Technical Communication, 8th Canadian Edition PDF by John M Lannon, Laura J Gurak, Don Klepp and Shannon Kelly

By

Technical Communication, 8th Canadian Edition

By John M. Lannon, Laura J. Gurak, Don Klepp and Shannon Kelly

Technical Communication, 8th Canadian Edition

Contents:

Preface ix

1 Introduction to Technical

Communication 1

1.1 Technical Writing Serves Practical Needs 1

1.1.1 Technical Documents Meet the Audience’s Needs 2

1.1.2 Technical Documents Strive for Efficiency 2

■■ ON THE JOB… The Importance of Written Communication 3

1.2 Writing Is Part of Most Careers 4

■■ ON THE JOB… Writing on the Job 4

■■ ON THE JOB… Becoming a Technical Communicator 5

1.3 Electronic Technologies Have Transformed

Information Sharing 5

■■ ON THE JOB… The Trend in Workplace Collaboration 7

■■ ON THE JOB… The One-Person Virtual Office 8

1.4 Technical Writers Face Interrelated Challenges 9

1.4.1 The Information Challenge 10

1.4.2 The Persuasion Challenge 10

1.4.3 The Ethics Challenge 10

1.4.4 The Global Context Challenge 11

■■ IN BRIEF Writing Reaches a Global Audience 11

1.5 Technical Communication Is Changing 12

■■ ON THE JOB… The New Challenge 12

1.5.1 The Advent of Big Data 12

■■ ON THE JOB… The Challenge of Big Data 14

■■ ON THE JOB… Artificial Intelligence and the Data Estate 15

1.5.2 Complex Delivery Requirements 15

1.5.3 The TechComm Generalist 16

■■ ON THE JOB… Communicating with the Team 18

Exercises 19 • Collaborative Project 19

2 Preparing to Write: Audience/

Purpose Analysis 20

■■ ON THE JOB… The Perfect Technical Writer 20

2.1 Use a Communication Model 21

2.2 Identify your Audience’s Informational and

Technical Needs 25

2.2.1 The Highly Technical Document 26

■■ ON THE JOB… Writing for Readers with Limited Technical

Knowledge 27

2.2.2 The Semi-technical Document 27

■■ ON THE JOB… Multi-level Audience/Purpose Analysis 28

2.2.3 The Non-technical Document 28

2.2.4 Primary and Secondary Audiences 29

2.3 Develop an Audience/Purpose Profile 30

2.3.1 Audience Characteristics 30

■■ ON THE JOB… Using Clear, Direct Language to Connect

with a Variety of Audiences 30

2.3.2 Purpose of the Document 31

2.3.3 Audience’s Technical Background 32

■■ ON THE JOB… Varying Technical Knowledge 32

2.3.4 Audience’s Knowledge of the Subject 32

2.3.5 Appropriate Details and Format 32

2.3.6 Due Date 33

2.3.7 Audience’s Cultural Background 33

■■ ON THE JOB… Cultural Challenges within Global Companies 34

■■ PROFILE Insights on Connecting with Your Audience

from a Government Relations Professional 34

■■ GUIDELINES for Intercultural Communication 35

Exercises 35 • Collaborative Project 35

3 Writing Efficiently 36

3.1 Getting Started with the Writing Process 37

■■ ON THE JOB… A Productive Writing Process 38

■■ ON THE JOB… An Efficient Writing Process 39

3.2 How to Save Writing Time and Compose with a

Word Processor 39

3.2.1 Composing with a Word Processor 40

3.3 The Writing Process in Action 41

■■ IN BRIEF Single-Sourcing Technology “Rewrites”

