Excellence in Business Communication, Fourteenth Edition PDF by John V. Thill and Courtland L. Bovée

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Excellence in Business Communication, Fourteenth Edition

John V. Thill and Courtland L. Bovée

Excellence in Business Communication

Contents

Preface 12

Prologue 26

PART 1

Understanding the Foundations of

Business Communication 39

1 Professional Communication in a

Digital, Social, Mobile World 40

COMMUNICATING AT KLM 40

Understanding Why Communication Matters 41

Communication Is Important to Your Career 41

Communication Is Important to Your Company 42

What Makes Business Communication Effective? 43

Communicating as a Professional 43

Understanding What Employers Expect from You 43

Communicating in an Organizational Context 45

Adopting an Audience-Centered Approach 47

Exploring the Communication Process 47

The Conventional Communication Model 47

Barriers in the Communication Environment 49

Inside the Mind of Your Audience 50

The Social Communication Model 52

Using Technology to Improve Communication 53

The Potential Benefits of Communication Technology 53

The Spectrum of Contemporary Communication Technology 54

Committing to Ethical and Legal Communication 57

Forms of Unethical Communication 57

Distinguishing Ethical Dilemmas from Ethical Lapses 65

Ensuring Ethical Communication 65

Ensuring Legal Communication 67

Developing Skills for Your Career 68

Applying What You’ve Learned 68

SOLVING COMMUNICATION DILEMMAS AT KLM 69

Learning Objectives Checkup 70

Apply Your Knowledge 71

Practice Your Skills 72

Expand Your Skills 73

Build Your Career 73

Improve Your Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 74

APPLY YOUR SKILLS NOW Practice Your Professionalism 46

PRACTICING ETHICAL COMMUNICATION Are You for

Real? 63

2 Interpersonal Communication

Skills 77

COMMUNICATING AT OpenText 77

Improving Your Listening Skills 78

Understanding Why Listening Is Such a Complex Process 78

Becoming a Better Listener 80

Improving Your Nonverbal Communication Skills 84

Recognizing Nonverbal Communication 84

Using Nonverbal Communication Effectively 85

Developing Your Conversational Skills 86

Initiating Business Conversations 87

Maintaining a Positive Conversational Flow 88

Gracefully Concluding a Conversation 89

Handling Difficult Conversations 89

Managing Workplace Conflict 91

Why Conflict Arises in the Workplace 91

Constructive Versus Destructive Conflict 92

Steps to Resolve Conflict 92

Developing Your Skills as a Negotiator 95

Understanding the Principles of Negotiation 95

Preparing for a Negotiation 95

Engaging in Negotiation 97

SOLVING COMMUNICATION DILEMMAS AT OpenText 99

Learning Objectives Checkup 100

Apply Your Knowledge 102

Practice Your Skills 102

Expand Your Skills 103

Build Your Career 103

Improve Your Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 103

FIVE-MINUTE GUIDE TO RESOLVING WORKPLACE CONFLICT 106

FIVE-MINUTE GUIDE TO BUSINESS NEGOTIATIONS 107

APPLY YOUR SKILLS NOW Prepare Yourself for a Difficult

Conversation 90

3 Collaboration and Business

Etiquette 108

COMMUNICATING AT Sodexo 108

Communicating Effectively in Teams 109

Types of Teams 109

Advantages and Disadvantages of Teams 111

Characteristics of Effective Teams 111

Group Dynamics 112

Virtual and Hybrid Teams 113

Collaborating on Communication Efforts 115

Collaboration Arrangements 115

Giving—and Responding to—Constructive Feedback 116

Tools and Systems for Collaborative Content Development 116

Making Your Meetings More Productive 118

Preparing for Meetings 119

Leading and Contributing to Efficient Meetings 120

Putting Meeting Results to Productive Use 123

Conducting Virtual Meetings 125

Developing Your Business Etiquette 127

Business Etiquette in the Workplace 128

Virtual Workplace Etiquette 129

Business Etiquette in Social Settings 130

Social Media Etiquette 130

