Introductory Chemistry, 7th Edition In Si Units PDF by Nivaldo J Tro

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Introductory Chemistry, Seventh Edition In Si Units

By Nivaldo J. Tro

Introductory Chemistry, 7th Edition

Contents:

Preface 23

1 The Chemical World 28

1.1 Sand and Water 29

1.2 Chemicals Compose Ordinary Things 30

1.3 The Scientific Method: How Chemists Think 31

EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY Combustion and the

Scientific Method 33

1.4 Analyzing and Interpreting Data 34

Identifying Patterns in Data 34

Interpreting Graphs 35

1.5 A Beginning Chemist: How to Succeed 37

Self-Assessment Quiz 37

Key Terms 39

Exercises 39

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 41

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 41

2 Measurement and

Problem Solving 42

2.1 The Metric Mix-up: A $125 Million Unit Error 43

2.2 Scientific Notation: Writing Large and

Small Numbers 43

2.3 Significant Figures: Writing Numbers to

Reflect Precision 45

Counting Significant Figures 48

Exact Numbers 49

CHEMISTRY IN THE MEDIA The COBE Satellite

and Very Precise Measurements That Illuminate

Our Cosmic Past 50

2.4 Significant Figures in Calculations 50

Multiplication and Division 51

Rounding 51

Addition and Subtraction 52

Calculations Involving Both Multiplication/Division

and Addition/Subtraction 53

2.5 The Basic Units of Measurement 54

The Base Units 55

Prefix Multipliers 56

Derived Units 56

2.6 Problem Solving and Unit Conversion 57

Converting Between Units 57

General Problem-Solving Strategy 59

2.7 Solving Multistep Unit Conversion

Problems 61

2.8 Unit Conversion in Both the Numerator

and Denominator 63

2.9 Units Raised to a Power 65

CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Drug Dosage 65

2.10 Density 67

Calculating Density 68

Density as a Conversion Factor 69

CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Density, Cholesterol,

and Heart Disease 70

2.11 Numerical Problem-Solving Strategies

and the Solution Map 71

Self-Assessment Quiz 73

Key Terms 79

Exercises 79

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 89

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 89

3 Matter and Energy 90

3.1 In Your Room 91

3.2 What Is Matter? 92

3.3 Classifying Matter According to Its State:

Solid, Liquid, and Gas 93

3.4 Classifying Matter According to Its Composition:

Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures 95

3.5 Differences in Matter: Physical and

Chemical Properties 98

3.6 Changes in Matter: Physical and

Chemical Changes 99

Separating Mixtures Through Physical

Changes 101

3.7 Conservation of Mass: There Is No New Matter 101

3.8 Energy 103

CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT Getting

Energy out of Nothing? 103

Units of Energy 104

3.9 Energy and Chemical and Physical Change 105

3.10 Temperature: Random Motion of

Molecules and Atoms 107

3.11 Temperature Changes: Heat Capacity 110

EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY Coolers, Camping,

and the Heat Capacity of Water 111

3.12 Energy and Heat Capacity Calculations 112

Self-Assessment Quiz 115

Key Terms 120

Exercises 121

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 129

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 129

4 Atoms and Elements 130

4.1 Experiencing Atoms at Tiburon 131

4.2 Indivisible: The Atomic Theory 132

4.3 The Nuclear Atom 133

4.4 The Properties of Protons, Neutrons,

and Electrons 135

EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY Solid Matter? 136

4.5 Elements: Defined by Their Numbers

of Protons 137

4.6 Looking for Patterns: The Periodic Law

and the Periodic Table 140

4.7 Ions: Losing and Gaining Electrons 144

Ions and the Periodic Table 146

4.8 Isotopes: When the Number

of Neutrons Varies 147

4.9 Atomic Mass: The Average Mass

of an Element’s Atoms 150

CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT Radioactive

Isotopes at Hanford, Washington 151

Self-Assessment Quiz 153

Key Terms 156

Exercises 156

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 165

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 165

5 Molecules and

Compounds 166

5.1 Sugar and Salt 167

5.2 Compounds Display Constant

Composition 168

5.3 Chemical Formulas: How to Represent

Compounds 169

Polyatomic Ions in Chemical Formulas 171

Types of Chemical Formulas 172

5.4 A Molecular View of Elements and

Compounds 173

Atomic Elements 173

Molecular Elements 173

Molecular Compounds 173

Ionic Compounds 174

5.5 Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds 176

Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds

Containing Only Monoatomic Ions 176

Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds

Containing Polyatomic Ions 177

5.6 Nomenclature: Naming Compounds 178

5.7 Naming Ionic Compounds 178