the Writing Process 48

Exercises 48 • Collaborative Project 49

4 Collaborating at Work 51

4.1 Operating in Groups 51

4.1.1 Effective Roles in Groups 52

4.1.2 The Importance of Active Listening in Groups 53

■■ IN BRIEF Gender and Cultural Differences in

Collaborative Groups 53

■■ GUIDELINES for Active Listening 54

4.1.4 Conflict Within Groups 54

4.1.5 Managing and Resolving Group Conflict 54

4.1.6 Ethical Issues in Workplace Collaboration 56

4.2 Productive Collaborative Writing 56

■■ ON THE JOB… Collaborating to Produce Technical

Documents for New Products 57

■■ GUIDELINES for Managing a Collaborative Project 57

4.2.2 Reviewing and Editing Others’ Work 58

■■ GUIDELINES for Peer Review and Editing 59

4.3 Working in Virtual Teams 59

■■ ON THE JOB… Advantage of Collaborating Electronically 60

4.3.1 Crowdsourcing 60

4.3.2 Face-to-Face Versus Electronically Mediated

Collaboration 61

■■ IN BRIEF Collaboration Tools 61

4.4 Conducting Meetings 62

■■ ON THE JOB… Successful Collaboration Among Diverse

Stakeholders 62

■■ PROFILE The Value of Mentorship in Fostering

Successful Collaboration 63

■■ GUIDELINES for Running a Meeting 63

■■ CHECKLIST for Collaborating with Others 64

Exercise 65 • Collaborative Exercise 65 • Collaborative

Project 65

5 Writing Persuasively 66

5.1 Audience Resistance and Yielding to Persuasion 66

■■ ON THE JOB… Overcoming Resistance to Change 67

5.2 Know How to Connect with the Audience 68

5.2.1 Ask for a Specific Decision 70

■■ ON THE JOB… The Key to Persuading Others 70

5.2.2 Never Ask for Too Much 70

5.3 Recognize All Constraints 70

5.3.1 Organizational Constraints 71

5.3.2 Legal Constraints 72

5.3.3 Ethical Constraints 72

5.3.4 Time Constraints 72

5.3.5 Social and Psychological Constraints 72

5.4 Support Your Claims Convincingly 73

5.4.1 Offer Convincing Evidence 73

5.4.2 Appeal to Common Goals and Values 74

■■ GUIDELINES for Persuasion 74

5.5 Consider the Cultural Context 75

■■ GUIDELINES for Analyzing Cultural Differences 76

5.5.2 Putting It All Together 77

■■ CHECKLIST for Persuasion 78

Exercises 79 • Collaborative Project 79

6 Writing Ethically 81

6.1 Recognize Unethical Communication and Its Causes 82

6.1.1 Workplace Pressure Can Lead to Unethical

Communication 83

6.1.2 Groupthink Can Lead to Unethical

Communication 85

6.2 Rely on Critical Thinking for Ethical Decisions 86

6.2.1 Reasonable Criteria for Ethical Judgment 86

6.2.2 Ethical Dilemmas 87

6.2.3 Never Depend Only on Legal Guidelines

to Make Ethical Decisions 88

6.3 Types of Communication Abuses in the Workplace 90

6.3.1 Suppressing Information the Public Needs 90

■■ ON THE JOB… Social and Business Responsibilities 90

6.3.2 Exaggerating Claims about Technology 90

6.3.3 Stealing or Divulging Proprietary Information 91

6.3.4 Hiding Conflicts of Interest 91

6.3.5 Falsifying or Fabricating Data 91

6.3.6 Using Visual Images that Conceal the Truth 91

6.3.7 Misusing Electronic Information 91

6.3.8 Withholding Information People Need to

Do Their Jobs 92

6.3.9 Exploiting Cultural Differences 92

6.4 Decide Where and How to Draw the Line 92

■■ ON THE JOB… Ethics in Environmental Consulting 94

■■ GUIDELINES for Ethical Communication 94

■■ CHECKLIST for Ethical Communication 95

Exercises 95 • Collaborative Project 96

7 Gathering Information 97

■■ ON THE JOB… Trends in Research 97