Telephone and Mobile Etiquette 131

SOLVING COMMUNICATION DILEMMAS AT Sodexo 132

Learning Objectives Checkup 133

Apply Your Knowledge 135

Practice Your Skills 135

Expand Your Skills 136

Build Your Career 136

Improve Your Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 136

FIVE-MINUTE GUIDE TO BETTER BUSINESS MEETINGS 140

DEVELOPING AS A PROFESSIONAL Being a Team

Player 110

INTELLIGENT COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Hi, I’m an

Algorithm, Your New Teammate 119

4 Communication Challenges in a

Diverse, Global Marketplace 141

COMMUNICATING AT Siemens AG 141

Understanding the Opportunities and Challenges

of Communication in a Diverse World 142

The Opportunities in a Global Marketplace 142

The Advantages of a Diverse Workforce 143

The Challenges of Intercultural Communication 143

Developing Cultural Competency 144

Understanding the Concept of Culture 144

Recognizing the Dynamics of Bias 145

Recognizing Dimensions of Cultural Diversity 148

Diversity Considerations in the Global Marketplace 148

Diversity Considerations in the Contemporary Workplace 151

Adapting to Global Business Cultures 156

Guidelines for Adapting to Any Business Culture 156

Helping Others Adapt to Your Culture 156

Guidelines for Adapting to U.S. Business Culture 156

Improving Communication with Global Audiences 157

Improving Intercultural Communication in the

Workplace 165

Practicing Inclusive Leadership 165

Being a Strong Ally 166

Developing Inclusive Communication Habits 167

SOLVING COMMUNICATION DILEMMAS AT Siemens AG 168

Learning Objectives Checkup 169

Apply Your Knowledge 171

Practice Your Skills 171

Expand Your Skills 173

Build Your Career 173

Improve Your Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 173

INTELLIGENT COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Real-Time

Translation 164

PART 2

Applying the Three-Step Writing

Process 177

5 Planning Business

Messages 178

COMMUNICATING AT DaVita 178

Understanding the Three-Step Writing Process 179

Optimizing Your Writing Time 180

Planning Effectively 180

Analyzing the Situation 180

Defining Your Purpose 180

Developing an Audience Profile 181

Gathering Information 183

Uncovering Audience Needs 183

Finding Your Focus 183

Providing Required Information 184

Selecting the Best Combination of Media

and Channels 185

The Most Common Media and Channel Options 185

Factors to Consider When Choosing Media and

Channels 189

Organizing Your Information 190

Defining Your Main Idea 190

Limiting Your Scope 192

Choosing Between Direct and Indirect Approaches 192

Outlining Your Content 192

Building Reader Interest with Storytelling

Techniques 194

SOLVING COMMUNICATION DILEMMAS AT DaVita 197

Learning Objectives Checkup 199

Apply Your Knowledge 200

Practice Your Skills 201

Expand Your Skills 202

Build Your Career 202

Improve Your Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 202

FIVE-MINUTE GUIDE TO PLANNING A BUSINESS MESSAGE OR

DOCUMENT 205

PRACTICING ETHICAL COMMUNICATION How Much

Information Is Enough? 185

INTELLIGENT COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

Shaping Stories with the Help of Artificial

Intelligence 196

6 Writing Business

Messages 206

COMMUNICATING AT Kaleigh Moore 206

Adapting to Your Audience: Being Sensitive to

Audience Needs 207

Using the “You” Attitude 207

Maintaining Standards of Etiquette 208

Emphasizing the Positive 209

Using Inclusive, Bias-Free Language 210

Adapting to Your Audience: Building Strong

Relationships 211

Establishing Your Credibility 211

Projecting Your Company’s Image 213

Adapting to Your Audience: Controlling Your Style

and Tone 213

Creating a Conversational Tone 213

Using Plain Language 215

Selecting the Active or Passive Voice 215

Composing Your Message: Choosing Powerful

Words 216

Using Words Correctly 216

Using Words Effectively 217

