Event Sources ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 603

Event Listeners ………………………………………………………………………………………… 603

Event Classes and Listener Interfaces …………………………………………………………. 604

Use JButton ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 604

Work with JTextField ………………………………………………………………………………………… 608

Create a JCheckBox ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 611

Work with JList ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 615

Try This 17-1: A Swing-Based File Comparison Utility …………………………………………. 619

Use Anonymous Inner Classes or Lambda Expressions to Handle Events ………………… 624

Chapter 17 Self Test ……………………………………………………………………………………… 626

A Answers to Self Tests ……………………………………………………………………………. 627

Chapter 1: Java Fundamentals …………………………………………………………………………….. 628

Chapter 2: Introducing Data Types and Operators …………………………………………………. 630

Chapter 3: Program Control Statements ……………………………………………………………….. 631

Chapter 4: Introducing Classes, Objects, and Methods ………………………………………….. 634

Chapter 5: More Data Types and Operators ………………………………………………………….. 635

Chapter 6: A Closer Look at Methods and Classes ………………………………………………… 640

Chapter 7: Inheritance ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 645

Chapter 8: Packages and Interfaces ……………………………………………………………………… 647

Chapter 9: Exception Handling …………………………………………………………………………… 649

Chapter 10: Using I/O ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 652

Chapter 11: Multithreaded Programming …………………………………………………………….. 656

Chapter 12: Enumerations, Autoboxing, Annotations, and More …………………………….. 658

Chapter 13: Generics …………………………………………………………………………………………. 662

Chapter 14: Lambda Expressions and Method References ……………………………………… 666

Chapter 15: Modules …………………………………………………………………………………………. 670

Chapter 16: Switch Expressions, Records, and Other Recently Added Features ……….. 671

Chapter 17: Introducing Swing …………………………………………………………………………… 675

B Using Java’s Documentation Comments ……………………………………………….. 683

The javadoc Tags ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 684

@author ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 685

{@code} …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 685

@deprecated ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 685

{@docRoot} ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 685

@exception ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 686

@hidden ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 686

{@index} ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 686

{@inheritDoc} …………………………………………………………………………………………. 686

{@link} …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 686

{@linkplain} ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 687

{@literal} ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 687

@param …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 687

@provides ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 687

@return …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 687

@see ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 687

@since ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 688

{@summary} …………………………………………………………………………………………… 688

@throws ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 688

@uses ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 688

{@value} ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 688

@version …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 689

The General Form of a Documentation Comment …………………………………………………. 689

What javadoc Outputs ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 689

An Example That Uses Documentation Comments ……………………………………………….. 689

C Compile and Run Simple Single-File Programs in One Step ………………….. 691

D Introducing JShell ……………………………………………………………………………….. 693

JShell Basics …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 694

List, Edit, and Rerun Code …………………………………………………………………………………. 696

Add a Method …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 697

Create a Class …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 698

Use an Interface ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 699

Evaluate Expressions and Use Built-in Variables …………………………………………………… 700

Importing Packages …………………………………………………………………………………………… 701

Exceptions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 702

Some More JShell Commands ……………………………………………………………………………. 702

Exploring JShell Further ……………………………………………………………………………………. 703

E More Java Keywords ……………………………………………………………………………. 705

The transient and volatile Modifiers …………………………………………………………………….. 706

strictfp ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 706

assert ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 707

Native Methods ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 708

Another Form of this …………………………………………………………………………………………. 708

Index .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711

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