Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition PDF by Spencer G Niles and JoAnn Harris-Bowlsbey


Career Development Interventions, Fifth Edition

By Spencer G. Niles, JoAnn Harris-Bowlsbey

Career Development Interventions



Introduction to Career Development

Interventions 1

The Meaning of Work Across Time 6

Linking Work with Worth 9

Providing Systematic Career Development

Interventions 10

Definition of Terms 11

Career 12

Career Development 12

Career Development Interventions 12

Career Counseling 12

Career Education 13

Career Development Programs 13

Career Development Practitioners 13

Important Events in the History of Career

Development Interventions 13

Frank Parsons 14

Future Trends in Career Development

Interventions 25

Move to Viewing Career Decisions as Values-Based

Decisions 26

Move Beyond Objective Assessment 26

Move to Counseling-Based Career

Assistance 27

Move to a Stronger Emphasis on Multicultural

Career Development Theories and

Interventions 27

Move to Focusing on Multiple Life Roles 28

Move to Advocating for Social Justice 28

Summary 29

Case Study 29

Student Activities  30


Understanding and Applying Theories of

Career Development 31

Career Development Theories 32

Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory 34

Life Span 37

Life Space 40

Self-Concepts 41

Applying Super’s Theory 42

Contextual Factors Influencing Life-Role

Salience 44

Evaluating Super’s Theory 47

Anne Roe’s Personality Theory of Career

Choice 48

Evaluating Roe’s Theory 49

Linda Gottfredson’s Theory of Circumscription,

Compromise, and Self-Creation 49

Stage One: Orientation to Size and Power 50

Stage Two: Orientation to Sex Roles 50

Stage Three: Orientation to Social Valuation 51

Stage Four: Orientation to the Internal,

Unique Self 51

Applying Gottfredson’s Theory to Practice 51

Evaluating Gottfredson’s Theory 52

John Holland’s Theory of Types and Person-

Environment Interactions 53

The Realistic Type 54

The Investigative Type 54

The Artistic Type 54

The Social Type 55

The Enterprising Type 55

The Conventional Type 55

Congruence 56

Differentiation 57

Consistency 58

Vocational Identity 58

Applying Holland’s Theory 58

Evaluating Holland’s Theory 61

John Krumboltz’s Learning Theory of Career

Counseling 63

Social Learning Theory of Career Decision

Making 63

Learning Theory of Career Counseling 66

Applying LTCC 67

Evaluating Career Development

Interventions 68

Evaluating LTCC 68

Summary 69

Student Activities 69


Understanding and Applying Recent

Theories of Career Development 71

Recent Theories 72

Lent, Brown, and Hackett’s Social Cognitive

Career Theory 73

Applying SCCT 74

Evaluating SCCT 76

The Cognitive Information Processing

Approach 78

Applying the CIP Approach 80

Evaluating CIP 82

Savickas’s Career Construction Theory 84

Applying Career Construction Theory 85

Evaluating Career Construction Theory 86

Hansen’s Integrative Life Planning 86

Applying ILP 88

Evaluating ILP 88

Postmodern Approaches 88

Creating Narratives 89

Constructivist Career Counseling 90

Chaos Theory of Careers 92

Evaluating the Chaos Theory of Careers 93

Summary 94

Case Study 95

Student Activities 96


Providing Culturally Competent Career

Development Interventions 97

Traditional Assumptions of Career Theories in the

United States 101

Universal Versus Culture-Specific Models 102

Ethnocentrism 103

Acculturation 104

Identity Development Models 105

Racial Identity Models 106

Gender Identity Models 108


Identity Models 111

Persons with Disabilities 114

Assessment 118

Recommendations for Culturally Effective Career

Counseling 121

Summary 123

Case Study 124

Student Activities 124


Assessment and Career Planning 126

The Relationship of Assessment to the Career

Planning Process 129

Step 1: Become Aware of the Need to Make Career

Decisions 129

Step 2: Learn About or Reevaluate Vocational Self-

Concept 130

Step 3: Identify Occupational Alternatives 130

Step 4: Obtain Information About Identified

Alternatives 130

Step 5: Make Tentative Choices from Among

Available Occupations 130

Step 6: Make Educational Choices 130

Step 7: Implement a Vocational Choice 131

Purposes of Assessment 132

Learning More About the Needs of an Individual

or Group 132

Learning More About the Characteristics of

Individuals and Helping Them Learn More About

Themselves 133

Determining the Change or Progress of an Individual

or Group 134

Responsibilities and Competencies of the

Counselor 135

Possess General Knowledge About Assessment 135

Have Detailed Knowledge About the Instruments

Used 135

Evaluate the Instrument for Usefulness with Diverse

Populations 137

Prepare Students or Clients Adequately 138

Administer Instruments Properly 139

Interpret Instruments Properly 139

Follow Through with Clients 140

Informal Assessments 141

Formal Assessments 143

Types of Formal Assessments 145

Ways in Which Assessment Instruments May Be

Administered 150

Types of Reports 152

Selection of Instruments 154

Summary 155

Case Study 155

Student Activities 155


Career Information and Resources 157

The Counselor’s Role in Providing Data 159

Barriers and Decision Styles 160

Career Information and Diversity 161

The Client’s Role in Receiving Data 162

Types of Data Needed by Clients 163

Programs of Study 163

Occupations 165

Schools 167

Financial Aid 169

Jobs 170

Other Methods of Collecting Data 170

Organizing Occupations 171

The Holland System 171

The World-of-Work Map 172

O*NET Classification System 173

The National Career Clusters 174

The Career Center 174

Helping Clients Turn Data into

Information 175

Summary 178

Case Study 179

Student Activities 179


Using Information and Communication

Technologies to Support Career Counseling

and Planning 180

Information and Communication Technologies:

Trends of the 21st Century 182

The Internet as the Deliverer of Career

Guidance 183

Stand-alone Web Sites 183

Integrated Career Planning Systems 184

Virtual Career Centers 185

Mobile Phone Applications 186

Social Networking 186

Distance Counseling 188

Counselor Responsibilities Related to

Ict-Supported Career Guidance and

Counseling 188

Know and Abide by Ethical Guidelines 189

Select Web Sites and Integrated Career Planning

Systems 189

Add High Touch to High Tech 191

Counselor Competencies and Types of

Support 192

Issues and Concerns Related to Use

of Ict 193

The Promise of Ict 195

Summary 197

Case Study 197

Student Activities 198


Career Counseling Strategies and

Techniques for the 21st Century 200

Is Career Counseling Effective? 201

Expanding the Limited View of Career

Counseling 202

Career Counseling in the 21st Century 203

Designing Career Counseling Strategies 204

Providing Counseling-Based Career

Assistance 205

Providing Support in Career Counseling 207

A Framework for Career Counseling 213

The Beginning or Initial Phase of Career

Counseling 213

The Middle or Working Phase of Career

Counseling 216

The Ending or Termination Phase of Career

Counseling 218

Career Counseling Groups 222

An Example of a Structured Group Career

Intervention 222

Less-Structured Career Groups 225

Career Counseling Professional Designations and

Related Service Providers 227

Summary 229

Case Study 229

Student Activities 230


Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating

Career Development Programs and

Services 231

Steps for Designing and Implementing a Career

Development Program 233

Step 1: Define the Target Population and Its

Characteristics 233

Step 2: Determine the Needs of the Target

Population 234

Step 3: Write Measurable Objectives to Meet

Needs 236

Step 4: Determine How to Deliver the Career

Planning Services 238

Step 5: Determine the Content of the

Program 240

Step 6: Determine the Cost of the Program 240

Step 7: Begin to Promote and Explain Your

Services 241

Step 8: Start Promoting and Delivering the Full-

Blown Program of Services 242

Step 9: Evaluate the Program 242

Planning Evaluation 243

Stakeholders 244

Types of Data Collected 244

Benchmarks for Evaluation 245

Methods of Evaluation 248

Using the Results of Evaluation 249

Roadblocks to Evaluation 252

Step 10: Revise the Program as Needed 252

Some Sample Programs 252

Example 1: An Elementary School 253

Example 2: A Middle School 255

Example 3: A High School 257

Example 4: A University 260

Example 5: A Corporation 262

Example 6: A Community Agency 264

Summary 267

Case Study 267

Student Activities 267


Career Development Interventions in the

Elementary Schools 269

Overview of Career Development Standards for

Constructing Career Interventions in the

Schools 270

Important Considerations in Developing Career

Development Interventions in the Schools 273

Systematic and Coordinated Planning for Career

Development Programs in the Schools 274

Career Development in the Elementary

Schools 276

Goals of Career Development Interventions at the

Elementary School Level 279

Career Development Interventions in the

Elementary Schools 281

Parental Involvement 285

Summary 286

Case Study 287

Student Activities 287


Career Development Interventions in

Middle Schools 306

Middle/Junior High School 307