Understanding Denotation and Connotation 218

Balancing Abstract and Concrete Words 219

Composing Your Message: Creating Effective

Sentences 220

Choosing from the Four Types of Sentences 220

Using Sentence Style to Emphasize Key Thoughts 222

Composing Your Message: Crafting Unified,

Coherent Paragraphs 223

Creating the Elements of a Paragraph 223

Choosing the Best Way to Develop Each Paragraph 226

Writing Messages for Mobile Devices 226

SOLVING COMMUNICATION DILEMMAS AT Kaleigh

Moore 229

Learning Objectives Checkup 230

Apply Your Knowledge 231

Practice Your Skills 232

Expand Your Skills 234

Build Your Career 234

Improve Your Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 235

FIVE-MINUTE GUIDE TO COMPOSING A BUSINESS MESSAGE

OR DOCUMENT 237

INTELLIGENT COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Amplifying

Your Writing with Augmented Writing Software 221

APPLY YOUR SKILLS NOW Think Now, Write

Later 224

7 Completing Business

Messages 238

COMMUNICATING AT Monotype 238

Revising Your Message: Evaluating the First

Draft 239

Evaluating Your Content, Organization, Style, and Tone 239

Evaluating, Editing, and Revising the Work of Others 242

Revising to Improve Readability 242

Varying the Length of Your Sentences 243

Keeping Your Paragraphs Short 243

Using Lists and Bullets to Clarify and Emphasize 244

Adding Headings and Subheadings 245

Editing for Clarity and Conciseness 246

Editing for Clarity 246

Editing for Conciseness 246

Producing Your Message 249

Designing for Readability 249

Formatting Formal Letters and Memos 252

Designing Messages for Mobile Devices 254

Proofreading Your Message 255

Distributing Your Message 257

SOLVING COMMUNICATION DILEMMAS AT

Monotype 258

Learning Objectives Checkup 259

Apply Your Knowledge 260

Practice Your Skills 260

Expand Your Skills 262

Build Your Career 263

Improve Your Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 263

FIVE-MINUTE GUIDE TO REVISING AND PROOFREADING 265

APPLY YOUR SKILLS NOW Make QA Part of Your

Communication Process 256

PART 3

Crafting Brief Business

Messages 266

8 Crafting Messages for Digital

Channels 267

COMMUNICATING AT Futurice 267

Digital Channels for Business Communication 268

Digital and Social Media Options 268

Compositional Modes for Digital Media 269

The Emoji Question—Overcoming the Limitations of Lean

Media 270

Social Networking Platforms 272

Business Communication Uses of Social Platforms 272

Communication Strategies for Business Social Networking 273

Email 284

Planning Email Messages 284

Writing Email Content 285

The Subject Line: Persuading People to Open Your

Messages 285

Completing Email Messages 287

Business Messaging 289

Blogging 290

Business Applications of Blogging 290

Tips for Successful Blogging 290

Microblogging 293

Business Applications of Microblogging 293

Tips for Effective Business Tweets 294

Podcasting 294

SOLVING COMMUNICATION DILEMMAS AT Futurice 296

Learning Objectives Checkup 297

Apply Your Knowledge 299

Practice Your Skills 299

Expand Your Skills 301

Build Your Career 301

Improve Your Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 302

FIVE-MINUTE GUIDE TO BETTER BUSINESS EMAIL 307

FIVE-MINUTE GUIDE TO BETTER BLOG POSTS 308

INTELLIGENT COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Monitoring

the Social Media Sphere with Smart Listening

Tools 275

APPLY YOUR SKILLS NOW Develop Professional-Grade

Email Skills 285

9 Writing Routine and Positive

Messages 309

COMMUNICATING AT Productivity Report 309

Strategy for Routine Requests 310

Open with Your Request 310

Explain and Justify Your Request 310

Request Specific Action in a Courteous Close 311

Common Examples of Routine Requests 311

Asking for Information or Action 311

Asking for Recommendations 311

Making Claims and Requesting Adjustments 313

Strategy for Routine Replies, Routine Messages,

and Positive Messages 316

