SPSS Statistics: A Practical Guide, 5th Edition PDF by Kellie Bennett, Brody Heritage and Peter Allen

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SPSS Statistics: A Practical Guide, 5th Edition

By Kellie Bennett, Brody Heritage and Peter Allen

SPSS Statistics A Practical Guide, 5th Edition

Contents:

Guide to the text…………………………………………….. xii

Guide to the online resources………………………………xiii

Preface ……………………………………………………….. xvi

About the authors …………………………………………… xiv

Acknowledgements …………………………………………..xv

Chapter 1 Getting Started With SPSS Statistics……………………………………………………………….. 1

1.1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………… 1

1.1.1. Data View……………………………………………………………………………… 1

1.1.2. Variable View…………………………………………………………………………. 2

1.2. Creating a Data File……………………………………………………………………….. 3

1.3. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………… 6

Chapter 2 Working With Data……………………………………………………………………………………….

2.1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………… 7

2.2. Compute……………………………………………………………………………………… 8

2.2.1. Illustrated Example of Summed Scale Scores……………………………………. 8

2.3. Recode………………………………………………………………………………………… 9

2.3.1. Illustrated Example of Category Recoding…………………………………….. 10

2.4. Missing Value Analysis………………………………………………………………….. .12

2.4.1. Illustrated Example of Missing Age Data Replacement………………………. 12

2.5. Split File…………………………………………………………………………………….. 14

2.5.1. Illustrated Example of Splitting Output by Gender……………………………. 14

2.6. Select Cases……………………………………………………………………………….. 17

2.6.1. Illustrated Example of Selecting Cases Above a Specified Age……………. 17

2.7. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………. 18

Chapter 3 Summarising and Displaying Data……………………………………………………………………

3.1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………. 19

3.2. Frequencies………………………………………………………………………………… 20

3.2.1. Illustrated Example of Frequencies………………………………………………. 20

3.2.1.1. SPSS Statistics Procedure………………………………………………………. 20

3.2.1.2. SPSS Statistics Output………………………………………………………….. 22

3.2.1.3. The SPSS Statistics Viewer…………………………………………………….. 23

3.3. Descriptives………………………………………………………………………………… 24

3.3.1. Illustrated Example of Descriptives………………………………………………. 24

3.3.1.1. SPSS Statistics Procedure………………………………………………………. 24

3.3.1.2. SPSS Statistics Output………………………………………………………….. 25

3.4. Explore………………………………………………………………………………….. 26

3.4.1. Illustrated Example of Explore……………………………………………………. 26

3.4.1.1. SPSS Statistics Procedure………………………………………………………. 26

3.4.1.2. SPSS Statistics Output………………………………………………………….. 28

3.4.1.3. The SPSS Statistics Chart Editor………………………………………………. 30

3.5. Chart Builder………………………………………………………………………………. 31

3.5.1. Illustrated Example of the Chart Builder………………………………………… 31

3.6. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………. 32

Chapter 4 One Sample t Test…………………………………………………………………………………………

4.1. Purpose of the One Sample t Test………………………………………………………. 33

4.2. Questions We Could Answer Using the One Sample t Test……………………….. 33

4.3. Illustrated Example of a Statistically Signficiant One Sample t Test………………. 34

4.3.1. Setting Up the SPSS Statistics Data File………………………………………… 35

4.3.2. Analysing the Data…………………………………………………………………. 36

4.3.2.1. Assumptions……………………………………………………………………… 36

4.3.2.2. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 1: Normality)………………………………. 36

4.3.2.3. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Normality)………………………………….. 36

4.3.2.4. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 2: One Sample t Test)……………………. 38

4.3.2.5. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: One Sample t Test)………………………… 40

4.3.3. Follow Up Analyses………………………………………………………………… 41

4.3.3.1. Effect Size………………………………………………………………………… 41

4.3.4. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………….. 42

4.3.5. Summary…………………………………………………………………………….. 42

4.4. Illustrated Example of a Statistically Non-Signficiant One Sample t Test……….. .42

4.4.1. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Normality)……………………………………… 43

4.4.2. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: One Sample t Test)……………………………. 44

4.4.3. Follow Up Analyses………………………………………………………………… 44

4.4.3.1. Effect Size………………………………………………………………………… 44

4.4.4. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………….. 45

4.5. One Sample t Test Checklist…………………………………………………………….. 45

Chapter 5 Independent Samples t Test……………………………………………………………………………..

