International Marketing Strategy: Analysis, Development and Implementation, 9th Edition PDF by Isobel Doole, Robin Lowe and Alexandra Kenyon


International Marketing Strategy: Analysis, Development and Implementation, Ninth Edition

By Isobel Doole, Robin Lowe and Alexandra Kenyon

International Marketing Strategy: Analysis, Development and Implementation, Ninth Edition


Preface xvii

About the authors xxiv

Acknowledgements xxv




The strategic importance of international

marketing 4

What is international marketing? 7

International marketing defined 7

The international marketing environment 9

Political factors 10

Economic factors 13

The developed economies 15

The emerging economies 16

Least developed countries 16

Currency risks 16

Social/cultural factors 17

Cultural factors 17

Social factors 18

Technological factors 23

Technological development through the

internet 23

Technology and the cultural paradox 24

Legal factors 25

Environment/sustainability factors 26

Differences between international and domestic

marketing 27

The international competitive landscape 28

The international market planning process 28

The planning process 29

Major evolutionary stages of planning 30

The international marketing planning

process 30

Stakeholder expectations 31

Situation analysis 33

Resources and capabilities 33

Knowledge management 33

Corporate objectives 34

Marketing strategies 34

Implementation of the marketing plan 35

The control process and feedback 35

Reasons for success 36

Characteristics of best practice in international

marketing 37

Case study 1 Fast food: the healthy option goes

global 38

Case study 2 Going international? You need

a language strategy 39



External factors impacting governments

and businesses 43

Environmental risks 45

Technology risks 45

Political risks and world trading patterns 46

Looking back to look forward 50

The reasons countries trade 52

The theory of comparative advantage 52

How comparative advantage is achieved 53

The international product life cycle 54

Barriers to world trade 55

Marketing barriers 55

Tariff barriers 57

Non-tariff barriers 57

International Bank for Reconstruction

and Development (IBRD) 59

International Monetary Fund (IMF) 61

The World Trade Organization 62

The development of world trading groups 63

Forms of market agreement 63

Free trade area 63

Customs union 65

Common market 65

Economic union 65

Political union 65

The European Union 66

The Single European Market 66

European Monetary Union 68

Strategic implications 68

Widening European membership 68

United States–Mexico–Canada Trade Area 69

The Asian Pacific Trading Region 70

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 70

Asean-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) 72

Barriers to developing a cohesive trading

region 72

Case study 1 Export tourism increases host

country’s GDP 74

Case study 2 The mobile/cell phone services

market in Africa 75


Social and cultural factors 79

What is culture? 80

The components of culture 81

Language and culture 83

Culture and consumer behaviour 88

Is the buying process in all countries an

individualistic activity? 89

Who, within the family, does the consumer

buying process include? And is this

consistent across cultures? 90

Analyzing cultures and the implications for

consumer behaviour 91

Self-reference criterion 92

Cross-cultural analysis 92

The high/low context approach 93

Hofstede’s 6-D model of national culture 93

Culture/communication typologies 97

Social and cultural influences in B2B marketing 99

Organizational buyers 99

Government buyer behaviour 99

The B2B buying process 100

The role of culture in negotiation styles 100

Ethical issues in cross-cultural marketing 101

Bribery and corruption or gift giving? 103

Bribery and corruption in business: a cultural

phenomenon 104

Piracy 105

Case study 1 Sustainable Case Study:

Starbucks helps coffee farmers sustain their

cultural heritage 108

Case study 2 Cultural challenges of the Brazilian market 109




The role of marketing research and opportunity

analysis 112

The role of international marketing research 112

What big data is telling us 113

Opportunity identification and analysis 116

Scanning international markets 116

Demand pattern analysis 119

Multiple factor indices 119

Analogy estimation 119

Macro-survey technique 120

Risk evaluation 120

World Economic Forum 120

The Knaepen Package 121

Business Environment Risk

Index (BERI) 121

International marketing segmentation 122

Geographical criteria 122

The business portfolio matrix 123

Infrastructure/marketing institution

matrix 123

International segmentation 124

Mosaic Global 125

Hierarchical country: consumer

segmentation 127

The market profile analysis 128

Analyzing foreign country markets 128

Sources of information 128

Online databases 130

Problems in using secondary data 132

Primary research in international markets 133

Problem discovery and definition report 134

Developing an innovative approach 135

Networking 136

Consortia 136

The collection of primary data 136

Organizing the research study 137

Centralization vs decentralization 138

In-house or agency 138

Research design 139

Qualitative research 140

Survey methods 140

Questionnaire design 143

Sample frame 143

Fieldwork 144

Report preparation and presentation 145

Case study 1 Global brands use of

big data 147

Case study 2 Cultural segmentation map 148

Directed Study Activities 152

Directed Study Activity International Marketing

Planning: Analysis 153







The SME sector and its role within the global

economy 161

The role of SME internationalization in economic

regeneration 163

The challenges for SMEs from LDCs 163

Government support 166

The nature of SME international marketing

strategies 167

Exporting 167

Motivation 168

Barriers to internationalization 169

Niche marketing of domestically delivered

services 172

Importing and reciprocal trading 173

Direct marketing and electronic commerce 173

The nature of international development 175

Geographic development of SMEs 177

Market concentration and expansion 178

Where the domestic market is redefined 179

Where the SME international development is the

result of networking 179

Entrepreneur and family networks 179

Where the SME is born global 180

Supply chain internationalization 182

Developing relationships 184

International strategic marketing management in

SMEs 184

The McKinsey 7S framework 184

The generic marketing strategies for SME

internationalization 185

The factors which affect the choice of an SME’s

international marketing strategy 187

Market factors 187

Company factors 188

Country selection 189

Organization structure 190

International entrepreneurship and fast growth 195

The secret of high growth 195

The future of SME internationalization 199

Case study 1 Telensa: a shining light in smart cities 200

Case study 2 Pin it, share it, desire it, sell it 201


Global strategies of responsible businesses 206

Views of globalization and who has gone

global 208

COVID-19’s impact on global trade 211

The drivers of globalization 214

Alternative strategic responses 220

Global strategy drivers 221

Globalization and standardization 222

Standardization and adaptation 223

Globalized and customized 224

Regional strategy 227

International marketing management for global

firms 229

Global strategy implementation 229

Opportunities in emerging markets for global

firms 229

The emergence of MNEs from emerging

markets 230

Global appeal and the changing basis of


advantage 232

Increasing global appeal by building the global

brand 233

Global brand management 233

Creating a global presence by achieving global

reach 234

Managing diverse and complex activities

across a range of similar but often disparate


and cultures 236

Organization structure for transnational

firms 237

Systems, processes and control 237

Control 237

Return on marketing investment 238

Planning systems and processes 238

Building skills in transnational organizations 239

Staff and the problems of international

management 240

What makes a good international

manager? 240

Management culture 241

Management style and shared values 242

Case study 1 Huawei: overcoming market

obstacles 243

Case study 2 Reshoring: rethinking global

reach 244


The alternative market entry methods 249

Risk and control in market entry 252

Indirect exporting 253

Domestic purchasing 253

Export management companies or export

houses 253

Piggybacking 254

Trading companies 255

Direct exporting 256

Factors for success in exporting 256

Selection of exporting method 257

Agents 258

Achieving a satisfactory manufacturer–agent

relationship 258

Distributors 258

Other direct exporting methods 259

Management contracts 259

Franchising 259

Exporting through online platforms 260

Foreign manufacturing strategies without direct

investment 262

Reasons for setting up overseas manufacture

and service operations 262

Contract manufacture 264

Licensing 264

Foreign manufacturing strategies with direct

investment 265

Assembly 266

Wholly owned subsidiary 266

Company acquisitions and mergers 266

Cooperative strategies 270

Joint ventures 270

Strategic alliances 271

Minority stake share holdings 273

Case study 1 Wagamama’s international

expansion 276

Case study 2 IKEA in China: market entry flat

packed? 277



The nature of products and services 281

International product and service

marketing 281

The international marketing of service 284

The components of the international product

offer 285

Products, services and value propositions 287

Factors affecting international product and

service management 289

Reasons for adaptation of the product 291

Product acceptability 292

Shortening product life cycles 292

Franchising, joint ventures and alliances 292

Marketing management 293

Environmental and social responsibility

issues 293

Product policy 295

Product strategies 295

Managing products across borders 297

The product life cycle 297

Product portfolio analysis 298

Introduction and elimination activities 299

Image, branding and positioning 300

Country of origin effects 300

International branding 301

Brand categories 302

Brand value 303

Branding strategies 305

Brand piracy 307

Positioning 307

Innovation and new product development 308

The most innovative companies 309

The nature of new product development 309

The new product development process 311

Approaches to technology transfer and the

benefits for marketing 312

Research and development strategies 312