7.1 Thinking Critically about the Research Process 98

7.1.1 Asking the Right Questions 98

7.1.2 Achieving Adequate Depth in Your Search 100

■■ ON THE JOB… Advice for an In-Depth Library Search 101

7.1.3 Evaluating and Interpreting Your Findings 101

7.2 Exploring Secondary Sources 101

■■ ON THE JOB… Researching Electronic Sources 102

7.2.1 Selecting Sources 102

7.2.2 The Library Search 102

■■ ON THE JOB… The History of the Library Catalogue 103

7.2.3 Two Modes of Academic Searches 103

7.2.4 Internet Sources 104

■■ ON THE JOB… Searching the “Open” Internet 104

7.2.5 Government and Regulatory Publications 106

■■ GUIDELINES for Researching Online Resources 107

7.3 Exploring Primary Sources 108

7.3.1 Informative Interviews 108

■■ GUIDELINES for Informative Interviews 109

7.3.3 Surveys and Questionnaires 110

■■ GUIDELINES for Surveys and Questionnaires 113

7.3.5 Inquiries 114

7.3.6 Office Files 114

7.3.7 Observation and Experiments 114

7.3.8 Analysis of Samples 114

7.3.9 Social Networking for Primary Sources 115

■■ ON THE JOB… Social Networking and Research 115

Exercises 115 • Collaborative Project 117

8 Recording and Reviewing

Research Findings 118

8.1 Recording the Findings 118

8.1.1 Taking Notes 118

8.1.2 Quoting the Work of Others 119

8.1.3 Paraphrasing the Work of Others 120

■■ IN BRIEF USING COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL 121

8.2 Evaluating and Interpreting Information 122

■■ ON THE JOB… Critical Research Skills 122

8.2.1 Evaluating the Sources 122

8.2.2 Evaluating the Evidence 125

8.2.3 Interpreting the Evidence 125

■■ ON THE JOB… Certainty in Environmental Reports 126

8.2.4 Using Effective Reasoning 127

8.2.5 Avoiding Errors in Reasoning 128

8.2.6 Considering Standards of Proof 133

■■ ON THE JOB… Research and Critical Thinking 134

■■ PROFILE Public Libraries as the Curators and

Navigators of Information Quality 134

■■ GUIDELINES for Conducting Research 135

■■ CHECKLIST for the Research Process 136

Exercises or Collaborative Projects 136

iv Contents

Contents v

9 Documenting Research Findings 138

9.1 The Value of Documenting Your Sources 138

9.1.1 Why You Should Document 138

9.1.2 What You Should Document 139

9.1.3 How You Should Document 139

■■ PROFILE Citing Authoritative Sources Is More important

than Ever, Says Research Expert 140

9.2 Documentation Styles 140

9.2.1 MLA Documentation Style 141

9.2.2 APA Documentation Style 142

9.2.3 CSE Numerical Documentation Style 143

9.2.4 IEEE Documentation Style 144

Exercises 145 • Collaborative Project 145

10 Summarizing Information 146

10.1 Purpose and Elements of Summaries 146

■■ ON THE JOB… The Importance of Summaries 147

10.2 Critical Thinking in the Summary Process 148

10.3 Forms of Summarized Information 150

■■ ON THE JOB… Value of Summaries 151

10.3.1 Closing Summary (“Conclusion”) 151

10.3.2 Informative Abstract (“Summary”) 151

10.3.3 Descriptive Abstract (“Abstract”) 152

■■ CHECKLIST for Summaries 152

Exercises 152 • Collaborative Project 153

11 Organizing for Readers 154

11.1 Topical Arrangement 154

11.2 Outlining 157

11.2.1 The Formal Outline 158

11.2.2 The Importance of Being Organized 159

11.2.3 Organizing for Cross-cultural Audiences 159

11.3 Paragraphing 160

11.3.1 The Standard Paragraph 160

11.3.2 The Topic Sentence 160

11.3.3 Paragraph Unity 162

11.3.4 Paragraph Coherence 162

11.3.5 Paragraph Length 163