5.1. Purpose of the Independent Samples t Test……………………………………………. 47

5.2. Questions We Could Answer Using the Independent Samples t Test…………….. 47

5.3. Illustrated Example of a Statistically Significant Independent Samples t Test……. 48

5.3.1. Setting Up the SPSS Statistics Data File………………………………………… 49

5.3.2. Analysing the Data…………………………………………………………………. 50

5.3.2.1. Assumptions……………………………………………………………………… 50

5.3.2.2. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 1: Normality)………………………………. 50

5.3.2.3. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Normality)………………………………….. 52

5.3.2.4. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 2: Homogeneity of Variance & the t Test)… 53

5.3.2.5. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: Homogeneity of Variance & the t Test)…. 54

5.3.3. Follow Up Analyses………………………………………………………………… 54

5.3.3.1. Effect Size………………………………………………………………………… 54

5.3.4. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………….. 55

5.3.5. Summary……………………………………………………………………………. 55

5.4. Illustrated Example of a Statistically Non-Significant

Independent Samples t Test………………………………………………………………… 56

5.4.1. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Normality)……………………………………… 57

5.4.2. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: Homogeneity of Variance & the t Test)……. 58

5.4.3. Follow Up Analyses………………………………………………………………… 59

5.4.3.1. Effect Size………………………………………………………………………… 59

5.4.4. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………….. 59

5.5. Bayesian Independent Sample Inference……………………………………………… 60

5.5.1. Analysing the Data…………………………………………………………………. 60

5.5.2. SPSS Statistics Output……………………………………………………………… 61

5.5.3. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………….. 63

5.6. Independent Samples t Test Checklist………………………………………………….. 63

Chapter 6 Paired Samples t Test

6.1. Purpose of the Paired Samples t Test…………………………………………………… 65

6.2. Questions We Could Answer Using the Paired Samples t Test……………………. 65

6.3. Illustrated Example of a Statistically Signficant Paired Samples t Test……………. 66

6.3.1. Setting Up the SPSS Statistics Data File………………………………………… 67

6.3.2. Analysing the Data…………………………………………………………………. 67

6.3.2.1. Assumptions……………………………………………………………………… 67

6.3.2.2. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 1: Normality &

Normality of Difference Scores)………………………………………………………….. 68

6.3.2.3. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Normality & Normality

of Difference Scores)………………………………………………………………………. 70

6.3.2.4. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 2: Paired Samples t Test)………………… 71

6.3.2.5. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: Paired Samples t Test)…………………….. 72

6.3.3. Follow Up Analyses………………………………………………………………… 73

6.3.3.1. Effect Size………………………………………………………………………… 73

6.3.4. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………….. 74

6.3.5. Summary…………………………………………………………………………….. 74

6.4. Illustrated Example of a Statistically Non-Signficant Paired Samples t Test……… 74

6.4.1. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Normality & Normality of

Difference Scores)…………………………………………………………………………… 75

6.4.2. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: Paired Samples t Test)……………………….. 76

6.4.3. Follow Up Analyses………………………………………………………………… 77

6.4.3.1. Effect Size………………………………………………………………………… 77

6.4.3.2. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Power)……………………………………………. 77

6.4.3.3. SPSS Statistics Output (Power)………………………………………………… 78

6.4.3.4. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Sample Size)…………………………………….. 79

6.4.3.5. SPSS Statistics Output (Sample Size)………………………………………… 79

6.4.4. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………….. 80

6.5. Paired Samples t Test Checklist…………………………………………………………. 80

Chapter 7 One-Way Between Groups ANOVA

7.1. Purpose of the One-Way Between Groups ANOVA………………………………… 81

7.2. Questions We Could Answer Using the One-Way Between

Groups ANOVA…………………………………………………………………………………. 81

7.3. Illustrated Example of a Statistically Significant One-Way Between

Groups ANOVA…………………………………………………………………………………. 82

7.3.1. Setting Up the SPSS Statistics Data File………………………………………… 83

7.3.2. Analysing the Data…………………………………………………………………. 84

7.3.2.1. Assumptions……………………………………………………………………… 84

7.3.2.2. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 1: Normality)………………………………. 85

