## Tort Law, Seventh Edition

By J. Stanley Edwards and Traci L. Cull

**Contents:**

Preface xv

List of Cases xvii

About the Author xxvii

Part I

Introduction

Chapter 1

Overview of Tort Law 2

Chapter Objectives | 2

Background | 3

What Is a Tort? | 3

Reasonableness of Conduct | 4

Public Policy | 4

Morality of Conduct | 5

Slippery-Slope Arguments | 5

Creation of Case Law | 5

Relationship between Tort Law and Other Areas of the Law | 6

Brief History of Tort Law | 7

Case: Schultz and Another v. Frank | 9

Coming Full Circle | 11

Classification of Torts | 11

Summary | 12

Key Terms | 13

Review Questions | 13

Practice Exam | 14

Tort Teasers | 16

Internet Inquiries | 16

Practical Ponderables | 16

Chapter 2

Overview of a Tort Case 17

Chapter Objectives | 17

Initiating a Complaint | 18

Defendant’s Response | 20

Discovery | 20

Pretrial Procedures | 23

Trial | 23

Post-Trial | 25

Emphasis on Discovery throughout this Text | 25

Summary | 25

Key Terms | 26

Review Questions | 27

Practice Exam | 28

Tort Teasers | 31

Internet Inquiries | 32

Chapter 3

Intentional Torts 33

Chapter Objectives | 33

What Is an Intentional Tort? | 34

Intentional Torts against Persons | 35

Intentional Torts against Property | 40

Defenses | 43

Case: State v. Warren | 48

Summary | 54

Key Terms | 55

Review Questions | 56

Practice Exam | 56

Practice Pointers | 60

Tort Teasers | 64

Internet Inquiries | 65

Practical Ponderables | 65

Part II

Reasons to Sue

Chapter 4

Negligence: Duty 68

Chapter Objectives | 68

Overview of Duty | 69

Possessors of Land | 70

Trespassers | 70

Trespassers as Rescuers | 72

Licensees | 74

Invitees | 74

Common Law Distinctions Today | 76

Outside the Possessor’s Property | 76

Landlord/Tenant Liability | 76

Case: Hemmings v. Pelham Wood Ltd. | 78

Sellers of Land | 82

Duty to Protect or Aid Others | 82

Case: Seebold v. Prison Health Service, Inc. | 84

Case: Linda Riss, Appellant, v. City of New York,

Respondent | 90

Unborn Children | 94

Case: Castro v. Melchor | 95

Vicarious Liability | 99

Practice Pointers | 100

Summary | 100

Key Terms | 101

Review Questions | 102

Practice Problem | 103

Tort Teasers | 104

Practical Ponderables | 105

Internet Inquiries | 105

Chapter 5

Negligence: Breach of Duty 106

Chapter Objectives | 106

What Is Reasonable Conduct? | 107

Learned Hand Formula | 107

Case: Opinion | 109

Restatement Position | 115

Reasonable-Person Standard—Objective versus Subjective | 116

What the Reasonable Person Is Expected to Know | 116

Defendants with Special Characteristics | 117

Children | 118

Emergencies | 119

Case: Cordas v. Peerless Transportation Co. | 119

Custom | 121

Professions | 121

Negligence Per Se | 122

Case: Milbert v. Wells Township Haunted House Inc. | 124

Automobile-Guest Statutes | 131

Res Ipsa Loquitur | 131

Application | 133

Summary | 134

Key Terms | 135

Review Questions | 135

Practice Exam | 136

Practice Pointers | 138

Tort Teasers | 139

Internet Inquiries | 140

Practical Ponderables | 140

Chapter 6

Negligence: Causation 141

Chapter Objectives | 141

Actual Cause | 142

Case: Mohr v. Grantham | 145

Proximate Cause | 148

Case: Palsgraf v. Long Island Rail Co. | 150

Exceptions to the Cardozo Rule | 157

Intervening Causes | 159

Case: Patterson v. Thunder Pass, Inc. | 161

Jury Question | 164

Application | 165

Summary | 166

Key Terms | 166

Review Questions | 167

Practice Exam | 168

Practice Pointers | 170

Tort Teasers | 172

**Internet Inquiries** | 173

Practical Ponderables | 174

Chapter 7

Negligence: Damages 175

Chapter Objectives | 175