11.4 Sequencing 163

11.4.1 General to Specific 163

11.4.2 Specific to General 166

11.4.3 Chronological 166

Exercises 168 • Collaborative Project 168

12 Designing Visuals 169

12.1 Why Visuals are Essential and When to Use Them 169

12.1.1 When to Use a Visual 171

12.1.2 What Types of Visuals to Consider 171

■■ ON THE JOB… Using Infographics 173

12.1.3 How to Select Visuals for Your Purpose

and Audience 173

12.2 Tables 174

■■ GUIDELINES for Creating Tables 176

12.3 Graphs 177

12.3.1 Bar Graphs 177

■■ GUIDELINES for Creating Bar Graphs 180

12.3.3 Line Graphs 180

■■ GUIDELINES for Creating Line Graphs 181

12.4 Charts 182

12.4.1 Pie Charts 182

■■ GUIDELINES for Creating Pie Charts 183

12.4.3 Organization Charts 183

12.4.4 Flow Charts 183

12.4.5 Tree Charts 185

12.4.6 Pictograms 185

12.4.7 Gantt Charts 186

■■ ON THE JOB… Gantt Charts in Project Management 187

12.5 Graphic Illustrations 187

12.5.1 Diagrams 188

12.5.2 Photographs 190

■■ GUIDELINES for Taking and Using Photographs 191

12.6 Additional Considerations when Using Visuals 192

12.6.1 Using Computer Graphics 192

12.6.2 Using Colour or Shading 193

■■ GUIDELINES for Using Colour or Shading 195

12.6.4 Using Websites for Graphics Support 196

12.6.5 How to Avoid Visual Distortion 196

12.6.6 How to Incorporate Visuals with the Text 198

■■ GUIDELINES for Visual and Verbal Elements 198

■■ CHECKLIST for Evaluating Visuals 199

Exercises 199 • Collaborative Project 200

13 Designing Pages and Documents 201

13.1 Page Design in Workplace Writing 201

13.2 Page-Design Elements 202

13.2.1 Shaping the Page 202

13.2.2 Styling the Words and Letters 206

13.2.3 Highlighting for Emphasis 207

13.2.4 Using Headings for Access and Orientation 207

■■ GUIDELINES for Page Design 210

13.3 Audience Considerations in Page Design 210

■■ IN BRIEF C.R.A.P. Principles for Designing Pages 211

■■ PROFILE Perspectives From the Plastics Engineering

Industry on Technical Communication 211

■■ CHECKLIST for Page Design 212

Exercises 212 • Collaborative Project 213

14 Definitions 214

14.1 Elements of Definitions 215

14.1.1 Plain English 215

14.1.2 Basic Properties 215

14.1.3 Objectivity 215

14.2 Types of Definitions 215

14.2.1 Parenthetical Definition 216

14.2.2 Clarifying Definition 216

14.2.3 Sentence Definition 216

■■ ON THE JOB… Clarity in the Construction Industry 217

■■ ON THE JOB… The Value of Clear Operational Definitions 217

14.2.4 Expanded Definition 218

14.3 Expansion Methods 218

14.3.1 Etymology 218

14.3.2 History and Background 219

14.3.3 Negation 219

14.3.4 Operating Principle 219

14.3.5 Analysis of Parts 219

14.3.6 Visuals 220

14.3.7 Comparison and Contrast 220

14.3.8 Required Materials or Conditions 220

14.3.9 Example 220

14.3.10 Sample Expanded Definitions 221

14.4 Placement of Definitions 223

■■ GUIDELINES for Definitions 224

■■ CHECKLIST for Revising and Editing Definitions 225

Exercises 225 • Collaborative Project 226

15 Descriptions and Specifications 227

15.1 Objectivity in Descriptions 227

15.1.1 Record the Details That Enable Readers to

Visualize the Item 228

15.1.2 Use Precise and Informative Language 228

15.2 Elements of Mechanism Descriptions 229

15.2.1 Clear and Limiting Title 229

15.2.2 Overall Appearance and Component Parts 229

15.2.3 Visuals 230

15.2.4 Function of Each Part 230

15.2.5 Appropriate Level of Detail 230