7.3.2.3. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Normality)………………………………….. 86

7.3.2.4. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 2: Homogeneity of Variance

& the ANOVA)………………………………………………………………………………. 87

7.3.2.5. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: Homogeneity of

Variance & the ANOVA)………………………………………………………………….. 88

7.3.3. Follow Up Analyses………………………………………………………………… 90

7.3.3.1. Effect Size………………………………………………………………………… 90

7.3.3.1.1. Effect Size Calculations for the Omnibus ANOVA……………….. 90

7.3.3.1.2. Effect Size Calculations for the Contrasts and

Comparisons………………………………………………………………………….. 90

7.3.4. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………….. 92

7.3.5. Summary…………………………………………………………………………….. 93

7.4. Illustrated Example of a Statistically Non-Significant One-Way

Between Groups ANOVA……………………………………………………………………… 93

7.4.1. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Normality)……………………………………… 94

7.4.2. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: Homogeneity of Variance

& the ANOVA)………………………………………………………………………………. 95

7.4.3. Follow Up Analyses………………………………………………………………… 95

7.4.3.1. Effect Size………………………………………………………………………… 95

7.4.4. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………….. 96

7.5. One-Way Between Groups ANOVA Checklist………………………………………. 96

Chapter 8 Factorial Between Groups ANOVA

8.1. Purpose of the Factorial Between Groups ANOVA…………………………………. 97

8.2. Questions We Could Answer Using the Factorial Between Groups ANOVA…… 97

8.3. Illustrated Example of a Factorial ANOVA with a Significant Interaction……….. 98

8.3.1. Setting Up the SPSS Statistics Data File………………………………………… 99

8.3.2. Analysing the Data……………………………………………………………….. 100

8.3.2.1. Assumptions……………………………………………………………………. 100

8.3.2.2. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 1: Normality)…………………………….. 100

8.3.2.3. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Normality)………………………………… 102

8.3.2.4. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 2: Homogeneity of Variance and

the ANOVA)……………………………………………………………………………….. 103

8.3.2.5. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: Homogeneity of Variance

and the ANOVA)…………………………………………………………………………. 105

8.3.3. Follow-Up Analyses………………………………………………………………. 106

8.3.3.1. Simple Effects and Comparisons……………………………………………. 106

8.3.3.2. Effect Size (Omega-Squared)……………………………………………….. 107

8.3.4. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………… 109

8.4. Illustrated Example of a Factorial ANOVA with a Non-Significant

Interaction………………………………………………………………………………………. 111

8.4.1. SPSS Statistics Output……………………………………………………………. 112

8.4.2. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………… 113

8.5. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………….. 113

8.6. Factorial Between Groups ANOVA Checklist………………………………………. 114

Chapter 9 One-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA and Mixed Model ANOVA

9.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………….. 115

9.2. One-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA…………………………………………….. 115

9.3. Questions We Could Answer Using the One-Way

Repeated Measures ANOVA………………………………………………………………… 115

9.4. Illustrated Example of a One-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA……………….. 116

9.4.1. Setting Up The SPSS Statistics Data File………………………………………. 117

9.4.2. Analysing the Data……………………………………………………………….. 117

9.4.2.1. Assumptions……………………………………………………………………. 117

9.4.2.2. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 1: Normality)…………………………….. 118

9.4.2.3. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Normality)………………………………… 119

9.4.2.4. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 2: Homogeneity of Variance,

Sphericity, & the ANOVA)………………………………………………………………. 121

9.4.2.5. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: Homogeneity of Variance,

Sphericity, & the ANOVA)………………………………………………………………. 123

9.4.3. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………… 125

9.5. Mixed Model ANOVA………………………………………………………………….. 126

9.6. Questions We Could Answer Using the Mixed Model ANOVA………………… 126

9.7. Illustrated Example of a Mixed Model ANOVA……………………………………. 126

9.7.1. Setting Up The SPSS Statistics Data File………………………………………. 127

9.7.2. Analysing the Data……………………………………………………………….. 128

9.7.2.1. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Homogeneity of Variance, Sphericity,