Categories of Damages | 176

Illustration of Damages | 176

Shortened Life Expectancy | 179

Collateral-Source Rule | 180

Expenses of Litigation | 180

Damages for Physical Harm to Property | 181

Damages in Product Liability Cases | 181

Punitive Damages | 181

Case: Phillip Morris USA v. Williams | 188

Recovery for Loss of Consortium | 194

Assessment of Damages | 196

Wrongful-Death and Survival Actions | 197

Discounting Future Damages | 199

Structured Settlements | 200

Mitigation of Damages | 201

Mental Suffering | 201

Application | 203

Summary | 204

Key Terms | 205

Review Questions | 206

Practice Exam | 207

Practice Pointers | 212

Tort Teasers | 214

Internet Inquiries | 215

Practical Ponderables | 216

Chapter 8

Negligence: Defenses 217

Chapter Objectives | 217

Contributory Negligence | 218

Comparative Negligence | 220

Case: Children’s Wish Foundation Intern, Inc. v. Mayer Hoffman McCann, PC | 222

Case: Kaatz v. State | 229

Assumption of Risk | 233

Case: Pellham v. Let’s Go Tubing, Inc. | 237

Immunities | 243

Statutes of Limitations and Statutes of Repose | 248

Application | 248

Summary | 249

Key Terms | 250

Review Questions | 251

Practice Exam | 252

Practice Pointers | 256

Tort Teasers | 257

Internet Inquiries | 259

Practical Ponderables | 259

Chapter 9

Malpractice and Professional Negligence 260

Chapter Objectives | 260

What Is Reasonable Care? | 261

How Negligence Can Occur | 261

Case: O’Neal v. St. John Hospital and Medical Center | 263

Specialists | 271

Informed Consent | 271

Battery versus Negligence | 272

Case: Cuc Thi Ngo v. Queen’s Medical Center | 273

Defenses to Professional Negligence | 283

Maintaining Adequate Records | 284

Underlying Causes of Professional

Negligence Suits | 285

How to Prevent Professional Negligence Suits | 286

Medical Malpractice Crisis | 288

Summary | 290

Key Terms | 290

Review Questions | 290

Practice Exam | 291

Practice Pointers | 296

Tort Teasers | 298

Internet Inquiries | 298

Practical Ponderables | 299

Chapter 10

Misrepresentation, Nuisance, and Other Torts 300

Chapter Objectives | 300

Development of Misrepresentation and Its Relationship to Other Torts | 301

Intentional Misrepresentation | 301

Negligent Misrepresentation | 305

Innocent Misrepresentation | 308

Nuisance | 308

Interference with Business Relations | 314

Case: Ixchel Pharma LLC v. Biogen, Inc. | 316

Misuse of Legal Process | 324

Summary | 326

Key Terms | 327

Review Questions | 327

Practice Exam | 329

Tort Teasers | 333

Internet Inquiries | 334

Practical Ponderables | 335

Chapter 11

Strict Liability 336

Chapter Objectives | 336

Overview of Strict Liability | 337

Strict Liability for Harm Caused by Animals | 337

Case: Gruber v. YMCA of Greater Indianapolis | 338

Abnormally Dangerous Activities | 341

Case: City of Neodesha v. BP Corp. North America, Inc. | 343

Product Liability | 349

Limitations on Strict Liability | 350

Summary | 352

Key Terms | 352

Review Questions | 352

Practice Exam | 353

Practice Pointers | 354

Witness Statements | 355

Photographs | 355

Tort Teasers | 356

Internet Inquiries | 357

Practical Ponderables | 357

Chapter 12

Product Liability 358

Chapter Objectives | 358

Overview of Product Liability | 359

Theories of Recovery | 359

Types of Losses | 369

Types of Defects | 369

Defenses | 376

Preemption | 378

Class Actions | 380

Summary | 382

Key Terms | 383

Review Questions | 384

Practice Exam | 385

Practice Pointers | 391

Tort Teasers | 392

Internet Inquiries | 394

Practical Ponderables | 394

Chapter 13

Defamation and Related Torts 395

