Criminology in Canada: Theories, Patterns, and Typologies, 8th Edition PDF by Larry J Siegel, Chris McCormick

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Criminology in Canada: Theories, Patterns, and Typologies, 8th Edition

By Larry J Siegel, Chris McCormick

Criminology in Canada Theories, Patterns, and Typologies, 8th Edition

Contents:

Preface xv

About the Authors xxiii

Section 1

Concepts of Crime, Law, and

Criminology 1

Chapter 1

Crime and Criminology 2

Introduction 3

What Is Criminology? 4

Criminology and Criminal Justice 5

Criminology and Deviance 5

Key Court Case: R. v. Sharpe (2001) 7

Concept Summary 1.1: Criminology, Criminal Justice, and

Deviance 7

A Brief History of Criminology 7

Classical Criminology 8

19th-Century Positivism 8

Positivist Criminology 9

Cesare Lombroso and the Criminal Man 9

The Development of Sociological Criminology 10

The Chicago School and the McGill School 11

Conflict Criminology 11

Criminology Today 11

Concept Summary 1.2: The Major Perspectives of

Criminology 12

What Criminologists Do: The Criminological Enterprise 12

Criminal Statistics 12

Concept Summary 1.3: The Criminological Enterprise 13

Sociology of Law 13

Theory Construction 14

Criminal Behaviour Systems 14

Penology 14

Victimology 14

How Do Criminologists View Crime? 15

Crime, Conflict, and Disorder: Unmarked Burials Found at

Former Residential School 15

The Consensus View of Crime 16

The Conflict View of Crime 16

The Interactionist View of Crime 16

Defining Crime 17

Concept Summary 1.4: The Definition of Crime Affects

How Criminologists View the Cause and Control of Illegal

Behaviour and Shapes Their Research Orientation 17

The Politics of Crime 18

Doing Criminology 18

Survey Research 18

Longitudinal (Cohort) Research 18

Aggregate Data Research 19

Experimental Research 19

Focus on Research: Canadian Crime Trends, 2019 20

Analyzing Policy 21

Observational and Interview Research 21

Ethical Issues in Criminology 21

Profile of a Crime: Canada’s Deadliest

Serial Killers 22

Summary 23

Applying Criminology 24

Chapter 2

The Criminal Law and Its Process 27

Introduction 28

The Origins of Law 28

Early Legal Codes 28

Early Crime, Punishment, and Law 29

Origins of Common Law 29

The Common Law 30

Common Law and Statutory Law 31

Concept Summary 2.1: Common-Law Crimes 31

The Development of Law in Canada 32

Classification of Law 33

Criminal and Civil Law 33

Indictable and Summary Offences 34

Mala in Se and Mala Prohibitum 35

Functions of the Criminal Law 35

Providing Social Control 35

Discouraging Revenge 37

Expressing Public Opinion and Morality 37

Deterring Criminal Behaviour 37

Focus on Research: What Happens When People Go Outside

the Law to Uphold Justice 38

Maintaining the Social Order 39

The Legal Definition of a Crime 40

Actus Reus 40

Mens Rea 40

Strict Liability 41

Criminal Defences 41

Ignorance or Mistake 41

Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental

Disorder 41

Intoxication 43

Duress 43

Necessity 43

Self-Defence 44

Entrapment 44

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms 44

Profile of a Crime: Wrongfully Convicted 46

Changing the Criminal Law 47

Key Court Case: Legal Rights and the Charter 48

Summary 51

Crime, Conflict, and Disorder: Lobster Fishery Dispute and

the Rule of Law 52

Applying Criminology 52

Chapter 3

The Nature and Extent of Crime 55

Introduction 56

The Uniform Crime Report (UCR) 56

Crime, Conflict, and Disorder: The Pandemic and Crime

Patterns, 2020 57

Collecting the UCR 57

The Accuracy of the UCR 60