15.2.6 Clearest Descriptive Sequence 230

15.2.7 A General Model for Description 231

15.3 Specifications 233

■■ ON THE JOB… Updating Specifications 233

■■ ON THE JOB… A Process for Writing Detailed

Project Estimates 236

15.4 Technical Marketing Literature 236

■■ ON THE JOB… A New Wave of Technical Marketing Materials 236

■■ ON THE JOB… Marketing Technical Information 238

■■ GUIDELINES for Descriptions and Specifications 238

■■ CHECKLIST for Revising and Editing Descriptions 239

Exercises 240 • Collaborative Project 240

16 Process Analyses, Instructions,

and Procedures 241

16.1 Process Analysis 241

■■ GUIDELINES for Process Analyses 245

16.2 Instructions 245

■■ ON THE JOB… The Value of Instructions 246

16.2.1 Clear and Limiting Title 247

16.2.2 Informed Content 247

16.2.3 Visuals 247

16.2.4 Appropriate Level of Technicality 247

16.2.5 Logically Ordered Steps 250

16.2.6 Notes, Cautions, Warnings, and

Danger Notices 250

16.2.7 Appropriate Words, Sentences, and Paragraphs 251

16.2.8 Effective Page Design 252

16.2.9 A Sample Set of Instructions 253

■■ GUIDELINES for Instructions 253

16.3 Online Documentation and Tutorials 255

16.3.1 Online Documentation 255

■■ ON THE JOB… Documentation across Platforms 256

16.3.2 Tutorials 256

■■ PROFILE A 10-Year Perspective on the Evolution

of Online Training 258

16.4 Procedures 259

■■ GUIDELINES for Procedures 260

■■ CHECKLIST for Revising and Editing Instructions 261

Exercises 261 • Collaborative Project 262

17 Manuals and Usability Testing 263

■■ ON THE JOB… Manuals Can Serve Many Users, Many

Purposes 263

17.1 Manual Writing 264

■■ ON THE JOB… Manual Writing at Industry Canada 264

17.1.1 Planning 264

17.1.2 Drafting 265

17.1.3 Testing and Revising 265

■■ ON THE JOB… Manual Writing at Valid Manufacturing 266

17.2 Parts of Manuals 266

17.2.1 Body Sections 266

17.2.2 Supplementary Sections 267

17.3 Format Considerations 270

17.3.1 Section Identification 270

17.3.2 Headings System 272

17.3.3 Page Layout 272

17.3.4 Symbols and Design Graphics 273

■■ GUIDELINES for Manuals 273

17.4 Usability Testing 274

17.4.1 How Usability Testing Is Done 274

17.4.2 When to Use Which Test 275

17.4.3 How Usability Criteria Are Determined 275

17.4.4 Usability Issues in Online or Multimedia

Documents 275

■■ GUIDELINES for Usability 276

■■ CHECKLIST for Usability 277

Exercises 278 • Collaborative Project 278

18 Proposals 279

18.1 Types of Proposals 279

18.2 The Proposal Process 280

■■ ON THE JOB… The Proposal Process 281

■■ ON THE JOB… Factors in Successful Proposals 283

18.3 Structure and Examples of Proposals 283

■■ ON THE JOB… Respect Your Reader’s Needs 284

18.3.1 Typical Sections of Proposals 284

18.3.2 Additional Sections in Formal

Proposals 285

18.3.3 Section Variations for Grant Proposals 285

18.3.4 Special Considerations for Executive Summaries 286

18.3.5 Graphics in Proposals 286

18.3.6 Sample Proposals 287

■■ ON THE JOB… Successful Commercial Proposals 294

18.4 Internal Proposals and the Action Gradient 303

18.4.1 Avoiding Action 303

18.4.2 Taking Limited Action 303

18.4.3 Taking Positive Action 303

■■ GUIDELINES for Proposals 304

■■ CHECKLIST for Revising and Editing Proposals 305

Exercises 306 • Collaborative Project 306

19 Formal Analytical Reports 307

■■ ON THE JOB… The Report as “Product” 307

19.1 Types of Analysis and Analytical Problems 308

