Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation, 9th Edition PDF by Donald J DeCoste and Steven S Zumdahl


Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation, Ninth Edition

By Donald J. DeCoste and Steven S. Zumdahl

Introductory Chemistry A Foundation, Ninth Edition


Chapter 1. Chemistry: An Introduction

Chemistry: An Introduction

What Is Chemistry?

Solving Problems Using a Scientific Approach

The Scientific Method

Learning Chemistry

Chapter 2. Measurements and Calculations

Scientific Notation


Measurements of Length, Volume, and Mass

Uncertainty in Measurement

Significant Figures

Problem Solving and Dimensional Analysis

Temperature Conversions: An Approach to Problem Solving


Chapter 3. Matter


Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes

Elements and Compounds

Mixtures and Pure Substances

Separation of Mixtures

Chapter 4. Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions

The Elements

Symbols for the Elements

Dalton’s Atomic Theory

Formulas of Compounds

The Structure of the Atom

Introduction to the Modern Concept of Atomic Structure


Introduction to the Periodic Table

Natural States of the Elements


Compounds That Contain Ions

Chapter 5. Nomenclature

Naming Compounds

Naming Binary Compounds That Contain a Metal and a Nonmetal (Types I and II)

Naming Binary Compounds That Contain Only Nonmetals (Type III)

Naming Binary Compounds: A Review

Naming Compounds That Contain Polyatomic Ions

Naming Acids

Writing Formulas from Names

Chapter 6. Chemical Reactions: An Introduction

Evidence for a Chemical Reaction

Chemical Equations

Balancing Chemical Equations

Chapter 7. Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Predicting Whether a Reaction Will Occur

Reactions in Which a Solid Forms

Describing Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Reactions That Form Water: Acids and Bases

Reactions of Metals with Nonmetals (Oxidation–Reduction)

Ways to Classify Reactions

Other Ways to Classify Reactions

Chapter 8. Chemical Composition

Counting by Weighing

Atomic Masses: Counting Atoms by Weighing

The Mole

Learning to Solve Problems

Molar Mass

Percent Composition of Compounds

Formulas of Compounds

Calculation of Empirical Formulas

Calculation of Molecular Formulas

Chapter 9. Chemical Quantities

Information Given by Chemical Equations

Mole–Mole Relationships

Mass Calculations

The Concept of Limiting Reactants

Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant

Percent Yield

Chapter 10. Energy

The Nature of Energy

Temperature and Heat

Exothermic and Endothermic Processes


Measuring Energy Changes

Thermochemistry (Enthalpy)

Hess’s Law

Quality Versus Quantity of Energy

Energy and Our World

Energy as a Driving Force

Chapter 11. Modern Atomic Theory

Rutherford’s Atom

Electromagnetic Radiation

Emission of Energy by Atoms

The Energy Levels of Hydrogen

The Bohr Model of the Atom

The Wave Mechanical Model of the Atom

The Hydrogen Orbitals

The Wave Mechanical Model: Further Development

Electron Arrangements in the First 18 Atoms on the Periodic Table

Electron Con_igurations and the Periodic Table

Atomic Properties and the Periodic Table

Chapter 12. Chemical Bonding

Types of Chemical Bonds


Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments

Stable Electron Con_igurations and Charges on Ions

Ionic Bonding and Structures of Ionic Compounds

Lewis Structures

Lewis Structures of Molecules with Multiple Bonds

Molecular Structure

Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model

Molecular Structure: Molecules with Double Bonds

Chapter 13. Gases


Pressure and Volume: Boyle’s Law

Volume and Temperature: Charles’s Law

Volume and Moles: Avogadro’s Law

The Ideal Gas Law

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

Laws and Models: A Review

The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory

Gas Stoichiometry

Chapter 14. Liquids and Solids

Water and Its Phase Changes

Energy Requirements for the Changes of State

Intermolecular Forces

Evaporation and Vapor Pressure

The Solid State: Types of Solids

Bonding in Solids

Chapter 15. Solutions


Solution Composition: An Introduction

Solution Composition: Mass Percent

Solution Composition: Molarity


Stoichiometry of Solution Reactions

Neutralization Reactions

Solution Composition: Normality

Chapter 16. Acids and Bases

Acids and Bases

Acid Strength

Water as an Acid and a Base

The pH Scale

Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions

Buffered Solutions

Chapter 17. Equilibrium

How Chemical Reactions Occur

Conditions That Affect Reaction Rates

The Equilibrium Condition

Chemical Equilibrium: A Dynamic Condition

The Equilibrium Constant: An Introduction

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Le Châtelier’s Principle

Applications Involving the Equilibrium Constant

Solubility Equilibria

Chapter 18. Oxidation–Reduction Reactions

and Electrochemistry

Oxidation–Reduction Reactions

Oxidation States

Oxidation–Reduction Reactions Between Nonmetals

Balancing Oxidation–Reduction Reactions by the Half-Reaction Method

Electrochemistry: An Introduction




Chapter 19. Radioactivity and Nuclear


Radioactive Decay

Nuclear Transformations

Detection of Radioactivity and the Concept of Half-life

Dating by Radioactivity

Medical Applications of Radioactivity

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear Reactors

Nuclear Fusion

Effects of Radiation

Chapter 20. Organic Chemistry

Carbon Bonding


Structural Formulas and Isomerism

Naming Alkanes


Reactions of Alkanes

Alkenes and Alkynes

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Naming Aromatic Compounds

Functional Groups


Properties and Uses of Alcohols

Aldehydes and Ketones

Naming Aldehydes and Ketones

Carboxylic Acids and Esters


Chapter 21. Biochemistry


Primary Structure of Proteins

Secondary Structure of Proteins

Tertiary Structure of Proteins

Functions of Proteins



Nucleic Acids


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