Self-Report Surveys 63

Concept Summary 3.1: Data Collection Methods 63

The Focus of Self-Reports 63

The Accuracy of Self-Reports 64

The “Missing Cases” Issue 64

Victim Surveys 65

Are Crime Statistics Sources Compatible? 66

Alternative Sources of Information 67

Explaining Crime Trends 68

Focus on Research: The Politics of Statistics 71

What the Future Holds 76

Profile of a Crime: A Serial Killer Stalked Toronto’s Gay

Village 77

Tertiary Sources of Crime Data 78

Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review 78

Data-Mining 78

Crime-Mapping 78

Crime Patterns 79

The Ecology of Crime 79

Social Class and Crime 80

Age and Crime 81

Key Court Case: The Murder of Reena Virk 82

Gender and Crime 84

Criminal Careers 86

Summary 89

Applying Criminology 89

Chapter 4

Victims and Victimization 96

Introduction 97

Crime, Conflict, and Disorder: Police Shootings and the

Reaction 98

Problems of Crime Victims: Loss and Suffering 99

The Perception of the Risk of Being a Victim 100

Problems of Crime Victims: Antisocial Behaviour 102

The Nature of Victimization 102

The Social Ecology of Victimization 103

Victim Characteristics 103

Repeat Victimization 107

Profile of a Crime: A Woman Who Killed 108

Theories of Victimization 109

Victim Precipitation Theory 109

Key Court Case: R. v. Keegstra 112

Lifestyle Theories 114

Routine Activities Theory 116

Caring for the Victim 118

The Government’s Response 120

Victim Impact Statements 120

Victim Compensation 121

Court Services 121

Public Education 121

Focus on Research: The Impact of Wrongful Convictions on

Crime Victims 122

Crisis Intervention 123

Victim–Offender Reconciliation Programs 123

Victims’ Rights 123

Focus On Research: Victims’ Rights 124

Self-Protection 124

Reasons for Not Reporting Crime 124

Fighting Back 125

Community Organization 126

Summary 126

Applying Criminology 127

Concept Summary 4.1: Victim Theories 127

Section 2

Theories of Crime Causation 133

Chapter 5

Choice Theory 134

Introduction 135

The Development of Classical Theory 135

Choice Theory Emerges 136

Does Crime Pay? 137

The Concepts of Rational Choice 137

Profile of a Crime: The Curious Career Choice of Edwin

Alonzo Boyd 138

Offence and Offender Specifications 138

Rational Choice and Routine Activities 139

Is Crime Rational? 143

Are Street Crimes Rational? 143

Focus on Research: How Auto Thieves Plan Their

Crimes 144

Is Drug Use Rational? 145

Can Violence Be Rational? 145

What Are the Seductions of Crime? 145

Crime, Conflict, and Disorder: MAID and the Right to

Choose 146

Eliminating Crime 146

Situational Crime Prevention 146

Concept Summary 5.1: Crime Control Strategies Based on

Rational Choice 148

Crime Prevention Strategies 148

Targeting Specific Crimes 149

Crime Discouragers 150

Ramifications of Situational Prevention 151

General Deterrence 151

Certainty of Punishment 151

Severity of Punishment 153

Perception and Deterrence 154

Informal Sanctions 154

Public Surveillance 155

General Deterrence in Review 157

Specific Deterrence in Review 157

Pain versus Shame 158

Rethinking Deterrence 160

Key Court Case: Effects of the Charter on Deterrence 160

Incapacitation Strategies 161

The Logic of Incarceration 161

Selective Incapacitation: The Special Case of Three

Strikes and You’re Out 162

Policy Implications of Choice Theory 162

Concept Summary 5.2: Choice Theories 163

Summary 164

Applying Criminology 164

Chapter 6

Trait Theories 171

Introduction 172

Biological Trait Theory 173

Development of Biological Theories 173

Biochemical Conditions and Crime 175