Open with the Main Idea 316

Provide Necessary Details and Explanation 316

End with a Courteous Close 317

Common Examples of Routine Replies, Routine

Messages, and Positive Messages 317

Answering Requests for Information and Action 317

Granting Claims and Requests for Adjustment 318

Providing Recommendations and References 319

Sharing Routine Information 321

Writing Instructions 321

Announcing Good News 322

Fostering Goodwill 323

SOLVING COMMUNICATION DILEMMAS AT Productivity

Report 325

Learning Objectives Checkup 326

Apply Your Knowledge 327

Practice Your Skills 327

Expand Your Skills 329

Build Your Career 329

Improve Your Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 329

DEVELOPING AS A PROFESSIONAL Maintaining a Confident,

Positive Outlook 313

INTELLIGENT COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Nice

Chatting with You 321

10 Writing Negative

Messages 336

COMMUNICATING AT Rivian 336

Using the Three-Step Writing Process for Negative

Messages 337

Step 1: Planning a Negative Message 337

Step 2: Writing Negative Messages 338

Step 3: Completing Negative Messages 339

Using the Direct Approach for Negative

Messages 340

Open with a Clear Statement of the Bad News 340

Provide Reasons and Additional Information 340

Close on a Respectful Note 341

Using the Indirect Approach for Negative

Messages 341

Open with a Buffer 341

Provide Reasons and Additional Information 342

Continue with a Clear Statement of the Bad News 343

Close on a Respectful Note 343

Maintaining High Standards of Ethics and Etiquette 344

Sending Negative Messages on Routine Business

Matters 346

Making Negative Announcements on Routine Business

Matters 346

Rejecting Suggestions and Proposals 346

Refusing Routine Requests 346

Handling Bad News About Transactions 346

Refusing Claims and Requests for Adjustment 349

Sending Negative Organizational News 351

Communicating Under Normal Circumstances 351

Responding to Negative Information in a Social Media

Environment 351

Communicating in a Crisis 353

Sending Negative Employment Messages 354

Refusing Requests for Recommendations and References 354

Refusing Social Networking Recommendation Requests 355

Rejecting Job Applications 355

Giving Negative Performance Reviews 356

Terminating Employment 357

SOLVING COMMUNICATION DILEMMAS AT Rivian 358

Learning Objectives Checkup 359

Apply Your Knowledge 361

Practice Your Skills 361

Expand Your Skills 362

Build Your Career 363

Improve Your Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 363

FIVE-MINUTE GUIDE TO WRITING NEGATIVE MESSAGES 370

PRACTICING ETHICAL COMMUNICATION The Deceptive

Soft Sell 345

11 Writing Persuasive

Messages 372

COMMUNICATING AT Stitch Fix 372

Using the Three-Step Writing Process for Persuasive

Messages 373

Step 1: Planning Persuasive Messages 373

Step 2: Writing Persuasive Messages 376

Step 3: Completing Persuasive Messages 377

Developing Persuasive Business Messages 377

Strategies for Persuasive Business Messages 377

Common Examples of Persuasive Business Messages 384

Developing Marketing and Sales Messages 386

Planning Marketing and Sales Messages 386

Writing Conventional Marketing and Sales Messages 387

Writing Promotional Messages for Social Media 388

Creating Promotional Messages for Mobile Devices 389

Maintaining High Standards of Ethics, Legal

Compliance, and Etiquette 389

SOLVING COMMUNICATION DILEMMAS AT Stitch Fix 390

Learning Objectives Checkup 391

Apply Your Knowledge 392

Practice Your Skills 392

Expand Your Skills 394

Build Your Career 394

Improve Your Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 394

FIVE-MINUTE GUIDE TO WRITING PERSUASIVE MESSAGES 401

APPLY YOUR SKILLS NOW Making Difficult Requests 381

PRACTICING ETHICAL COMMUNICATION Pushing the

Limits of Credibility 389

PART 4

Preparing Reports and

Presentations 402

12 Planning Reports and

Proposals 403