Homogeneity of Covariance Matrices & the Mixed Model ANOVA)……………. 128

9.7.2.2. SPSS Statistics Output (Homogeneity of Variance, Sphericity,

Homogeneity of Covariance Matrices & the Mixed Model ANOVA)……………. 130

9.7.3. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………… 133

9.8. One-Way Repeated Measures and Mixed Model ANOVA Checklist………….. 133

Chapter 10 One-Way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

10.1. Purpose of the One-Way ANCOVA………………………………………………… 135

10.2. Questions We Could Answer Using the One-Way ANCOVA…………………. 135

10.3. Illustrated Example of a Statistically Significant One-Way ANCOVA………… 136

10.3.1. Setting Up the SPSS Statistics Data File…………………………………….. 137

10.3.2. Analysing the Data……………………………………………………………… 138

10.3.2.1. Assumptions………………………………………………………………….. 138

10.3.2.2. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 1: Normality)…………………………… 138

10.3.2.3. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Normality)………………………………. 139

10.3.2.4. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 2: Homogeneity of

Regression Slopes)……………………………………………………………………….. 141

10.3.2.5. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: Homogeneity of

Regression Slopes)……………………………………………………………………….. 142

10.3.2.6. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 3: Linearity)…………………………….. 142

10.3.2.7. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 3: Linearity)………………………………… 144

10.3.2.8. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 4: Homogeneity of

Variance & the ANCOVA)………………………………………………………………. 144

10.3.2.9. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 4: Homogeneity of Variance

& the ANCOVA)………………………………………………………………………….. 146

10.3.3. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………. 148

10.3.4. Summary…………………………………………………………………………. 148

10.4. Illustrated Example of a Statistically Non-Significant

One-Way ANCOVA………………………………………………………………………….. 149

10.4.1. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Normality)………………………………….. 150

10.4.2. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: Homogeneity of Regression Slopes)……. 151

10.4.3. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 3: Linearity)……………………………………. 151

10.4.4. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 4: Homogeneity of Variance

& the ANCOVA)…………………………………………………………………………… 152

10.4.5. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………. 153

10.5. One-Way ANCOVA Checklist………………………………………………………. 153

Chapter 11 Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA)

11.1. Purpose of the MANOVA…………………………………………………………….. 155

11.2. Questions We Could Answer Using the MANOVA……………………………… 155

11.3. Illustrated Example of a Statistcally Significant MANOVA……………………… 156

11.3.1. Setting Up the SPSS Statistics Data File…………………………………….. 157

11.3.2. Analysing the Data……………………………………………………………… 158

11.3.2.1. Assumptions………………………………………………………………….. 158

11.3.2.2. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 1: Univariate Normality)…………….. 158

11.3.2.3. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Univariate Normality)…………………. 159

11.3.2.4. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 2: Multicollinearity and

Multivariate Outliers)…………………………………………………………………….. 160

11.3.2.5. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: Multicollinearity and

Multivariate Outliers)……………………………………………………………………. 162

11.3.2.6. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 3: Linearity)…………………………….. 163

11.3.2.7. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 3: Linearity)………………………………… 165

11.3.2.8. SPSS Advanced Statistics Procedure (Part 4: Homogeneity of

Variance-Covariance and the MANOVA)……………………………………………. 165

11.3.2.9. SPSS Advanced Statistics Output (Part 4: Homogeneity of

Variance-Covariance and the MANOVA)……………………………………………. 167

11.3.3. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………. 169

11.3.4. Summary…………………………………………………………………………. 170

11.4. Illustrated Example of a Statistcally Non-Significant MANOVA……………….. 170

11.4.1. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Univariate Normality)…………………….. 171

11.4.2. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: Multicollinearity and

Multivariate Outliers)……………………………………………………………………… 171

11.4.3. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 3: Linearity)……………………………………. 172

11.4.4. SPSS Advanced Statistics Output

(Part 4: Homogeneity of Variance-Covariance and the MANOVA)………………. 173

11.4.5. APA Style Results Write-Up…………………………………………………… 175

11.5. MANOVA Checklist………………………………………………………………. 176

Chapter 12 Correlation

12.1. Purpose of Correlation………………………………………………………………… 177

12.2. Questions We Could Answer Using Correlation…………………………………. 177

12.3. Illustrated Example of a Bivariate Correlation……………………………………. 178

12.3.1. Setting Up the SPSS Statistics Data File…………………………………….. 179

12.3.2. Analysing the Data……………………………………………………………… 180Contents

12.3.2.1. Assumptions………………………………………………………………….. 180

12.3.2.2. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 1: Normality)…………………………… 181