Concept Summary 6.1: Biosocial Theories of Crime 175

Focus on Research: Diet and Crime: An International

Perspective 176

Neurophysiological Conditions and Crime 179

Crime, Conflict, and Disorder: Environmental Factors

Implicated in Crime 180

Genetics and Crime 182

Focus on Research: Teenage Behaviour: Is It the Brain? 183

Evolutionary Views of Crime 184

Evaluation of the Biological Branch

of Trait Theory 185

Psychological Trait Theories 186

Psychodynamic Perspective 186

Concept Summary 6.2: Psychological Trait Theories 186

Profile of a Crime: Kenneth Parks, Sleepwalker 188

Behavioural Theories 189

Key Court Case: Women and Insanity in Canadian

Society 190

Cognitive Theory 191

Mental Illness and Crime 192

Personality and Crime 192

Intelligence and Crime 195

Social Policy Implications 197

Summary 198

Concept Summary 6.3: Biological and Psychological

Theories 199

Applying Criminology 200

Chapter 7

Social Structure Theories 207

Introduction 208

Sociological Criminology 208

Economic Structure and Crime 209

Inequality 209

Are the Poor Undeserving? 211

Unemployment and Crime 211

Profile of a Crime: Seeds of Hope at the Missing and

Murdered Indigenous Women Inquiry 212

Branches of Social Structure Theory 212

Social Disorganization Theory 214

Concentric Zone Theory 214

The Social Ecology School 216

Focus on Research: Carl Dawson and the McGill School 218

Concept Summary 7.1: Social Disorganization Theories 222

Strain Theory 222

Anomie Theory 222

Profile of a Crime: Women Who Kill Their Children 224

Institutional Anomie Theory 224

Relative Deprivation Theory 225

Key Court Case: Henry Morgentaler 226

General Strain Theory 227

Concept Summary 7.2: Strain Theories 231

Cultural Deviance Theory 231

Conduct Norms 231

Focal Concerns 231

Theory of Delinquent Subcultures 232

Theory of Differential Opportunity 234

Concept Summary 7.3: Cultural Deviance Theories 235

Evaluation of Social Structure Theories 236

Crime, Conflict, and Disorder: Muskrat Falls and the

Controversy over Hydro Development 236

Social Structure Theory and Social Policy 237

Community Policing 237

Summary 238

Applying Criminology 238

Concept Summary 7.4: Social Structure Theories 239

Chapter 8

Social Process Theories 245

Introduction 246

Social Processes and Crime 246

Family Relations 246

Educational Experience 248

Peer Relations 249

Institutional Involvement and Belief 250

Branches of Social Process Theory 250

Social Learning Theory 251

Differential Association Theory 251

Profile of a Crime: Brock Turner 252

Differential Reinforcement Theory 254

Neutralization Theory 255

Are Social Learning Theories Valid? 257

Social Control Theories 257

Self-Concept and Crime 257

Containment Theory 257

Social Control Theory 258

Profile of a Crime: Fateful Turns in the Difficult Life Course

of Tyrone Conn 261

Labelling Theory 261

Crime and Labelling Theory 262

Differential Enforcement 262

Becoming Labelled 264

Consequences of Labelling 264

Primary and Secondary Deviance 264

General Theory of Deviance 265

Differential Social Control 265

Research on Labelling Theory 266

Is Labelling Theory Valid? 266

Key Court Case: John Martin Crawford 267

New Directions in an Integrated Developmental Theory 267

Focus on Research: Women, Desistance, and Fearful

Futures 268

Overview of Integrated Theories 269

The Social Development Model (SDM) 269

Elliott’s Integrated Theory 270

Integrated Structural Marxist Theory 271

The Glueck Research 271

Life Course Emerges 271

An Evaluation of Social Process Theory 272