Naming Binary Ionic Compounds

Containing a Metal That Forms Only One

Type of Cation 178

Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Containing

a Metal That Forms More Than One Type

of Cation 180

Naming Ionic Compounds Containing a

Polyatomic Ion 181

EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY Polyatomic Ions 182

5.8 Naming Molecular Compounds 183

5.9 Naming Acids 184

Naming Binary Acids 184

Naming Oxyacids 185

5.10 Nomenclature Summary 186

Ionic Compounds 186

Molecular Compounds 186

Acids 187

5.11 Formula Mass: The Mass of a Molecule

or Formula Unit 187

Self-Assessment Quiz 188

Key Terms 193

Exercises 193

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 201

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 201

6 Chemical Composition 202

6.1 How Much Sodium? 203

6.2 Counting Nails by the Kilogram 204

6.3 Counting Atoms by the Gram 205

Converting between Moles and Number

of Atoms 205

Converting between Grams and Moles

of an Element 206

Converting between Grams of an Element

and Number of Atoms 209

6.4 Counting Molecules by the Gram 210

Converting between Grams and Moles

of a Compound 210

Converting between Grams of a Compound

and Number of Molecules 212

6.5 Chemical Formulas as Conversion

Factors 213

Converting between Moles of a Compound

and Moles of a Constituent Element 214

Converting between Grams of a Compound

and Grams of a Constituent Element 215

6.6 Mass Percent Composition of Compounds 217

6.7 Mass Percent Composition from a

Chemical Formula 218

CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Fluoridation

of Drinking Water 220

6.8 Calculating Empirical Formulas for

Compounds 220

Calculating an Empirical Formula from

Experimental Data 221

6.9 Calculating Molecular Formulas for

Compounds 223

Self-Assessment Quiz 225

Key Terms 231

Exercises 231

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 239

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 239

7 Chemical Reactions 240

7.1 Grade School Volcanoes, Automobiles,

and Laundry Detergents 241

7.2 Evidence of a Chemical Reaction 242

7.3 The Chemical Equation 245

7.4 How to Write Balanced Chemical Equations 247

7.5 Aqueous Solutions and Solubility:

Compounds Dissolved in Water 250

Aqueous Solutions 250

Solubility 251

7.6 Precipitation Reactions: Reactions in

Aqueous Solution That Form a Solid 253

7.7 Writing Chemical Equations for Reactions

in Solution: Molecular, Complete Ionic, and

Net Ionic Equations 256

7.8 Acid–Base and Gas-Evolution Reactions 258

Acid–Base (Neutralization) Reactions 258

Gas-Evolution Reactions 259

CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Neutralizing Excess

Stomach Acid 261

7.9 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions 261

7.10 Classifying Chemical Reactions 263

Classifying Chemical Reactions by

What Atoms Do 264

Classification Flowchart 266

Self-Assessment Quiz 268

Key Terms 273

Exercises 273

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 281

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 281

8 Quantities in Chemical

Reactions 282

8.1 Climate Change: Too Much Carbon Dioxide 283

8.2 Making Pancakes: Relationships

between Ingredients 284

8.3 Making Molecules: Mole-to-Mole

Conversions 285

8.4 Making Molecules: Mass-to-Mass

Conversions 287

8.5 More Pancakes: Limiting Reactant,

Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield 290

8.6 Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield,

and Percent Yield from Initial Masses

of Reactants 294

8.7 Enthalpy: A Measure of the Heat

Evolved or Absorbed in a Reaction 298

Sign of Hrxn _ 299

EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY Bunsen Burners 299

Stoichiometry of Hrxn _ 300

Self-Assessment Quiz 302

Key Terms 306

Exercises 307

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 317

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 317

9 Electrons in Atoms and

the Periodic Table 318

9.1 Blimps, Balloons, and Models of the Atom 319

9.2 Light: Electromagnetic Radiation 320

9.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 322

CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Radiation Treatment

for Cancer 324

9.4 The Bohr Model: Atoms with Orbits 325

9.5 The Quantum-Mechanical Model: Atoms

with Orbitals 328

Baseball Paths and Electron Probability

Maps 328

From Orbits to Orbitals 329

9.6 Quantum-Mechanical Orbitals and

Electron Configurations 329

Quantum-Mechanical Orbitals 329

Electron Configurations: How Electrons

Occupy Orbitals 332

9.7 Electron Configurations and the

Periodic Table 336

9.8 The Explanatory Power of the

Quantum-Mechanical Model 339

9.9 Periodic Trends: Atomic Size, Ionization

Energy, and Metallic Character 341

Atomic Size 341

Ionization Energy 343

CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Pumping Ions:

Atomic Size and Nerve Impulses 343

Metallic Character 344

Self-Assessment Quiz 347

Key Terms 350

Exercises 350

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 357

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 357

10 Chemical Bonding 358

10.1 Bonding Models and AIDS Drugs 359

10.2 Representing Valence Electrons with Dots 360

10.3 Lewis Structures of Ionic Compounds:

Electrons Transferred 361

10.4 Covalent Lewis Structures: Electrons Shared 362

Single Bonds 362

Double and Triple Bonds 363

10.5 Writing Lewis Structures for Covalent

Compounds 364

Writing Lewis Structures for

Polyatomic Ions 366

Exceptions to the Octet Rule 367

10.6 Resonance: Equivalent Lewis Structures

for the Same Molecule 368

10.7 Predicting the Shapes of Molecules 370

Representing Molecular Geometries

on Paper 373

CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Fooled by

Molecular Shape 374

10.8 Electronegativity and Polarity: Why Oil

and Water Don’t Mix 375

Electronegativity 375

Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules 377

EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY How Soap Works 379

Self-Assessment Quiz 380

Key Terms 383

Exercises 383

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 391

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 391

11 Gases 392

11.1 Extra-Long Straws 393

11.2 Kinetic Molecular Theory: A Model

for Gases 394

11.3 Pressure: The Result of Constant

Molecular Collisions 396

Pressure Units 397

Pressure Unit Conversion 398

11.4 Boyle’s Law: Pressure and Volume 399

EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY Airplane Cabin

Pressurization 400

EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY Extra-long Snorkels 404

11.5 Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature 404

11.6 The Combined Gas Law: Pressure,

Volume, and Temperature 408

11.7 Avogadro’s Law: Volume and Moles 410

11.8 The Ideal Gas Law: Pressure, Volume,

Temperature, and Moles 412

Determining Molar Mass of a Gas

from the Ideal Gas Law 416

Ideal and Nonideal Gas Behavior 418

11.9 Mixtures of Gases 418

Partial Pressure and Physiology 420

Collecting Gases over Water 421

11.10 Gases in Chemical Reactions 422

Molar Volume at Standard Temperature

and Pressure 425

CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT Air Pollution 427

Self-Assessment Quiz 428

Key Terms 432

Exercises 433

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 441

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 441

12 Liquids, Solids, and

Intermolecular Forces 442

12.1 Spherical Water 443

12.2 Properties of Liquids and Solids 444

12.3 Intermolecular Forces in Action:

Surface Tension and Viscosity 445

Surface Tension 446

Viscosity 446

12.4 Evaporation and Condensation 447

Boiling 448

Energetics of Evaporation and

Condensation 449

Heat of Vaporization 450

12.5 Melting, Freezing, and Sublimation 452

Energetics of Melting and

Freezing 452

Heat of Fusion 453

Sublimation 455

12.6 Types of Intermolecular Forces: Dispersion,

Dipole–Dipole, Hydrogen Bonding,

and Ion–Dipole 456

Dispersion Force 456

Dipole–Dipole Force 457

Hydrogen Bonding 459

Ion–Dipole Force 460

CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Hydrogen

Bonding in DNA 461

12.7 Types of Crystalline Solids: Molecular,

Ionic, and Atomic 463

Molecular Solids 463

Ionic Solids 463

Atomic Solids 464

12.8 Water: A Remarkable Molecule 465

CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT Water

Pollution and the Flint River Water Crisis 466

Self-Assessment Quiz 467

Key Terms 470

Exercises 470

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 477

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 477

13 Solutions 478

13.1 Tragedy in Cameroon 479

13.2 Solutions: Homogeneous Mixtures 480

13.3 Solutions of Solids Dissolved in Water:

How to Make Rock Candy 481

Solubility and Saturation 482

Electrolyte Solutions: Dissolved

Ionic Solids 483

How Solubility Varies with Temperature 484

