The College Writer: A Guide to Thinking, Writing and Researching, 7th Edition PDF by John Van Rys, Verne Meyer, Randall Vander Mey, and Pat Sebranek


The College Writer: A Guide to Thinking, Writing and Researching, Seventh Edition

By John Van Rys, Verne Meyer, Randall Vander Mey, and Pat Sebranek

The College Writer: A Guide to Thinking, Writing and Researching, Seventh Edition


Thematic Contents for Readings xvi

Preface xxii

The Writing Process

1 Getting Started 3

The Writing Process: From Start to Finish 4

Consider the Writing Process 4

Adapt the Process to Your Project 5

Aiming for Writing Excellence 6

Common Traits of College Writing 6

Common Traits in Action 7

Sample: “Hair Today, Gone Tomorrow” 7

Understanding Your Project 8

Analyze the Rhetorical Situation 8

Study the Assignment 9

Developing a Topic 10

Limit the Subject Area 10

Conduct Your Search 10

Explore Possible Topics 11

Freewrite to Discover and

Develop a Topic 12

Researching Your Topic 14

Find Out What You Already Know 14

Ask Questions 15

Identify Possible Sources 16

Track Sources 17

Getting Started: Applications 18

Learning-Objectives Checklist 18

2 Reading Critically 19

Cultivating Critical-Thinking Habits 20

Adopt a Critical-Thinking Mindset 20

Ask Probing Questions 21

Activate a Thinking Pattern 21

Using the SQ3R Reading Strategy 22

Survey 22

Question 22

Read 23

Recite 23

Review 23

Critical Thinking Through Reading 24

Maintain Focus and Attention 24

Sample: “Why Change Is So Hard:

Self-Control Is Exhaustible,” Dan Heath 24

Map the Text 26

Outline the Text 26

Evaluate the Text 27

Taking Notes Actively 28

Annotate the Text 28

Create a Double-Entry Notebook 29

Responding to a Text 30

Guidelines for Response Writing 30

Summarizing a Text 31

Guidelines for Summary Writing 31

Engaging with Social Media 32

Revisit the Rhetorical Situation 32

Beware of Bias 33

Avoid Confirmation Bias 33

Reading Critically: Applications 34

Learning-Objectives Checklist 34

3 Viewing Critically 35

Viewing an Image Actively 36

Follow Active-Viewing Steps 36

View a Sample Image 37

Interpreting an Image 38

Interpret a Sample Image 39

Evaluating an Image 40

Consider the Purpose 40

Evaluate the Quality 40

Determine the Value 40

Evaluate a Sample Image 41

Critiquing a Video 42

Before Viewing 42

During Viewing 42

After Viewing 43

Detecting Misinformation 44

Deepfakes 44

Deceptive Edits 44

Out-of-Context Images 44

Doctored Images 45

Visual Misinformation:

A Case Study 45

Viewing Critically: Applications 46

Learning-Objectives Checklist 46

4 Planning Your Piece 47

Forming Your Thesis Statement 48

Find a Focus 48

State Your Thesis 48

Refine Your Thesis 49

Developing a Plan or an Outline 50

Discover Organization in Your

Thesis 50

Refer Back to Your Prewriting 50

Structure Your Writing for the

Development of Ideas 50

Consider Inductive and Deductive

Patterns 51

Experimenting with Mapping

Methods 52

Quick Lists 52

Topic Outline 53

Sentence Outline 54

Writing Organizers 55

Planning the Design of Your

Project 55

Consider the Rhetorical Situation 55

Choose Design Elements 56

Consider Multimodal Elements 57

Planning Your Piece: Applications 58

Learning-Objectives Checklist 58

5 Drafting: From Paragraphs to

Essays 59

Basic Essay Structure: Major Moves 60

Tips for Drafting 61

Drafting Paragraphs 61

Types of Paragraphs 61

Use a Basic Pattern for Body

Paragraphs 62

Vary Your Paragraph Style 63

Opening Your Draft 64

Engage Your Reader 64

Establish Your Direction 64

Get to the Point 65

Developing the Middle 66

Advance Your Thesis 66

Test Your Ideas 66

Make Writing Moves 67

Ending Your Draft 70

Reassert the Main Point 70

Urge the Reader 70

Complete and Unify Your

Message 71

The Last Step in Drafting: Your

Working Title 71

Drafting: Applications 72

Learning-Objectives Checklist 72

6 Revising Your Draft 73

Tips for Revising Your Work 74

Use Practical Strategies 74

Consider Your Overall Approach 74

Revising Your Ideas 75

Test Your Ideas 75

Test Your Evidence 76

Revising Your Organization 77

Check Your Overall Plan 77

Revisit Your Opening 77

Test the Flow of Ideas 78

Revisit Your Closing 78

Revising Your Voice 79

Check the Level of Commitment 79

Check the Intensity 79

Strengthening Your Body

Paragraphs 80

Remember the Basics 80

Keep the Purpose in Mind 80

Check for Unity 81

Check for Coherence 83

Check for Completeness 85

Revising Collaboratively 86

Know Your Role 86

Provide Appropriate Feedback 86

Respond According to a Plan 87

Revising Your Draft: Applications 88

Learning-Objectives Checklist 88

7 Polishing Your Prose 89

Tips for Polishing Your Prose 90

Use Tools and Methods That

Work 90

Proofread Plus 90

Strengthening Sentence Style 91

Recognize Sentence Style

Problems 91

Edit Sentences to Give Them an

Academic Style 92

Fix Primer Style 94

Fix Repetitive Patterns with Varied

Structures 96

Fix Overuse of the Passive Voice 98

Fix Unparallel Structure 99

Fix Weak Constructions 100

Eliminate Wordiness 101

Fixing Weak Wording 102

Substitute Specific Words 102

Replace Jargon and Clichés 103

Replace Questionable Wording with

Plain English 104

Replace Biased Words with Fair and

Inclusive Language 105

Polishing Your Prose: Applications 108

Learning-Objectives Checklist 108

8 One Writer’s Process 109

Ariana’s Assignment and

Response 110

Ariana Examined the

Assignment 110

Ariana Explored and Narrowed Her

Assignment 111

Ariana’s Planning 112

Ariana Focused Her Topic 112

Ariana Researched the Topic 112

Ariana Decided How to Organize Her

Writing 113

Ariana’s First Draft 114

Ariana’s Revision 116

Ariana’s Edited Draft 118

Angela’s Proofread Draft 119

Angela’s Finished Essay 120

One Writer’s Process: Applications 123

Learning-Objectives Checklist 123

Traits of College Writing:

A Checklist 124

Modes of Writing

9 Forms of College Writing 127

Three Curricular Divisions 128

Writing in the Humanities 129

The Purpose of Inquiry 129

Forms of Humanities Writing 129

Humanities Research Methods 129

Writing in the Social Sciences 130

The Purpose of Inquiry 130

Forms of Social-Science Writing 130

Social-Science Research Methods 130

Writing in the Natural and Applied

Sciences 131

The Purpose of Inquiry 131

Forms of Natural-Science

Writing 131

Natural-Science Research

Methods 131

The Rhetorical Modes 132

The Modes as Thinking

Frameworks 132

The Modes at Work 133

Multimodal Projects 134

Modes: Methods of

Communication 134

Forms of Multimodal Projects 134

Forms of College Writing:

Applications 136

Learning-Objectives Checklist 136

10 Personal Writing 137

Meeting the Mode 138

Sample: “Spare Change,” Teresa

Zsuffa 138

Converse with the Mode 141

Strategies for Writing Personal

Essays 142

The Rhetorical Situation 142

Principles of Narration 142

Principles of Description 144

Principles of Reflection 145

Patterns for Personal Essays: Thesis

Thinking 146

Patterns for Personal Essays: Writing

Moves 147

Personal Essays: Learning Writers’

Moves 149

Exploring Our Relationship with

Death 149

Sample: “Speaking Ill of the Dead,”

Rachel Ten Hove 149

Exploring an Immigrant Identity 152

Sample: “It Took Me 18 Years to

Embrace My Name,” Fiza

Pirani 152

Examining a Failed Institution 156

Sample: “What I Learned in Prison,”

