Research Methods For Business Students, 9th Edition PDF by Mark NK Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill

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Research Methods For Business Students, Ninth Edition

By Mark N.K. Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill

Research Methods For Business Students, Ninth Edition

Contents:

How to use this book xvii

Preface xxiii

Contributors xxv

1 Research, reflective diaries and the

purpose of this book 2

Mark NK Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill

Learning outcomes 2

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 The nature of research 4

1.3 Business and management research 6

1.4 The research process 12

1.5 Keeping a reflective diary or research notebook 14

1.6 The purpose and structure of this book 16

1.7 Summary 20

Self-check questions 21

Review and discussion questions 21

Progressing your research project: Starting your reflective diary

or notebook 22

References 22

Further reading 23

Where do I even begin? 25

Emily A Morrison

Self-check answers 27

2 Generating a research idea and developing

your research proposal 28

Mark NK Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill

Learning outcomes 28

2.1 Introduction 28

2.2 Characteristics of good research ideas 30

2.3 Generating research ideas 33

2.4 Refining research ideas 40

2.5 Developing your overarching research question 42

2.6 Writing a research aim and set of research objectives 45

2.7 The importance of theory 48

2.8 The need for a research proposal 55

2.9 Structuring your research proposal 57

2.10 Summary 62

Self-check questions 63

Review and discussion questions 63

Progressing your research project: Choosing a research topic and

developing your research proposal 64

References 64

Further reading 66

Case 2: Keza’s research aim formulation 67

Adina Dudau

Self-check answers 69

3 Critically reviewing the literature 72

Mark NK Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill

Learning outcomes 72

3.1 Introduction 72

3.2 Being ‘critical’ and the purposes and forms of review 75

3.3 The content and structure of a critical review 80

3.4 Literature sources 83

3.5 Planning your literature search 91

3.6 Conducting your literature search 94

3.7 Reading critically and evaluating the literature 105

3.8 Note-taking and referencing 107

3.9 Using systematic review 110

3.10 Drafting the critical review 113

3.11 A note about plagiarism 116

3.12 Summary 117

Self-check questions 118

Review and discussion questions 119

Progressing your research project: Critically reviewing

the literature 120

References 120

Further reading 122

Case 3: Shaping powerful questions when reviewing

the literature 123

Mat Hughes

Self-check answers 126

4 Understanding research philosophy and

approaches to theory development 128

Mark NK Saunders, Philip Lewis, Adrian Thornhill and

Alexandra Bristow

Learning outcomes 128

4.1 Introduction 128

4.2 The philosophical underpinnings of business and management 131

4.3 Research paradigms 140

4.4 Five management philosophies 145

4.5 Approaches to theory development 154

4.6 Summary 161

Self-check questions 163

Review and discussion questions 163

Progressing your research project: Heightening your Awareness

of your Research Philosophy (HARP) 163

References 167

Further reading 170

Case 4: Working out your philosophical assumptions 171

Natasha Mauthner

Self-check answers 174

5 Formulating the research design 176

Mark NK Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill

Learning outcomes 176

5.1 Introduction 176

5.2 Achieving a coherent research design 178

5.3 The research purpose 179

5.4 Methodological choice: choosing a quantitative, qualitative

or mixed methods research design 181

5.5 Developing a coherent research strategy 191

5.6 Considering time horizons 212

5.7 Anticipating potential ethical issues 213

5.8 Assessing the quality of research design 214

5.9 Recognishing your role as researcher 220

5.10 Summary 222

Self-check questions 223

Review and discussion questions 224

Progressing your research project: Deciding on your

research design 224

References 225

Further reading 228

Case 5: Internationalizing strategy: Developing small firms

and their local communities via engaged scholarship 229

Fariba Darabi and Jonathan M Scott

Self-check answers 231

6 Negotiating access and research ethics 234

Mark NK Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill

Learning outcomes 234

6.1 Introduction 234

6.2 Characteristics of access 236

6.3 Researcher status 240

6.4 Internet-mediated access 242

6.5 Strategies to gain access 245

6.6 Research ethics and acting ethically 253

6.7 Ethical issues at specific research stages 262

6.8 Data protection principles 274

6.9 Summary 276

Self-check questions 277

Review and discussion questions 278

Progressing your research project: Negotiating access

and addressing ethical issues 278

References 279

Further reading 280

Case 6: Onboarding practices and employee retention 281

Josephine LaPointe

Self-check answers 284

7 Selecting samples 288

Mark NK Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill

Learning outcomes 288

7.1 Introduction 289

7.2 The need to sample 291

7.3 An overview of sampling procedures 293

7.4 Probability sampling – sampling frame 295

7.5 Probability sampling – sample size 297

7.6 Probability sampling – procedures 304

7.7 Probability sampling – representativeness 312

7.8 Non-probability sampling – sample size 313

7.9 Non-probability sampling – procedures 316

7.10 Mixed and multi-stage sampling designs 325

7.11 Summary 327

Self-check questions 328

Review and discussion questions 331

Progressing your research project: Using sampling as part of your

research 332

References 332

Further reading 334

Case 7: Female ride share app drivers’ careers in Tehran 335

Mina Beigi, Shahrzad Nayyeri and Melika Shirmohamma

Self-check answers 337

8 Obtaining and evaluating secondary data 342

Mark NK Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill

Learning outcomes 342

8.1 Introduction 342