13.4 Solutions of Gases in Water: How Soda

Pop Gets Its Fizz 484

13.5 Specifying Solution Concentration:

Mass Percent 486

Mass Percent 486

Using Mass Percent in Calculations 487

13.6 Specifying Solution Concentration:

Molarity 489

Using Molarity in Calculations 490

Ion Concentrations 492

13.7 Solution Dilution 492

13.8 Solution Stoichiometry 494

13.9 Freezing Point Depression and Boiling

Point Elevation: Making Water Freeze

Colder and Boil Hotter 497

Freezing Point Depression 497

EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY Antifreeze in Frogs 499

Boiling Point Elevation 499

13.10 Osmosis: Why Drinking Salt Water

Causes Dehydration 501

CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Solutions in Medicine 502

Self-Assessment Quiz 503

Key Terms 508

Exercises 508

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 517

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 517

14 Acids and Bases 518

14.1 Sour Patch Kids and International

Spy Movies 519

14.2 Acids: Properties and Examples 520

14.3 Bases: Properties and Examples 522

14.4 Molecular Definitions of Acids and Bases 523

The Arrhenius Definition 523

The Brønsted–Lowry Definition 523

14.5 Reactions of Acids and Bases 525

Neutralization Reactions 525

Acid Reactions 526

EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY What Is in My Antacid? 528

Base Reactions 528

14.6 Acid–Base Titration: A Way to Quantify

the Amount of Acid or Base in a Solution 528

14.7 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases 531

Strong Acids 531

Weak Acids 532

Strong Bases 534

Weak Bases 535

14.8 Water: Acid and Base in One 536

14.9 The pH and pOH Scales: Ways to

Express Acidity and Basicity 538

Calculating pH from H O 3

+ 538

Calculating H O 3

+ from pH 540

The pOH Scale 541

14.10 Buffers: Solutions That Resist pH Change 542

CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Alkaloids 542

CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH The Danger

of Antifreeze 544

Self-Assessment Quiz 545

Key Terms 549

Exercises 550

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 557

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 557

15 Chemical Equilibrium 558

15.1 Life: Controlled Disequilibrium 559

15.2 The Rate of a Chemical Reaction 560

Collision Theory 561

How Concentration Affects the Rate

of a Reaction 561

How Temperature Affects the Rate

of a Reaction 562

15.3 The Idea of Dynamic Chemical

Equilibrium 563

15.4 The Equilibrium Constant: A Measure

of How Far a Reaction Goes 565

Writing Equilibrium Constant Expressions

for Chemical Reactions 566

The Significance of the Equilibrium15.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria: The Equilibrium

Expression for Reactions Involving a Solid or a Liquid 568

15.6 Calculating and Using Equilibrium Constants 569

Calculating Equilibrium Constants 569

Using Equilibrium Constants in Calculations 571

15.7 Disturbing a Reaction at Equilibrium:

Le Châtelier’s Principle 572

15.8 The Effect of a Concentration Change on

Equilibrium 574

15.9 The Effect of a Volume Change on

Equilibrium 576

CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH How a Developing

Fetus Gets Oxygen 578

15.10 The Effect of a Temperature Change on

Equilibrium 579

15.11 The Solubility-Product Constant 581

Using Ksp to Determine Molar Solubility 582

15.12 The Path of a Reaction and the Effect

of a Catalyst 583

How Activation Energies Affect Reaction Rates 584

Catalysts Lower the Activation Energy 585

Enzymes: Biological Catalysts 586

Self-Assessment Quiz 588

Key Terms 592

Exercises 592

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 600

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 601

Constant 566

16 Oxidation and

Reduction 602

16.1 The End of the Internal Combustion Engine? 603

16.2 Oxidation and Reduction: Some Definitions 604

16.3 Oxidation States: Electron Bookkeeping 607

EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY The Bleaching of Hair 609