COMMUNICATING AT Strategyzer 403

Applying the Three-Step Writing Process to Reports

and Proposals 404

Analyzing the Situation 404

Gathering Information 406

Selecting the Right Combination of Media and Channels 406

Organizing Your Information 407

Supporting Your Messages with Reliable

Information 410

Planning Your Research 410

Locating Data and Information 411

Evaluating Information Sources 412

Using Your Research Results 412

Conducting Secondary Research 415

Finding Information at a Library 415

Finding Information Online 416

Documenting Your Sources 417

Conducting Primary Research 418

Conducting Surveys 418

Conducting Interviews 420

Planning Informational Reports 421

Organizing Informational Reports 421

Creating Successful Business Plans 422

Organizing Website Content 423

Planning Analytical Reports 424

Focusing on Conclusions 425

Focusing on Recommendations 425

Focusing on Logical Arguments 426

Planning Proposals 426

SOLVING COMMUNICATION DILEMMAS AT Strategyzer 432

Learning Objectives Checkup 433

Apply Your Knowledge 435

Practice Your Skills 435

Expand Your Skills 436

Build Your Career 437

Improve Your Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 437

FIVE-MINUTE GUIDE TO PLANNING REPORTS AND

PROPOSALS 443

DEVELOPING AS A PROFESSIONAL Being Dependable and

Accountable 411

INTELLIGENT COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Finding

Meaning with Text Mining 418

13 Writing and Completing Reports

and Proposals 444

COMMUNICATING AT Lowe’s 444

Writing Reports and Proposals 445

Adapting to Your Audience 445

Drafting Report Content 446

Drafting Proposal Content 447

Writing for Websites and Wikis 449

Drafting Website Content 449

Collaborating on Wikis 450

Illustrating Your Reports with Effective Visuals 451

Understanding Visual Design Principles 451

Understanding the Ethics of Visual Communication 452

Choosing the Right Visual for the Job 454

Designing Effective Visuals 460

Completing Reports and Proposals 462

Producing Formal Reports and Proposals 463

Distributing Reports and Proposals 464

SOLVING COMMUNICATION DILEMMAS AT Lowe’s 482

Learning Objectives Checkup 482

Apply Your Knowledge 484

Practice Your Skills 484

Expand Your Skills 486

Build Your Career 486

Improve Your Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 486

PRACTICING ETHICAL COMMUNICATION Distorting the

Data 453

14 Developing and Delivering

Business Presentations 494

COMMUNICATING AT Barnett International 494

Planning a Presentation 495

Analyzing the Situation 495

Selecting the Best Media and Channels 495

Organizing a Presentation 496

Developing a Presentation 500

Adapting to Your Audience 500

Crafting Presentation Content 501

Enhancing Your Presentation with Effective

Visuals 505

Choosing Structured or Free-Form Slides 505

Designing Effective Slides 507

Integrating Mobile Devices in Presentations 511

Completing a Presentation 512

Finalizing Your Slides 512

Creating Effective Handouts 513

Choosing Your Presentation Method 515

Practicing Your Delivery 515

Delivering a Presentation 515

Overcoming Anxiety 516

Handling Questions Responsively 516

Embracing the Backchannel 518

Giving Presentations Online 518

Ensuring Successful Team Presentations 520

SOLVING COMMUNICATION DILEMMAS AT Barnett

International 521

Learning Objectives Checkup 522

Apply Your Knowledge 524

Practice Your Skills 525

Expand Your Skills 525

Build Your Career 526

Improve Your Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 526

FIVE-MINUTE GUIDE TO PLANNING PRESENTATIONS 530

DEVELOPING AS A PROFESSIONAL Recovering from

Disasters 517

PART 5

Writing Employment Messages

and Interviewing for Jobs 531

15 Building Careers and Writing

Résumés 532

COMMUNICATING AT Workday 532

Finding the Ideal Opportunity in Today’s Job

Market 533

Writing the Story of You 534

Learning to Think Like an Employer 534