James Kilgore 156

DIY: Craft Your Own Personal

Essay 160

Planning 160

Drafting 161

Revising 161

Polishing 161

Publishing 161

The Personal Essay: Applications 162

Learning-Objectives Checklist 162

11 Analytical Writing: Definition 163

Meeting the Mode 164

Sample: “The Gullible Family,” Mary

Bruins 164

Converse with the Mode 165

Strategies for Writing Definition

Essays 166

The Rhetorical Situation 166

Principles of Definition Writing 166

Patterns for Definition Essays: Thesis

Thinking 168

Patterns for Definition Essays: Writing

Moves 169

Definition Essays: Learning Writers’

Moves 170

Explaining a Misunderstood

Term 170

Sample: “How ‘Namaste’ Flew Away

from Us,” Kumari Devarajan 170

Examining the Changing Meaning of a

Social Phrase 173

Sample: “The History of ‘Coming

Out’: From Secret Gay Code to

Popular Political Protest,” Abigail

Saguy 173

Defining Ethnic and Racial

Attitudes 177

Sample: “Dead Indians,” Thomas

King 177

DIY: Craft Your Own Definition

Essay 182

Planning 182

Drafting 183

Revising 183

Polishing 183

Publishing 183

Definition Essays: Applications 184

Learning-Objectives Checklist 184

12 Analytical Writing: Classification 185

Meeting the Mode 186

Sample: “Why We Lift,” Hillary

Gammons 186

Converse with the Mode 187

Strategies for Writing Classification

Essays 188

The Rhetorical Situation 188

Principles of Classification

Writing 188

Patterns for Classification Essays:

Thesis Thinking 189

Patterns for Classification Essays:

Writing Moves 190

Classification Essays: Learning Writers’

Moves: 191

Analyzing Forms of Music 191

Sample: “Latin American Music: A

Diverse and Unifying Force,”

Kathleen Marsh 191

Analyzing Artificial Intelligence 195

Sample: “Understanding the Four

Types of AI: From Reactive Robots

to Self-Aware Beings,” Arend

Hintze 195

Approaches to Literary Criticism 199

Sample: “Four Ways to Talk About

Literature,” John Van Rys 199

DIY: Craft Your Own Classification

Essay 202

Planning 202

Drafting 203

Revising 203

Polishing 203

Publishing 203

Classification Essays: Applications 204

Learning-Objectives Checklist 204

13 Analytical Writing: Process 205

Meeting the Mode 206

Sample: “American Lumpia: Filipino

Egg Roll,” Andrea Santiago 206

Converse with the Mode 208

Strategies for Writing Process

Essays 209

The Rhetorical Situation 209

Principles of Process Writing 209

Patterns for Process Essays: Thesis

Thinking 210

Patterns for Process Essays: Writing

Moves 211

Process Essays: Learning Writers’

Moves 212

Analyzing a Cultural Practice 212

Sample: “Chasing the Stoke,” Tim

Zekveld 212

Analyzing a Natural Process 216

Sample: “Yogurt: Milk & Mayhem,”

Nina Mukerjee Furstenau 216

Analyzing a Policy 220

Sample: “The Emancipation of Abe

Lincoln,” Eric Foner 220

DIY: Craft Your Own Process

Essay 224

Planning 224

Drafting 224

Revising 225

Polishing 225

Publishing 225

Process Essays: Applications 226

Learning-Objectives Checklist 226

14 Analytical Writing: Compare and

Contrast 227

Meeting the Mode 228

Sample: “Modern Arranged

Marriages,” Ariana King 228

Converse with the Mode 229

Strategies for Writing Compare-

Contrast Essays 230

The Rhetorical Situation 230

Principles of Compare-Contrast

Writing 230

Patterns for Compare-Contrast

Essays: Thesis Thinking 232

Patterns for Compare-Contrast

Essays: Writing Moves 233

Compare-Contrast Essays: Learning

Writers’ Moves 234

Analyzing Two Cultures 234

Sample: “Beyond the Polite Smile,”