16.4 Balancing Redox Equations 610

CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVIRONMENT

Photosynthesis and Respiration: Energy for Life 615

16.5 The Activity Series: Predicting

Spontaneous Redox Reactions 615

The Activity Series of Metals 616

Predicting Whether a Metal Will

Dissolve in Acid 618

16.6 Batteries: Using Chemistry to

Generate Electricity 619

The Voltaic Cell 619

Dry-Cell Batteries 621

Lead–Acid Storage Batteries 622

Fuel Cells 622

16.7 Electrolysis: Using Electricity to

Do Chemistry 623

16.8 Corrosion: Undesirable Redox Reactions 624

EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY The Fuel-Cell

Breathalyzer 625

Self-Assessment Quiz 626

Key Terms 629

Exercises 630

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 637

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 637

17 Radioactivity and

Nuclear Chemistry 638

17.1 Diagnosing Appendicitis 639

17.2 The Discovery of Radioactivity 640

17.3 Types of Radioactivity: Alpha, Beta,

and Gamma Decay 641

Alpha (_) Radiation 642

Beta (_) Radiation 644

Gamma (_) Radiation 645

Positron Emission 646

17.4 Detecting Radioactivity 648

17.5 Natural Radioactivity and Half-Life 649

Half-Life 649

CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Environmental Radon 651

A Natural Radioactive Decay Series 651

17.6 Radiocarbon Dating: Using Radioactivity

to Measure the Age of Fossils and Other

Artifacts 652

CHEMISTRY IN THE MEDIA The Shroud of Turin 653

17.7 The Discovery of Fission and the

Atomic Bomb 654

17.8 Nuclear Power: Using Fission to

Generate Electricity 656

17.9 Nuclear Fusion: The Power of the Sun 658

17.10 The Effects of Radiation on Life 658

Acute Radiation Damage 658

Increased Cancer Risk 659

Genetic Defects 659

Measuring Radiation Exposure 659

17.11 Radioactivity in Medicine 659

Isotope Scanning 659

Radiotherapy 660

Self-Assessment Quiz 661

Key Terms 664

Exercises 664

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 669

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 669

18 Organic Chemistry 670

18.1 What Do I Smell? 671

18.2 Vitalism: The Difference between

Organic and Inorganic 672

18.3 Carbon: A Versatile Atom 673

CHEMISTRY IN THE MEDIA The Origin of Life 674

18.4 Hydrocarbons: Compounds Containing

Only Carbon and Hydrogen 675

18.5 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons 676

CHEMISTRY IN THE MEDIA Environmental

Problems Associated with Hydrocarbon

Combustion 677

18.6 Isomers: Same Formula, Different Structure 681

18.7 Naming Alkanes 682

18.8 Alkenes and Alkynes 685

About Alkenes and Alkynes 685

Naming Alkenes and Alkynes 687

18.9 Hydrocarbon Reactions 688

Alkane Substitution Reactions 689

Alkene and Alkyne Addition Reactions 689

18.10 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 690

Naming Aromatic Hydrocarbons 691

18.11 Functional Groups 693

18.12 Alcohols 694

Naming Alcohols 694

About Alcohols 695

18.13 Ethers 695

Naming Ethers 695

About Ethers 696

18.14 Aldehydes and Ketones 696

Naming Aldehydes and Ketones 696

About Aldehydes and Ketones 697

18.15 Carboxylic Acids and Esters 698

Naming Carboxylic Acids and Esters 698

About Carboxylic Acids and Esters 698

18.16 Amines 700

18.17 Polymers 701

EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY Kevlar: Stronger

Than Steel 703

Self-Assessment Quiz 704

Key Terms 708

Exercises 709

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 720

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 721

19 Biochemistry 722

19.1 The Human Genome Project 723

19.2 The Cell and Its Main Chemical Components 724

19.3 Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starch, and Fiber 724

Monosaccharides 725

Disaccharides 726

Polysaccharides 727

19.4 Lipids 729

Fatty Acids 729

Fats and Oils 730

Other Lipids 732

CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Dietary Fats 734

19.5 Proteins 735

19.6 Protein Structure 739

Primary Structure 740

Secondary Structure 740

EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY Why Straight Hair

Gets Longer When It Is Wet 742

Tertiary Structure 742

Quaternary Structure 743

19.7 Nucleic Acids: Molecular Blueprints 744

19.8 DNA Structure, DNA Replication,

and Protein Synthesis 746

DNA Structure 747

DNA Replication 748

Protein Synthesis 749

CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH Drugs for Diabetes 751

Self-Assessment Quiz 751

Key Terms 754

Exercises 754

Answers to Skillbuilder Exercises 762

Answers to Conceptual Checkpoints 762

Appendix: Mathematics Review MR-1

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises A-1

Glossary G-1

Credits C-1

Index I-1

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