12.3.2.3. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Normality)………………………………. 182

12.3.2.4. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 2: Linearity and Homoscedasticity)… 183

12.3.2.5. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: Linearity and Homoscedasticity)…….. 184

12.3.2.6. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 3: Correlation)…………………………. 185

12.3.2.7. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 3: Correlation)…………………………….. 185

12.3.3. Follow-Up Analyses…………………………………………………………….. 185

12.3.3.1. Effect Size…………………………………………………………………….. 185

12.3.4. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………. 186

12.3.5. Summary…………………………………………………………………………. 186

12.4. Illustrated Example of a Partial Correlation…………………………………… 187

12.4.1. SPSS Statistics Procedure……………………………………………………… 188

12.4.2. SPSS Statistics Output…………………………………………………………. 188

12.4.3. APA Style Results Write-Up…………………………………………………… 189

12.5. Correlation Checklist……………………………………………………………… 189

Chapter 13 Multiple Regression

13.1. Purpose of Multiple Regression……………………………………………………… 191

13.2. Questions We Could Answer Using Multiple Regression……………………….. 192

13.3. Illustrated Example of a Linear Multiple Regression……………………………… 192

13.3.1. Setting Up the SPSS Statistics Data File…………………………………….. 193

13.3.2. Analysing the Data……………………………………………………………… 194

13.3.2.1. Assumptions…………………………………………………………………… 194

13.3.2.2. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 1: Normality and Univariate

Outliers)………………………………………………………………………………………..195

13.3.2.3. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Normality and Univariate Outliers)…. 196

13.3.2.4. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 2: The Remaining Assumptions and

the Linear Multiple Regression)…………………………………………………………. 197

13.3.2.5. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: The Remaining

Assumptions and the Linear Multiple Regression)…………………………………… 199

13.3.3. Follow-Up Analyses…………………………………………………………….. 201

13.3.3.1. Effect Size…………………………………………………………………….. 201

13.3.4. APA Style Results Write-Up…………………………………………………… 202

13.3.5. Summary…………………………………………………………………………. 203

13.4. Illustrated Example of a Hierarchical Multiple Regression……………………… 203

13.4.1. Setting Up the SPSS Statistics Data File…………………………………….. 204

13.4.2. Analysing the Data……………………………………………………………… 204

13.4.2.1. Assumptions………………………………………………………………….. 204

13.4.2.2. SPSS Statistics Procedure…………………………………………………… 204

13.4.2.3. SPSS Statistics Output………………………………………………………. 205

13.4.3. Follow-Up Analyses…………………………………………………………….. 207

13.4.3.1. Effect Size…………………………………………………………………….. 207

13.4.4. APA Style Results Write-Up…………………………………………………… 208

13.5. Purpose of Mediation and Moderation……………………………………………. 210

13.6. Illustrated Examples of Mediation and Moderation……………………………… 211

13.6.1. Analysing the Data……………………………………………………………… 212

13.6.1.1. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 1: Mediation)………………………….. 212

13.6.1.2. SPSS Statistics Output………………………………………………………. 213

13.6.1.3. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 2: Moderation)………………………… 214

13.6.1.4. SPSS Statistics Output………………………………………………………. 215

13.6.1.5. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 3: Probing a

Moderation via Simple Slopes)…………………………………………………………. 216

13.6.1.6. SPSS Statistics Output………………………………………………………. 217

13.6.2. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………. 217

13.7. Multiple Regression Checklist……………………………………………………….. 219

Chapter 14 Logistic Regression

14.1. Purpose of Logistic Regression………………………………………………………. 221

14.2. Questions We Could Answer Using Logistic Regression………………………… 222

14.3. Illustrated Example of Binary Logistic Regression………………………………… 222

14.3.1. Setting Up the SPSS Statistics Data File…………………………………….. 224

14.3.2. Analysing the Data…………………………………………………………….. .225

14.3.2.1. Assumptions………………………………………………………………….. 225

14.3.2.2. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 1: Multicollinearity)…………………… 226