Janice Pang 234

Analyzing Human Compassion 236

Sample: “Why We Care About

Whales,” Marina Keegan 236

Analyzing Internet Bullying 240

Sample: “How the Internet Has

Changed Bullying,” Maria

Konnikova 240

DIY: Craft Your Own Compare-

Contrast Essay 244

Planning 244

Drafting 244

Revising 245

Polishing 245

Publishing 245

Compare-Contrast Essays:

Applications 246

Learning-Objectives Checklist 246

15 Analytical Writing: Cause and

Effect 247

Meeting the Mode 248

Sample: “Adrenaline Junkies,” Sarah

Hanley 248

Converse with the Mode 249

Strategies for Writing Cause-Effect

Essays 250

The Rhetorical Situation 250

Principles of Cause-Effect

Writing 250

Patterns for Cause-Effect Essays:

Thesis Thinking 252

Patterns for Cause-Effect Essays:

Writing Moves 253

Cause-Effect Essays: Learning Writers’

Moves 254

Analyzing Password Protection 254

Sample: “1$_Your_P@$$wOrd_

Cl3v3r?,” Scott Reichelt 254

Analyzing the African American

Experience of Baseball 259

Sample: “On the 100th Anniversary of

the Negro Leagues: A Look Back at

What Was Lost,” Rob Ruck 259

Analyzing a Trend 263

Sample: “The Rise of the New

Groupthink,” Susan Cain 263

DIY: Craft Your Own Cause-Effect

Essay 268

Planning 268

Drafting 269

Revising 269

Polishing 269

Publishing 269

Cause-Effect Essays: Applications 270

Learning-Objectives Checklist 270

16 Reading Literature: A Case Study in

Analysis 271

Strategies for Analyzing Literature and

the Arts 272

The Rhetorical Situation 272

Principles of Literary-Analysis

Writing 272

Patterns for Literary-Analysis Essays:

Thesis Thinking 275

Patterns for Literary-Analysis Essays:

Writing Moves 276

Analyzing Literature: Learning Writers’

Moves 277

Analyzing a Poem 277

Sample: “Let Evening Come,” Jane

Kenyon 277

Sample: “‘Let Evening Come’: An

Invitation to the Inevitable,”

Sherry Mantel 278

Sample: “The World Is Too Much With

Us,” William Wordsworth 280

Analyzing a Short Story 281

Sample: “‘A Clean, Well-Lighted Place’:

Emotional Darkness,” by Julia

Jansen 281

Analyzing a Film 284

Sample: “The Revenant: A Brutal

Masterpiece,” by James C.

Schaap 284

Literary Terms 288

Poetry Terms 291

DIY: Craft Your Own Literary

Analysis 292

Planning 292

Drafting 292

Revising 293

Polishing 293

Publishing 293

Analyzing Literature: Applications 294

Learning-Objectives Checklist 294

17 Persuasive Writing: Strategies for

Argumentation 295

Meeting the Mode 296

Sample: “America Needs a Ministry of

(Actual) Truth,” Josh Wilbur 296

Converse with the Mode 300

Structuring Arguments 301

Understand Toulmin

Argumentation 301

Toulmin Patterns 302

Understand Rogerian

Argumentation 302

Rogerian Patterns 303

Choose an Approach 304

Engaging the Opposition 305

Make Concessions 305

Develop Rebuttals 305

Consolidate Your Claim 305

Arguing Through Appeals 306

Appeal to Ethos 306

Appeal to Pathos 306

Appeal to Logos 307

Making and Qualifying Claims 308

Distinguish Claims from Facts and

Opinions 308

Distinguish Three Types of

Claims 308

Develop a Supportable Claim 309

Supporting Your Claims 310

Gather Evidence 310

Use Evidence 311

Identifying Logical Fallacies 313

Distorting the Issue 313

Sabotaging the Argument 314

Drawing Faulty Conclusions from the

Evidence 315

Misusing Evidence 315

Misusing Language 316

Identifying Fallacies in Others’

Arguments 317

Sample: “Executive Deception: Four

Fallacies About Divestment, and

One Big Mistake,” Kathleen Dean

Moore 317

Strategies for Argumentation:

Applications 320

Learning-Objectives Checklist 320

18 Persuasive Writing: Positions, Actions,

and Solutions 321

Meeting the Mode 322

Sample: “Evening the Odds,” Dave

DeHaan 322

Converse with the Mode 323

Strategies for Persuasive Writing 324

The Rhetorical Situation 324

Principles: Taking a Stand 324

Principles: Calling for Action 325

Principles: Proposing a Solution 326

Patterns for Persuasive Essays: Thesis

Thinking 328

Patterns for Persuasive Essays:

Writing Moves 329

Persuasive Essays: Learning Writers’

Moves 330

Solving the Problem of E-Waste 330

Sample: “Remedying an E-Waste

Economy,” Rachel DeBruyn 330

Addressing a Racial Problem 334

Sample: “Reaction GIFs of Black People

Are More Problematic Than You

Think,” Naomi Day 334

Debating Latinx 338

Sample: “Why ‘Latinx’ Is Succeeding

While Other Gender-Neutral

Terms Fail to Catch On,” Katy

Steinmetz 338

Sample: “Can We Please Stop

Using ‘Latinx’? Thanx,” Kurly

Tlapoyawa 341

Calling for Action on Cannabis 345

Sample: “Is Marijuana as Safe as We

Think?,” Malcolm Gladwell 345

DIY: Craft Your Own Persuasive

Essay 353

Planning 353

Drafting 354

Revising 355

Polishing 355

Publishing 355

Persuasive Essays: Applications 356

Learning-Objectives Checklist 356

Online Bonus Chapters

A Taking Essay Tests A-1

Reviewing for Tests A-2

Perform Daily Reviews A-2

Perform Longer Weekly Reviews A-2

Forming a Study Group A-3

Considering the Testing Situation A-4

Taking the Essay Test A-5

Look for Key Words A-5

Plan and Write the Essay-Test

Answer A-7

Writing Under Pressure: The Essay

Test A-10

Taking an Objective Test A-11

Tips for Coping with Test Anxiety A-12

B Writing for the Workplace B-1

Writing Emails and Messages B-2

Choosing the Right Medium B-2

Messaging Effectively B-2

Emailing Effectively B-3

Writing Business Letters B-4

Parts of the Business Letter B-4

Writing Memos B-6

Applying for a Job B-7

Sample Letter of Application B-7

Sample Recommendation-Request

Letter B-8

The Application Essay B-9

Preparing a Resume B-11

Sample Résumé B-12

Sample Electronic Résumé B-13

C Preparing Oral Presentations C-1

Organizing Your Presentation C-2

Prepare an Introduction C-2

Develop the Body C-3

Come to a Conclusion C-4

Hold a Q & A Session C-4

Writing Your Presentation C-5

Sample Speech C-6

Sample: “Save Now or Pay

Later,” Burnette Sawyer C-6

Use Visual Aids C-8

Developing Digital Presentations C-9

Overcoming Stage Fright

Checklist C-10

D Multimodal Projects D-1

Meeting Multimodal Texts D-2

Converse with the Mode D-3

Strategies for Crafting Multimodal

Texts D-4

The Rhetorical Situation D-4

Principles of Multimodality D-4

Patterns for Multimodal Texts: Thesis

Thinking D-6

Patterns for Multimodal Texts:

Composing Moves D-7

Multimodal Texts: Learning

Composers’ Moves D-8

Poking Fun at Technology

Dependency D-8

Sample: “Slowpoke,” Jen Sorensen D-9

Blogging About a Historical

Figure D-10

Sample: “‘Hamilton,’—About

Alexander and Eliza’s Last

Goodbye,” Neely Tucker D-10

Craft Your Own Multimodal Text D-13

Multimodal Projects:

Applications D-15

Learning-Objectives Checklist D-15

III. Research and Writing

19 Planning Your Research 359

Your Project: Writing a Research

Proposal 360

Understand the Parts of a Research

Proposal 360

Sample: “Film Studies 201 Proposal:

Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice

as Fiction and Film,” Gwendolyn

Mackenzie 360

Research: An Overview 362

The Research Process 362

The Research Frame of Mind 363

Getting Focused 364

Establish a Narrow, Manageable

Topic 364

Brainstorm Research Questions 364

Develop a Working Thesis 365

Understanding Primary, Secondary,

and Tertiary Sources 366

Primary Sources 366

Secondary Sources 366

Tertiary Sources 367

Exploring Information Resources and

Sites 368

Consider Different Information

Resources 368

Consider Different Information Sites 369

Planning Keyword Searches 370

Choose Keywords Carefully 370

Learn Keyword Strategies 371

Building a Working Bibliography 372

Select an Efficient Approach for Your

Project 372

Developing a Research Plan 373

Choose Research Methods 373

Get Organized to Do Research 373

Planning Your Research: Applications 374

Learning-Objectives Checklist 374

20 Doing Research 375

Your Project: Creating an Annotated

Bibliography 376

The Elements of an Annotated Bibliography 376

Sample Annotated Bibliography 376

Sample: “Project on Alice Munro’s

Runaway: An Annotated

Bibliography” 376

Working with Your Sources 378

Engage Your Sources 378

Choose a Note-Taking System 379

Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and

Quoting Source Material 382

Rate Source Reliability and

Depth 385

Evaluate Each Source 386

Test Free-Web Sources 387

Sample Evaluations 388

Doing Primary Research 390

Methods of Primary Research 390

Principles for Doing Primary

Research 391

Conduct Surveys 392

Analyze Texts, Documents, Records,

and Artifacts 394

Conduct Interviews 396

Make Observations 398

Doing Library Research 399

Search the Catalog 400

Locate Resources by Call

Numbers 401

Work with the Books You Find 402

Consult Reference Resources 403

Find Articles Via Databases 404

Doing Free-Web Research 405

Using Search and Metasearch 405

Use Search Engines Effectively 406

Understanding the Uses and Limits of Wikipedia 408

Doing Research: Applications 410

Learning-Objectives Checklist 410

21 Practicing Research Ethics 411

Your Project: Writing a Literature Review 412

Guidelines for Writing a Literature

Review 412

Sample: “Assertiveness Use and Abuse

Experience of Haitian Women:

A Literature Review,” Kadee

Rowe 413

Research Ethics: A Primer 418

Participation in Information

Culture 418

Your Research-Writing

Responsibilities 419

Developing Credibility Through Source

Use 420

Writing with Poor Use of Sources 420

Writing with Strong Use of

Sources 421

Recognizing Plagiarism 422

What Is Plagiarism? 422

What Does Plagiarism Look

Like? 422

Understanding Why Plagiarism Is

Serious 424

Academic Dishonesty 424

Theft from the Academic

Community 424

Present and Future Harm 424

Avoiding Plagiarism 425

Avoiding Other Source Abuses 426

Sample Source Abuses 426

Related Academic Offenses 427

Practicing Research Ethics:

Applications 428

Learning-Objectives Checklist 428

22 Drafting Research Papers 429

Papers with Documented Research:

Quick Guide 430

Reviewing Your Findings 431

Deepen Your Thinking on the

Topic 431

Sharpen Your Working Thesis 431

Considering Methods of

Organization 432

Organizational Practices That Consider Sources 432

Traditional Organizational Patterns 433

Considering Drafting Strategies 434

Choose a Drafting Method 434

Respect Your Sources While

Drafting 434

Reason with the Evidence 435

Using Source Material in Your

Writing 436

Integrate Source Material Carefully 436

Effectively Document Your Sources 438

Mark Changes to Quotations 439

Sample Research Paper: A Humanities Essay 440

Sample: “Chipping Away at Our

Privacy?,” Lucas Koomans 440

Sample Research Paper: Science

IMRAD Report 445

Sample: “The Effects of the Eastern

Red Cedar on Seedlings and

Implications for Allelopathy,”Dana Kleckner, Brittany Korver, Nicolette Storm, and Adam Verhoef 445