Chapter Objectives | 395

Libel versus Slander | 395

What Is a Defamatory Statement? | 397

Case: WFAA-TV v. McLemore | 402

Privileges | 407

Defamation on the Web | 409

Invasion of Privacy | 411

Case: Minnifield v. Ashcraft | 413

Injurious Falsehood | 419

Summary | 421

Key Terms | 422

Review Questions | 423

Practice Exam | 424

Practice Pointers | 428

Tort Teasers | 429

Internet Inquiries | 430

Practical Ponderables | 430

Part III

Whom to Sue

Chapter 14

Vicarious Liability 432

Chapter Objectives | 432

Overview of Vicarious Liability | 433

Employer–Employee Relationship | 433

Employers–Independent Contractors | 435

Case: Lee v. Pulitzer Publishing Co. | 436

Bailments | 444

Imputed Contributory Negligence | 445

Parental Liability | 447

Summary | 448

Key Terms | 449

Review Questions | 449

Practice Exam | 450

Practice Pointers | 453

Sample Interrogatories | 453

Tort Teasers | 454

Internet Inquiries | 455

Practical Ponderables | 455

Chapter 15

Joint Liability 456

Chapter Objectives | 456

Joint and Several Liability | 457

Case: In Re Stutsman | 459

Satisfaction | 463

Contribution | 463

Case: Spence v. Julian | 466

Release | 466

Case: Reutzel v. Hunter Yes, Inc. | 474

Indemnification | 476

Summary | 478

Key Terms | 478

Review Questions | 479

Practice Exam | 479

Practice Pointers | 482

Tort Teasers | 484

Internet Inquiries | 485

Practical Ponderables | 486

Part IV

Torts in Practice

Chapter 16

Tort Reform 488

Chapter Objectives | 488

Goals of the Tort System | 488

Historical Roots of Tort Reform | 489

Focus of Today’s Reformers | 490

Is There Really a Problem? | 495

Tort Reform in Practice | 497

Summary | 505

Review Questions | 505

Practice Exam | 506

Tort Teasers | 509

Internet Inquiries | 510

Practical Ponderables | 510

Chapter 17

Automobile Insurance 511

Chapter Objectives | 511

Overview of Automobile Insurance | 512

Automobile Liability Coverage | 512

Medical Payment Coverage | 514

Comprehensive Coverage | 515

Collision Insurance | 515

Miscellaneous Coverage | 515

Uninsured Motorist Coverage | 515

Underinsured Motorist Coverage | 517

Arbitration | 517

Termination | 518

No-Fault Insurance | 518

Summary | 520

Key Terms | 521

Review Questions | 521

Practice Exam | 522

Practice Pointers | 525

Tort Teasers | 526

Internet Inquiries | 527

Practical Ponderables | 527

Chapter 18

Bad Faith 528

Chapter Objectives | 528

How Bad Faith Is Committed | 529

Historical Development of Bad Faith Concept | 529

Overview of Bad Faith | 530

First-Party versus Third-Party Claims | 531

Case: Nardelli v. Metropolitan Group Property and

Cas. Ins. Co.| 534

Case: Scottsdale Insurance Company v. Addison Insurance Co.| 543

Declaratory Judgment Actions | 548

Uninsured and Underinsured Motorist Coverage | 549

Summary | 550

Key Terms | 551

Review Questions | 551

Practice Exam | 551

Practice Pointers | 553

Tort Teasers | 553

Internet Inquiries | 554

Practical Ponderables | 554

Chapter 19

Workers’ Compensation 555

Chapter Objectives | 555

What Is Workers’ Compensation? | 556

Historical Background | 556

The Statutory Framework | 557

Today’s Systems | 558

Filing a Workers’ Compensation Claim | 561

Current Issues in Workers’ Compensation | 562

Summary | 563

Key Terms | 564

Review Questions | 564

Practice Exam | 564

Practice Pointers | 566

Tort Teasers | 566

Practical Ponderables | 567

Appendix A

Suggested Responses to “Putting It into Practice” Exercises and Answers to Practice Exams 569

Appendix B

Interviewing 613

Appendix C

Overview of Insurance 621

Glossary | 629

Index | 634