Career Development Goals for Middle

School Students 310

Career Development Interventions in

Middle School 310

Summary  315

Case Study  316

Student Activities  316


Career Development Interventions in

High Schools 325

Career Development Goals for High School

Students 331

Career Development Interventions in High

Schools 331

Career Development Interventions for At-Risk

Students 336

Summary  338

Case Study  339

Student Activities  339


Career Development Interventions in

Higher Education 355

The Changing Landscape of Higher

Education 357

The Evolution of Career Development

Interventions in Higher Education 361

Career Development Competencies in

Adulthood 364

Personal Social Development 364

Educational Achievement and Lifelong

Learning 365

Career Management 366

Models, Services, and Standards for Career

Development Interventions in Higher

Education 368

Models 368

Services 370

Standards 373

Managing Career Services in Higher

Education 375

Summary  378

Case Study  378

Student Activities  379


Career Development Interventions in

Community Settings 388

Training, Certification, and Licensure 390

Competencies 391

Coordination 391

Consultation 393

Advocacy 393

Case Management 394

Similarities and Differences in Community-Based

Settings 395

Settings for Community-Based Career

Counselors 395

Private Practice 396

The World Wide Web: Online Counseling and Career

Advising 397

Mental Health Centers 397

Substance Abuse Centers 398

Rehabilitation Settings 398

Corrections and Probation 398

Military Settings 399

Job Service Offices and One-Stop Centers 399

Faith-Based Organizations 401

Corporations and Other Organizations 402

Summary  403

Case Study  403

Student Activities  404


Ethical Issues in Career Development

Interventions 408

Ethical Dilemmas Versus Moral

Temptations 412

Using Principles to Resolve Ethical

Decisions 413

The Role of Values in Defining Career

Development Interventions 415

Using Ethical Codes 418

Progress on Ethical Challenges Facing Career

Counselors 418

Are All Individual Career Interventions Governed by

the Same Ethical Standards? 418

Should Those Without Traditional Training and

Credentials as Professional Career Counselors

Provide Career Counseling Services? 420

How Should the Internet Be Used in Career

Development Interventions? 421

The Ethical Standards of NCDA 422

Section A: The Professional Relationship 422

Section B: Confidentiality, Privileged

Communication, and Privacy 422

Section C: Professional Responsibility 423

Section D: Relationships with Other

Professionals 423

Section E: Evaluation, Assessment, and

Interpretation 423

Section F: Providing Career Services Online,

Technology, and Social Media 423

Section G: Supervision, Training, and

Teaching 424

Section H: Research and Publication 424

Section I: Resolving Ethical Issues 424

Using an Ethical Decision-Making Model 426

Summary  427

Case Study  428

Student Activities  428

Appendix A

NCDA Code of Ethics Preamble A-1

Appendix B

Educational and Career Planning

Portfolio A-28

Appendix C

Career Counseling Competencies of the

National Career Development Association

(NCDA) A-34

Appendix D

2016 CACREP Standards Related to Career

Development A-38

Appendix E

National Career Development Guidelines

(NCDG) Framework A-39

References  R-1

index I-1

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