19.1.1 Four Main Types of Analysis 308

19.1.2 Typical Analytical Problems 308

19.1.3 A Sample Situation 310

19.2 Elements of Analysis 317

19.2.1 Clearly Identified Problem or Question 317

■■ ON THE JOB… Components of a Successful Analytical

Report 318

19.2.2 Subordination of Personal Bias 318

19.2.3 Accurate and Adequate Data 318

19.2.4 Fully Interpreted Data 318

19.2.5 Clear and Careful Reasoning 318

19.2.6 Appropriate Visuals 319

19.2.7 Valid Conclusions and Recommendations 319

19.3 Parts of a Formal Report 320

19.3.1 Introduction 322

19.3.2 Central Section 322

■■ ON THE JOB… Investigation Reports 322

19.3.3 Conclusion 323

19.4 The Process of Writing Reports 323

19.4.1 Using Outlines 323

■■ ON THE JOB… Visual Outlines 324

■■ ON THE JOB… Producing a Consultant Report 328

19.4.2 A Formal Analytical Report 328

■■ GUIDELINES for Formal Analytical Reports 348

■■ CHECKLIST for Revising and Editing Analytical Reports 348

Exercise 349 • Collaborative Project 349

20 Adding Document Supplements 350

20.1 Purpose of Document Supplements 350

20.2 Types of Document Supplements 351

20.2.1 Cover 351

20.2.2 Transmittal Document 351

20.2.3 Title Page 351

20.2.4 Summary 354

20.2.5 Table of Contents 354

20.2.6 List of Figures and Tables 354

20.2.7 List of Sources Cited 356

20.2.8 Glossary 356

20.2.9 Appendix 356

Exercises 359 • Collaborative Project 359

21 Short Reports 360

21.1 Formats and Structure of Short Reports 360

21.1.1 Formats 360

21.1.2 A Structure for All Purposes 361

21.2 Types of Informational Reports 362

21.2.1 Progress Reports 363

21.2.2 Periodic Activity Reports 364

21.2.3 Project Completion Reports 364

21.2.4 Incident Reports 364

21.2.5 Inspection Reports 364

21.2.6 Compliance Reports 364

21.2.7 Field Trip Reports 365

21.2.8 Meeting Minutes 365

21.3 Types of Analytical Reports 385

21.3.1 Feasibility Reports 385

21.3.2 Causal Analyses 387

21.3.3 Assessment Reports 387

21.3.4 Recommendations Reports 387

21.3.5 Lab Reports 388

21.3.6 Form Reports 389

■■ CHECKLIST for Revising and Editing Short

Reports 397

Exercises 398 • Collaborative Project 398

22 Workplace Correspondence 399

22.1 Letters and Memos 399

22.1.1 Letter Usage, Formats, and Elements 400

22.1.2 Memo Usage and Format 404

■■ GUIDELINES for Letters and Memos 407

22.2 Electronic Mail 407

■■ ON THE JOB… The Ascendancy of Email 408

■■ ON THE JOB… Email Still Has Its Place 409

22.2.1 Email Format 409

22.2.2 Email Privacy Issues 411

22.2.3 Email Quality Issues 411

22.2.4 Email Offshoots and Alternatives 412

22.2.5 Email’s Future 413

■■ GUIDELINES for Email 414

22.3 Common Considerations for all Workplace

Correspondence 415

22.3.1 Interpersonal Considerations 415

22.3.2 Structural Considerations 417

22.3.3 Length Considerations 420

22.3.4 Writing Workplace Correspondence

Efficiently 421

22.4 Text and Instant Messaging 421

■■ PROFILE Communicating Globally with Professional

Email Style 422

Exercises 423 • Collaborative Project 423

viii Contents

23 Job-Search Communications 424

23.1 Assessing Your Skills and Goals 424

23.1.1 Completing a Self-Inventory 424

■■ ON THE JOB… Attitude 426

23.1.2 Your Transferable Skills 426

■■ IN BRIEF Employability Skills Profile: Employability

Skills 2000+ 427

■■ IN BRIEF Preparing for the New World of Work 428

23.1.3 Personal Job Assessment 429

23.2 Job-Market Research 430