8.2 Types of secondary data and uses in research 345

8.3 Advantages of secondary data 358

8.4 Disadvantages of secondary data 360

8.5 Searching for and locating secondary data 364

8.6 Evaluating and selecting secondary data sources 370

8.7 Summary 378

Self-check questions 379

Review and discussion questions 380

Progressing your research project: Assessing utility, selecting and

incorporating secondary data in your research 381

References 381

Further reading 384

Case 8: Investigating refugees’ challenges in setting

up a business 385

Megan Miralles, Marc Stierand and Viktor Dörfler

Self-check answers 387

9 Collecting primary data using

observation 390

Mark NK Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill

Learning outcomes 390

9.1 Introduction 390

9.2 Observation choices 392

9.3 Participant observation 400

9.4 Structured observation 410

9.5 Internet-mediated observation 418

9.6 Recording video 422

9.7 Creating static images 426

9.8 Audio recording 429

9.9 Summary 431

Self-check questions 432

Review and discussion questions 433

Progressing your research project: Deciding on the

appropriateness of observation 433

References 434

Further reading 435

Case 9: Observing leadership and team dynamics

using simulation 436

Trevor Morrow

Self-check answers 438

10 Collecting primary data using interviews

and diaries 440

Mark NK Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill

Learning outcomes 440

10.1 Introduction 440

10.2 Standardisation and structure in questioning 442

10.3 Interview mediums and modes 448

10.4 The potential of semi-structured and in-depth interviews 450

10.5 Data quality issues and evaluating interviewing practice 452

10.6 Preparing for semi-structured or in-depth interviewing 459

10.7 Conducting one-to-one face-to-face interviews 465

10.8 Conducting one-to-one online interviews 477

10.9 Conducting one-to-one telephone interviews 479

10.10 Conducting group interviews and focus groups 481

10.11 Conducting visual interviews 485

10.12 Using diaries and diary studies 488

10.13 Summary 494

Self-check questions 494

Review and discussion questions 496

Progressing your research project: Using research interviews and

research diaries 497

References 497

Further reading 500

Case 10: Conducting audio diaries of work-life conflict 501

Catherine Cassell

Self-check answers 503

11 Collecting primary data using

questionnaires 506

Mark NK Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill

Learning outcomes 506

11.1 Introduction 506

11.2 Questionnaires: an overview 509

11.3 Deciding what data need to be collected 514

11.4 Questionnaire validity and reliability 520

11.5 Designing individual questions 523

11.6 Designing the questionnaire 539

11.7 Pilot testing 548

11.8 Distributing the questionnaire 549

11.9 Summary 557

Self-check questions 558

Review and discussion questions 560

Progressing your research project: Using questionnaires

in your research 560

References 561

Further reading 563

Case 11: Assessing the utility of questionnaire scales 564

Sarah Forbes

Self-check answers 566

12 Analysing data quantitatively 572

Mark NK Saunders, Philip Lewis, Adrian Thornhill

and Catherine Wang

Learning outcomes 572

12.1 Introduction 572

12.2 Data types and precision of measurement 575

12.3 Preparing data for quantitative analysis 579

12.4 Data entry and checking 585

12.5 Exploring and presenting data: an overview 590

12.6 Exploring and presenting individual variables 593

12.7 Exploring and comparing two or more variables 602

12.8 Describing data using statistics 607

12.9 Statistical tests’ assumptions and hypothesis testing 613

12.10 Examining associations and differences 621

12.11 Assessing the strength of relationships 626

12.12 Making predictions 630

12.13 Examining trends 634

12.14 Summary 636

Self-check questions 637

Review and discussion questions 639

Progressing your research project: Analysing your

data quantitatively 640

References 640

Further reading 642

Case 12: High performance work practices in SMEs 643

Maura Sheehan and Mark NK Saunders

Self-check answers 647

13 Analysing data qualitatively 650

Mark NK Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill

Learning outcomes 650

13.1 Introduction 651

13.2 Analysing qualitative data, diversity and interactive

processes 652

13.3 Choosing a qualitative analysis technique 655

13.4 Preparing data for analysis 657

13.5 Aids to help analysis 661

13.6 Thematic Analysis 664

13.7 Template Analysis 675

13.8 Explanation Building and Testing 678

13.9 Grounded Theory Method 682

13.10 Narrative Analysis 687

13.11 Discourse analysis 690

13.12 Visual analysis 694

13.13 Data display and analysis 702

13.14 Using CAQDAS 704

13.15 Summary 707

Self-check questions 708

Review and discussion question 708

Progressing your research project: Analysing your

data qualitatively 709

References 710

Further reading 711

Case 13: What makes a good project tutor? 713

Neve Abgeller

Self-check answers 715

14 Writing and presenting the project report 718

Mark NK Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill

Learning outcomes 718

14.1 Introduction 718

14.2 Undertaking writing 720

14.3 Reporting approaches and report structures: an overview 724

14.4 The traditional (academic) report structure 726

14.5 Alternative (academic) report structures 736

14.6 The consultancy (practitioner) report 743

14.7 Ensuring clarity and accessibility 744

14.8 Developing an appropriate writing style 746

14.9 Meeting the assessment criteria 751

14.10 Writing a reflective essay or section 752

14.11 Presentations 753

14.12 Summary 760

Self-check questions 760

Review and discussion questions 761

Progressing your research project: Writing your project report 761

References 762

Further reading 763

Case 14: Chloe’s poster creation 764

Clare Burns

Self-check answers 767

Bibliography 768

Appendices 786

1 Systems of referencing 786

2 Calculating the minimum sample size 805

3 Guidelines for non-discriminatory language 807

Glossary 812

Index 839

Publisher’s acknowledgements 852

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