## A Concise Introduction to Logic, 14th Edition

By Patrick J Hurley

**Contents:**

Preface xi

1 Basic Concepts 1

1.1 Arguments, Premises, and Conclusions 1

Exercise 1.1 6

1.2 Recognizing Arguments 12

Exercise 1.2 21

1.3 Deduction and Induction 29

Exercise 1.3 35

1.4 Validity, Truth, Soundness, Strength, and Cogency 39

Exercise 1.4 48

1.5 Argument Forms: Proving Invalidity 52

Exercise 1.5 56

1.6 Extended Arguments 58

Exercise 1.6 62

2 Language: Meaning and Definition 70

2.1 Varieties of Meaning 70

Exercise 2.1 74

2.2 The Intension and Extension of Terms 80

Exercise 2.2 83

2.3 Definitions and Their Purposes 84

Exercise 2.3 89

2.4 Definitional Techniques 92

Exercise 2.4 97

2.5 Criteria for Lexical Definitions 101

Exercise 2.5 103

3 Informal Fallacies 107

3.1 Fallacies in General 107

Exercise 3.1 109

3.2 Fallacies of Relevance 110

Exercise 3.2 120

3.3 Fallacies of Weak Induction 125

Exercise 3.3 135

3.4 Fallacies of Presumption, Ambiguity,

and Illicit Transference 141

Exercise 3.4 152

3.5 Fallacies in Ordinary Language 159

Exercise 3.5 164

4 Categorical Propositions 175

4.1 The Components of Categorical Propositions 175

Exercise 4.1 178

4.2 Quality, Quantity, and Distribution 179

Exercise 4.2 182

4.3 Venn Diagrams and the Modern Square of

Opposition 183

Exercise 4.3 193

4.4 Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition 194

Exercise 4.4 200

4.5 The Traditional Square of Opposition 203

Exercise 4.5 208

4.6 Venn Diagrams and the Traditional

Standpoint 213

Exercise 4.6 217

4.7 Translating Ordinary Language Statements into

Categorical Form 219

Exercise 4.7 224

5 Categorical Syllogisms 231

5.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure 231

Exercise 5.1 235

5.2 **Venn Diagrams** 238

Exercise 5.2 245

5.3 Rules and Fallacies 248

Exercise 5.3 253

5.4 Reducing the Number of Terms 255

Exercise 5.4 257

5.5 Ordinary Language Arguments 258

Exercise 5.5 260

5.6 Enthymemes 261

Exercise 5.6 263

5.7 Sorites 266

Exercise 5.7 269

6 Propositional Logic 275

6.1 Symbols and Translation 275

Exercise 6.1 283

6.2 Truth Functions 287

Exercise 6.2 294

6.3 Truth Tables for Propositions 296

Exercise 6.3 301

6.4 Truth Tables for Arguments 304

Exercise 6.4 306

6.5 Indirect Truth Tables 310

Exercise 6.5 316

6.6 Argument Forms and Fallacies 318

Exercise 6.6 327

7 Natural Deduction in Propositional Logic 336

7.1 Rules of Implication I 336

Exercise 7.1 341

7.2 Rules of Implication II 347

Exercise 7.2 350

7.3 Rules of Replacement I 355

Exercise 7.3 359

7.4 Rules of Replacement II 366

Exercise 7.4 369

7.5 Conditional Proof 377

Exercise 7.5 380

7.6 Indirect Proof 382

Exercise 7.6 384

7.7 Proving Logical Truths 387

Exercise 7.7 388

8 Predicate Logic 390

8.1 Symbols and Translation 390

Exercise 8.1 396

8.2 Using the Rules of Inference 398

Exercise 8.2 404

8.3 Quantifier Negation Rule 408

Exercise 8.3 411

8.4 Conditional and Indirect Proof 413

Exercise 8.4 415

8.5 Proving Invalidity 418

Exercise 8.5 421

8.6 Relational Predicates and Overlapping Quantifiers 423

Exercise 8.6 429

8.7 Identity 432

Exercise 8.7 439

9 Analogy and Legal and Moral Reasoning 447

9.1 Analogical Reasoning 447

9.2 Legal Reasoning 450

9.3 Moral Reasoning 453

Exercise 9 457

10 Causality and Mill’s Methods 467

10.1 “Cause” and Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 467

10.2 Mill’s Five Methods 469

10.3 Mill’s Methods and Science 477

Exercise 10 482

11 Probability 490

11.1 Theories of Probability 490

11.2 The Probability Calculus 494

Exercise 11 502

12 Statistical Reasoning 506

12.1 Evaluating Statistics 506

12.2 Samples 507

12.3 The Meaning of “Average” 511

12.4 Dispersion 512

12.5 Graphs and Pictograms 516

12.6 Percentages 518

Exercise 12 520

13 Hypothetical/Scientific Reasoning 526

13.1 The Hypothetical Method 526

13.2 Hypothetical Reasoning: Four Examples from

Science 529

13.3 The Proof of Hypotheses 534

13.4 The Tentative Acceptance of Hypotheses 536

Exercise 13 538

14 Science and Superstition 543

14.1 Distinguishing Between Science and Superstition 543

14.2 Evidentiary Support 544

14.3 Objectivity 548

14.4 Integrity 552

14.5 Abusing Science 556

Exercise 14 560

Answers to Selected Exercises 571

Glossary/Index 615