Social Process Theory and Social Policy 272

Crime, Conflict, and Disorder: Systemic Racism and

Changing Perceptions 273

Summary 274

Concept Summary 8.1: Social Process Theories 275

Applying Criminology 276

Chapter 9

Social Conflict Theory 284

Introduction 285

Crime, Conflict, and Disorder: Capitalism Destroys the

Planet 287

Marxist Thought 287

Productive Forces and Productive Relations 287

Marx on Crime 288

Developing a Social Conflict Theory of Crime 288

Willem Bonger 288

Ralf Dahrendorf 288

George Vold 288

Modern Conflict Theory 288

Conflict Criminology 289

Research on Conflict Theory 291

Focus on Research: Wrongful Convictions 293

Key Court Case: R. v. Gladue 294

Profile of a Crime: The Case of Colten Boushie 295

Analysis of Conflict Theory 295

Marxist Criminology 296

The Development of a Radical Criminology 297

Fundamentals of Marxist Criminology 297

Economic Structure and Surplus Value 298

Instrumental Marxism 298

Structural Marxism 299

Research on Marxist Criminology 300

Critique of Marxist Criminology 301

Other Directions in Critical Criminology 302

Left Realism 303

Feminist Theory 304

Deconstructionism 307

Restorative Justice 308

Peacemaking Criminology 309

Summary 310

Applying Criminology 310

Concept Summary 9.1: Social Conflict Theories 311

Section 3

Crime Typologies 317

Chapter 10

Violent Crime 318

Introduction 319

Crime, Conflict, and Disorder: London, Ontario,

Van Attack 320

The Roots of Violence 321

Profile of a Crime: Two Killers 321

Personal Traits 322

Ineffective Families 322

Evolutionary Factors/Human Instinct 323

Cultural Values 323

Regional Values 323

Substance Abuse 324

Firearm Availability 324

Sexual Assault 325

History of Rape 326

Sexual Assault and the Military 326

Incidence of Sexual Assault 326

Types of Rapists 327

Types of Rape 328

The Cause of Sexual Assault 328

Focus on Research: Masculinity and Sexual Violence among

the Urban Poor 329

Sexual Assault and the Law 329

Homicide 330

Degrees of Homicide 330

Key Court Case: Arthur Lucas and Ronald Turpin 331

The Nature and Extent of Homicide 332

Murderous Relations 332

Homicide Networks 334

Types of Murderers 334

Serial Homicide 335

Assault 337

Assault in the Home 337

Causes of Child Abuse 338

Spouse Abuse 339

Robbery 340

The Ecology of Robbery 340

Robber Typologies 341

Evolving Forms of Violence 341

Workplace Violence 341

School Violence 342

Summary 343

Applying Criminology 343

Chapter 11

Property Crimes 349

Introduction 350

Some Basic Patterns 350

Crime, Conflict, and Disorder: Fairy Creek and Competing

Definitions of Commodity 351

A Brief History of Theft 352

Modern Thieves 352

Occasional Criminals 353

Professional Criminals 353

Focus on Research: On the Run 354

The Non-professional Fence 356

Theft 357

Theft Today 358

Shoplifting 358

Auto Theft 360

False Pretences or Fraud 363

Identity Theft 365

Bad Cheques 367

Computer Fraud 367

Credit Card Fraud 368

Embezzlement 368

Break and Enter 369

The Extent of Break and Enter 369

Careers in Burglary 370

Burglars on the Job 370

The Female Burglar 371

Arson and Vandalism 372

Key Court Case: Arson and a Wrongful Conviction 373

Profile of a Crime: Protesting for the Environment: Arson,

Vandalism, and the Case of Wiebo Ludwig 374

Cybervandalism: Crime with Malicious Intent 374

Summary 375

Applying Criminology 375

Chapter 12

Crimes of Power: White-Collar, Corporate,

Green, and Organized Crime 380

Introduction 381

White-Collar Crime 383

Redefining White-Collar Crime 383

The White-Collar Crime Problem 383