Success and failure in new product

development 313

Case study 1 A silver lining: new product

developments needed 316

Case study 2 Accor inseparable services: online

and face-to-face 317

Directed Study Activity International Marketing


Strategy Development 320





The role of marketing communications 327

Internal marketing 327

Relationship marketing 328

External marketing 328

Communicating product and service

differentiation 329

Communicating the corporate identity to

international stakeholders 329

The fundamental challenges for international

marketing communications 332

International marketing communications,

standardization and adaptation 335

Towards standardization 336

Towards adaptation 338

International marketing communications

strategy 339

Communicating with existing and potential

customers 340

The integration of communications 342

Coordination and planning of the

international marketing communications

strategy 344

The marketing communications tools 344

Word-of-mouth and personal selling 345

Exhibitions, trade fairs and experiential

marketing 347

Trade missions 348

Advertising 348

Television advertising 349

Press advertising 350

The use of agencies and consultancies 351

Sales promotions 352

Direct marketing 352

Communicating with the wider range of

stakeholders 352

Corporate identity 353

Sponsorship and celebrity endorsement 353

Product placement and celebrity

endorsement 356

Public relations 357

Crisis management 357

Online communications 358

The nature of online communications 358

Online advertising 359

Social media advertising 359

Paid search advertising 360

Display advertising 361

Native advertising 361

Developing profitable, long-term marketing

relationships 363

The concept of relationship marketing 363

Database development 364

Customer relationship management 364

Case study 1 Greenpeace: global

campaigner 366

Case study 2 How do corporate brands survive a

global crisis? 368




The challenges in managing an international

distribution strategy 372

Selecting foreign country market

intermediaries 373

Indirect and direct channels 374

Channel selection 376

Customer characteristics and culture 377

Company objectives and competitive

activity 379

Character of the market 379

Capital required and costings 379

The coverage needed 381

Control, continuity and communication 381

The selection and contracting process 381

Building relationships in foreign market

channels 382

Motivating international marketing

intermediaries 382

Controlling intermediaries in international

markets 383

Channel updating 384

Developing a company-owned international

sales force 384

Trends in retailing in international markets 385

The differing patterns of retailing around the

world 385

Traditional retailing 387

Intermediary retailing 388

Structured retailing 390

Advanced retailing 390

The globalization of retailing 391

Marketing implications for development of

international distribution strategies 392

Internet retailing 393

The management of the physical distribution of

goods 396

The logistics approach to physical

distribution 396

Customer service 397

The restructuring of physical distribution

operations 397

The use of intermediaries 398

Transportation 400

Export processing zones 403

Administrative problems resulting from the

cross-border transfer of goods 403

Documentation and electronic data

interchange (EDI) 404

Packaging 405

The export sales contract 405

Case study 1 Bulk wine shifts the global wine

market 407

Case study 2 Poor packaging 5 lost profits 408



Domestic vs international pricing 412

The factors affecting international pricing

decisions 412

Company and product factors 414

Product and service factors 415

The influence of cost structures on pricing 416

Specific export costs 420

Cost reduction 422

Economies of scale 424

Learning curve 424

Location of production facility and

pandemics 424

Market factors 425

Developing pricing strategies 426

The objectives of pricing 427

Setting a price 428

Problems of pricing and financing international

transactions 429

Problems in multinational pricing 430

Coordination of prices across markets 430

What is grey marketing? 431

Counterfeiting 432

Price coordination strategies 434

Transfer pricing in international markets 436

Problems in managing foreign currency

transactions 438

What currency should the price be quoted

in? 438

Should prices be raised/lowered as exchange

rates fluctuate? 439

Problems in minimizing the risk of non-payment in

high-risk countries 440

Countertrade and leasing 441

Advantages and limitations of

countertrade 444

Leasing 444

Deciding at what stage of the export sales process

the price should be quoted 445

The export order process 446

Case study 1 The impact of cryptocurrencies 450

Case study 2 Torque Developments

International plc 451

Global challenges 451




The challenge 455

The enabling technologies 456

Technological innovation 457

Disruptive technologies 458

Convergent technology 460

The internet and international business

communications 460

Online strategies 463

The purpose of websites 463

Organization sites 463

Services online, on mobile, on the

move 464

Information apps online 464

Business transactions online 464

Social network advancement 464

International e-markets and e-marketing 466

Business-to-business (B2B) 466

Disintermediation and re-intermediation 468

Business-to-consumer (B2C) 468

Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) 469

International marketing solution integration 469

Knowledge management 469

Supply chain management 470

Value chain integration 470

Virtual enterprise networks 471

Customer relationship management

(CRM) 472

Customization 472

Strategic planning 473

Technology-driven analysis 473

Internal data 474

The impact of technology on international

strategy development 474

Internet-based market entry 474

The impact of technology on strategy

implementation and control 475

Some limitations of e-commerce for international

marketing strategy 478

Legislation 478

Problems of application of existing law to the

internet 479

Other internet problems 479

Moving to a customer-led strategy 479

Sustainability and corporate social

responsibility 481

The elements of the strategic plan 482

Case study 1 Heart problems? Wearable tech

could save your life 484

Case study 2 Yum! Brands: eating into new

markets 485

Yum! Restaurants International 486

Directed Study Activity International Marketing

Planning: Implementation, Control and

Evaluation 489

Glossary 495

Index 502

Credits 510

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