14.3.2.3. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Multicollinearity)……………………….. 226

14.3.2.4. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 2: Logit Linearity)……………………… 227

14.3.2.5. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: Logit Linearity)………………………….. 228

14.3.2.6. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 3: Logistic Regression and Outliers).. 229

14.3.2.7. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 3: Logistic Regression and Outliers)……. 231

14.3.3. APA Style Results Write-Up……………………………………………………. 232

14.3.4. Summary…………………………………………………………………………. 234

14.4. Logistic Regression Checklist………………………………………………………… 234

Chapter 15 Factor Analysis

15.1. Purpose of a Factor Analysis………………………………………………………… 235

15.2. Questions We Could Answer Using a Factor Analysis………………………….. 235

15.3. Illustrated Example of Analysing the Factors Underlying a

Smoking Questionnaire………………………………………………………………………. 235

15.3.1. Setting Up the SPSS Statistics Data File…………………………………….. 237

15.3.2. Analysing the Data……………………………………………………………… 238

15.3.2.1. Assumptions………………………………………………………………….. 238

15.3.2.2. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 1: Normality)…………………………… 238

15.3.2.3. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 1: Normality)………………………………. 239

15.3.2.4. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Part 2: Factor Analysis)……………………. 240

15.3.2.5. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: Factor Analysis)………………………… 242

15.3.3. APA Style Results Write-Up…………………………………………………… 245

15.3.4. Summary…………………………………………………………………………. 246

15.4. Factor Analysis Checklist…………………………………………………………….. 246

Chapter 16 Reliability Analysis

16.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………… 247

16.2. Cronbach’s Alpha……………………………………………………………………… 247ts

16.2.1. Illustrated Example of the Reliability of Personality Domain Scores……. 248

16.2.1.1. Setting Up the SPSS Statistics Data File………………………………….. 250

16.2.1.2. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Reversing Negatively Scaled Items)……… 251

16.2.1.3. SPSS Statistics Procedure (Cronbach’s Alpha)………………………….. 252

16.2.1.4. SPSS Statistics Output………………………………………………………. 253

16.2.1.5. APA Style Results Write-Up…………………………………………………. 255

16.3. Cohen’s Kappa………………………………………………………………………… 255

16.3.1. Illustrated Example Two of Reliability Between Two Raters………………. 255

16.3.1.1. Setting Up the SPSS Statistics Data File………………………………….. 256

16.3.1.2. SPSS Statistics Procedure…………………………………………………… 257

16.3.1.3. SPSS Statistics Output………………………………………………………. 258

16.3.1.4. APA Style Results Write-Up…………………………………………………. 259

16.4. Reliability Analysis Checklist………………………………………………………… 259

Chapter17 Non-Parametric Procedures

17.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………… 261

17.2. Chi-Square (c2) Test for Goodness of Fit…………………………………………… 262

17.3. Chi-Square (c2) Test of Contingencies……………………………………………… 268

17.4. Mann-Whitney U Test…………………………………………………………………. 276

17.5. McNemar Test of Change……………………………………………………………. 282

17.6.Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test…………………………………………………………… 287

17.7. Kruskal-Wallis One-Way ANOVA………………………………………………….. 293

17.8. Cochran’s Q Test………………………………………………………………………. 299

17.9. Friedman ANOVA…………………………………………………………………….. 304

17.10. Cramer’s V……………………………………………………………………………. 310

17.11. Spearman’s Rho and Kendall’s Tau-B…………………………………………….. 312

17.12. Non-Parametric Checklist…………………………………………………………… 316

Chapter 18 Working with Syntax

18.1. Purpose of Working with Syntax……………………………………………………. 317

18.2. Using Syntax to Conduct an Independent Samples t Test………………………. 317

18.2.1. Generating Syntax to Test the Normality Assumption…………………….. 319

18.2.2. Command Syntax for Testing the Normality Assumption…………………. 320

18.2.3. Generating Syntax for Assessing Homogeneity of Variance

and Running the t Test…………………………………………………………………….. 321

18.2.4. Command Syntax for Assessing Homogeneity of

Variance and Running the t Test………………………………………………………… 322

18.3. Summary………………………………………………………………………………… 322

References …………………………………………………..323

Index …………………………………………………………325

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