International White-Collar Crime 383

Components of White-Collar Crime 384

Types of White-Collar Crime 385

Stings and Swindles 385

Chiselling 385

Individual Exploitation of Institutional Position 386

Influence Peddling and Bribery 387

Embezzlement and Employee Fraud 387

Client Frauds 389

Corporate Crime 389

Focus on Research: Is Chicken Farming Foul? 391

Green Criminology 391

Key Court Case: Deepwater Horizon 392

Defining Green Crime 394

Forms of Green Crime 395

Crime, Conflict, and Disorder: Wet’suwet’en Protest against

Pipeline 395

The Causes of White-Collar Crime 398

Greedy or Needy? 398

Corporate Culture Theory 398

The Self-Control View 399

Controlling White-Collar Crime 399

White-Collar Law Enforcement Systems 400

Corporate Policing 400

White-Collar Control Strategies: Compliance 400

White-Collar Control Strategies: Deterrence 401

Organized Crime 402

Characteristics of Organized Crime 402

Activities of Organized Crime 402

Organized Crime and Legitimate Enterprise 403

The Concept of Organized Crime 403

The Development of a Syndicate 403

Organized Crime Groups 404

Transnational Organized Crime 405

Profile of a Crime: Human Trafficking 406

Controlling Organized Crime 408

The Future of Organized Crime 408

Summary 409

Applying Criminology 410

Chapter 13

Public Order Crimes: Legislating

Morality 415

Introduction 416

Law and Morality 416

Debating Morality 417

Profile of a Crime: The Case of Everett Klippert 417

Criminal or Immoral? 418

Moral Crusades 418

Illegal Sexuality 419

Paraphilia 419

Sex Work 419

Pornography 422

Distributing Illegal Sexual Material 423

Controlling Sex for Profit 424

Substance Abuse 424

When Did Drug Use Begin? 425

Alcohol and Its Prohibition 425

Commonly Used and Abused Drugs 426

The Extent of Substance Abuse 428

AIDS and Drug Use 430

The Cause of Substance Abuse 431

Crime, Conflict, and Disorder: The Opioid Epidemic 432

Drugs and Crime 433

Research Methods 433

The Cycle of Addiction 434

Drugs and the Law 434

Alcohol Abuse 435

Drug Control Strategies 435

Source Control 435

Focus on Research: Drug Courts 436

Law Enforcement Strategies 436

Community Strategies 437

Drug Testing Programs 437

Legalization 438

Other Issues 439

Euthanasia 439

Gambling 439

Key Court Case: Sue Rodriguez 440

Prostitution 442

Cannabis (Marijuana) 442

Summary 443

Applying Criminology 443

Chapter 14

Crimes in the 21st Century 449

Introduction 450

The Nature of Political Crimes 450

Becoming a Political Criminal 451

Types of Political Crimes 451

Development of High-Tech Crime 452

Profile of a Crime: Edward Snowden 453

Crime, Conflict, and Disorder: Dark Commerce: Globalization

and Crime 454

Cybercrime: An Overview 455

Cybercrime 455

Cybertheft: Cybercrime for Profit 455

Cybervandalism: Cybercrime with Malicious Intent 459

Cyberstalking 462

Cyberbullying 463

Cyberspying 464

Cyberwarfare: Cybercrime with Political Motives 465

The Extent and Costs of Cybercrime 465

International Treaties 466

Key Court Case: The Lost Boy Case 466

Cybercrime Enforcement 467

Concept Summary 14.1: Types of Cybercrime 467

Terrorism 467

A Historical Perspective on Terrorism 468

Focus on Research: Transnational Terrorism 468

Forms of Terrorism 469

How Are Terrorist Groups Organized? 472

Funding Terrorist Activities 473

What Motivates Terrorists? 473

Cyberterrorism: Using Cyberspace to

Inflict Terror 474

The Extent of Terrorism 475

Responses to Terrorism since 9/11 476

Summary 477

Applying Criminology 477

Glossary 481

Index 487

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