Drafting a Research Paper: Applications 452

Learning-Objectives Checklist 452

23 MLA Style 453

MLA Documentation: Quick Guide 454

In-Text Citation: The Basics 454

Works Cited: Nine Core Elements 455

Guidelines for In-Text Citations 456

Citations for Regular Sources 456

Citations for Sources Without Traditional Authorship and/or Pagination 457

Sample In-Text Citations 458

Guidelines for Works-Cited Entries 464

Works-Cited Template 464

Works-Cited Components 464

Optional Elements 467

Sample Works-Cited Entries 468

Books 468

Periodical Articles 470

Interviews and Personal Correspondence 471

Multimedia Works 472

Government Publications, Reference Works, and Other Documents 473

Two or More Works by the Same Author 474

MLA Format Guidelines 475

MLA Format at a Glance 475

Whole-Paper Format and Printing Issues 476

Typographical Issues 477

Page-Layout Issues 478

Formatting Non-Print Media 479

Sample MLA Paper 479

Sample Paper: Format, In-Text

Citation, and Works-Cited List 480

Sample: “Consequences of Childhood

Staples: Do Barbies and Disney

Princesses Do More Harm Than

Good to Girls’ Self-Esteem?,” Annie Sears 480

MLA Style: Applications 490

Learning-Objectives Checklist 490

24 APA Style 491

APA Documentation: Quick

Guide 492

In-Text Citation: The Basics 492

References: The Basics 493

Guidelines for In-Text Citations 494

The Form of an Entry 494

Points to Remember 494

Sample In-Text Citations 494

Guidelines for APA References 498

Sample Reference Entries 499

Books and Other Documents 499

Print Periodical Articles 502

Online Sources 504

Other Sources (Primary, Personal,

and Multimedia) 507

APA Format Guidelines 509

Sample APA Paper 510

Sample: “The Silent Sibling: How

Current Autism Intervention

Neglects Typically-Developing

Siblings,” Julia Sweigert 510

Sample Title Page 510

Sample Abstract 511

APA Style: Applications 520

Learning-Objectives Checklist 520


25 Understanding Grammar 523

Noun 523

Classes of Nouns 523

Forms of Nouns 524

Exercises 526

Pronoun 527

Classes of Pronouns 528

Forms of Personal Pronouns 529

Exercises 531

Verb 532

Classes of Verbs 532

Forms of Verbs 533

Verbals 536

Irregular Verbs 537

Exercises 538

Adjective 539

Adverb 540

Preposition 541

Conjunction 542

Interjection 542

Exercises 543

26 Constructing Sentences 545

Using Subjects and Predicates 545

The Subject 545

The Predicate (Verb) 547

Exercises 548

Using Phrases 549

Types of Phrases 549

Using Clauses 551

Types of Clauses 551

Using Sentence Variety 552

Kinds of Sentences 552

Structure of Sentences 553

Exercises 554

27 Avoiding Sentence Errors 555

Subject–Verb Agreement 555

Pronoun–Antecedent Agreement 559

Exercises 560

Shifts in Sentence Construction 561

Fragments, Comma Splices, and

Run-Ons 562

Exercises 564

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers 565

Ambiguous Wording 566

Exercises 567

Nonstandard Language 568

Exercises 569

Avoiding Sentence Problems Review 570

28 Marking Punctuation 571

Period 571

Ellipsis 572

Question Mark 573

Exercises 574

Comma 575

Exercises 580

Semicolon 581

Colon 582

Hyphen 583

Dash 585

Exercises 586

Quotation Marks 587

Italics (Underlining) 589

Parentheses 590

Diagonal 590

Brackets 591

Exclamation Point 591

Apostrophe 592

Exercises 594

29 Checking Mechanics 595

Capitalization 595

Exercises 599

Plurals 600

Numbers 602

Exercises 604

Abbreviations 605

Acronyms and Initialisms 607

Exercises 608

Basic Spelling Rules 609

Commonly Misspelled Words 610

Steps to Becoming a Better Speller 615

Exercises 616

30 Using the Right Word 617

Exercises 620

Exercises 624

Exercises 628

Exercises 632

31 Multilingual and ESL Guidelines 633

Five Parts of Speech 633

Noun 633

Articles and Other Noun

Markers 634

Exercises 636

Verb 637

Objects and Complements of Verbs 638

Exercises 643

Adjective 644

Adverb 645

Preposition 646

Exercises 647

Understanding Sentence Basics 648

Sentence Problems 649

Exercises 651

Numbers, Word Parts, and Idioms 652

Numbers 652

Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots 653

Exercises 654

Idioms 655

Exercises 658

Mixed Review Exercises 659

Index 665

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