23.2.1 Identify Information Needs 430

23.2.2 Identify Information Sources 430

23.2.3 Inquiries 433

23.2.4 Networking 435

■■ ON THE JOB… Active Networking 435

23.3 Preparing Résumés and Employment Portfolios 437

23.3.1 Uses for Résumés 438

23.3.2 Preparing Your Résumé 438

■■ ON THE JOB… Omit Career Objectives 439

■■ ON THE JOB… Evidence of Transferable Skills 440

23.3.3 Organizing Your Résumé 441

23.3.4 Image Projection 441

23.3.5 Electronic Résumés 446

23.3.7 Employment Portfolios 447

■■ GUIDELINES for Résumés 449

23.4 Contacting Employers 451

23.4.1 Campaign Strategies 451

23.4.2 Contact Methods 452

■■ ON THE JOB… Hiring Criteria 457

23.5 Employment Interviews and Follow-Up

Correspondence 458

23.5.1 Interview Preparation 459

23.5.2 An Interview Timeline 459

23.5.3 Questions 460

23.5.4 Answers 461

■■ ON THE JOB… Mental Agility 461

23.5.5 Follow-Ups to Interviews 462

23.5.6 Responding to Job Offers 462

■■ IN BRIEF Evaluating a Job Offer 463

23.5.7 Special Considerations for Contractors 464

■■ PROFILE The Evolution of Recruiting and Hiring

Practices for Employers and Candidates 465

■■ CHECKLIST for Revising and Editing Job-Search

Correspondence 466

Exercises 466 • Collaborative Projects 467

24 Oral Presentations 468

■■ ON THE JOB… Leaders Need to Speak Well 468

24.1 Factors of Successful Speaking 469

■■ ON THE JOB… Speaking on the Job 469

■■ ON THE JOB… Speaking Success 470

■■ ON THE JOB… New Platforms for Presenting 471

24.2 Four Presentation Styles 472

24.2.1 Delivering Extemporaneous Talks 472

24.2.2 Impromptu Speaking 473

■■ ON THE JOB… Successful Impromptu Speaking 473

24.3 Preparing Your Presentation 475

24.3.1 Research Your Topic 475

24.3.2 Outline Your Presentation 475

24.3.3 Plan Your Visuals 477

24.3.4 Prepare Your Visuals 478

24.3.5 Prepare Notecards 482

24.3.6 Rehearse Your Talk 483

24.4 Delivering Your Presentation 483

■■ GUIDELINES for Oral Presentations 485

24.5 Other Workplace Speaking Situations 486

24.5.1 Conducting Webinars 486

24.5.2 Speaking at Meetings 486

24.5.3 Electronically Conducted Meetings 488

■■ IN BRIEF Cross-Cultural Audiences May Have

Specific Expectations 489

■■ PROFILE Learning from Indigenous Perspectives

on Public Speaking 490

Exercises 491 • Collaborative Project 491

25 Using Online Media 492

25.1 Webpages 492

25.1.1 Audience and Purpose 493

■■ ON THE JOB… Screen versus Print Documents 493

25.1.2 Characteristics of Successful Webpages 494

25.1.3 Writing for and Designing Webpages 494

■■ IN BRIEF Using SEO to Attract Website

Visitors 496

■■ PROFILE Online Communication Perspectives from

a Content Strategist and UX (User Experience) Writer 496

■■ GUIDELINES for Writing for and Designing

Webpages 497

25.2 Blogs 498

■■ ON THE JOB… Podcasting and Receiver Control 499

■■ ON THE JOB… Benefits of Podcasting 500

25.3 Wikis 500

25.3.1 Internal Wikis 500

25.3.2 External Wikis 500

25.3.3 Wikis and New Ways of Working 501

25.4 Social Networks 501

25.4.1 The Value of Social Networking Media 501

25.4.2 The Future of Social Networking Media 503

25.4.3 Are Social Media Worth the Effort? 504

■■ CHECKLIST for Blogs, Wikis, and Social Networks 505

Exercises 505 • Collaborative Project 506

Appendix: Grammar and Style at Work 509

Correction Symbols 597

Proofreader’s Marks 598

Works Cited 599

Subject Index 606

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