Researching Industries and Companies of Interest 534

Translating Your General Potential into a Specific Solution for Each

Employer 535

Taking the Initiative to Find Opportunities 537

Building Your Network 537

Seeking Career Counseling 539

Avoiding Career-Search Mistakes 539

Planning Your Résumé 540

Analyzing Your Purpose and Audience 541

Gathering Pertinent Information 541

Selecting the Best Media and Channels 541

Organizing Your Résumé Around Your Strengths 541

Addressing Areas of Concern 542

Writing Your Résumé 543

Keeping Your Résumé Honest 543

Adapting Your Résumé to Your Audience 544

Composing Your Résumé 544

Completing Your Résumé 550

Revising Your Résumé 551

Producing Your Résumé 552

Proofreading Your Résumé 553

Distributing Your Résumé 554

Building an Effective LinkedIn Profile 555

SOLVING COMMUNICATION DILEMMAS AT Workday 558

Learning Objectives Checkup 559

Apply Your Knowledge 561

Practice Your Skills 561

Expand Your Skills 562

Build Your Career 562

Improve Your Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 563

FIVE-MINUTE GUIDE TO PLANNING YOUR RÉSUMÉ 567

DEVELOPING AS A PROFESSIONAL Striving to Excel 539

INTELLIGENT COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Make

Friends with the Résumé Bots 546

16 Applying and Interviewing for

Employment 568

COMMUNICATING AT MSGA 568

Submitting Your Résumé 569

Writing Application Letters 569

Following Up After Submitting a Résumé 575

Understanding the Interviewing Process 575

The Typical Sequence of Interviews 575

Common Types of Interviews and Interview Questions 577

Phone and Video Interviews 579

What Employers Look For in an Interview 579

Preemployment Testing and Background Checks 580

Preparing for a Job Interview 582

Learning About the Organization 582

Thinking Ahead About Questions 583

Boosting Your Confidence 584

Polishing Your Interview Style 585

Presenting a Professional Image 586

Being Ready When You Arrive 586

Interviewing for Success 587

The Warm-Up 587

The Question-and-Answer Stage 587

The Close 588

Interview Notes 589

Following Up After an Interview 590

Follow-Up Message 590

Message of Inquiry 590

Request for a Time Extension 590

Letter of Acceptance 590

Letter Declining a Job Offer 592

Letter of Resignation 593

SOLVING COMMUNICATION DILEMMAS AT MSGA 594

Learning Objectives Checkup 594

Apply Your Knowledge 596

Practice Your Skills 596

Expand Your Skills 598

Build Your Career 598

Improve Your Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 598

FIVE-MINUTE GUIDE TO PREPARING FOR JOB INTERVIEWS 603

INTELLIGENT COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Encountering

AI-Assisted Recruiting and Interviewing 576

INTELLIGENT COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Improving

Fairness and Finding Better Talent with Blind

Auditions 581

APPENDIX A

Format and Layout of Business Documents 604

First Impressions 604

PAPER 604

LETTERHEAD STATIONERY 604

APPEARANCE 604

Components of Business Letters 604

STANDARD LETTER PARTS 605

OPTIONAL LETTER PARTS 607

LETTER FORMATS 608

Envelopes 608

ADDRESSING THE ENVELOPE 608

INTERNATIONAL MAIL 610

Memos 610

Reports 611

MARGINS 611

HEADINGS 611

PAGE NUMBERS 611

RUNNING HEADERS AND FOOTERS 613

OTHER DESIGN ELEMENTS 613

APPENDIX B

Documentation of Report Sources 614

Chicago Humanities Style 614

IN-TEXT CITATION—CHICAGO HUMANITIES STYLE 614

BIBLIOGRAPHY—CHICAGO HUMANITIES STYLE 615

APA Style 617

IN-TEXT CITATION—APA STYLE 617

LIST OF REFERENCES—APA STYLE 617

MLA Style 617

IN-TEXT CITATION—MLA STYLE 617

LIST OF WORKS CITED—MLA STYLE 618

APPENDIX C

Correction Symbols 621

Handbook of Grammar, Mechanics,

and Usage 623

Diagnostic Test of English Skills 623

Assessment of English Skills 625

Essentials of Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 625

1.0 Grammar 625

1.1 NOUNS 626

1.2 PRONOUNS 627

1.3 VERBS 629

1.4 ADJECTIVES 633

1.5 ADVERBS 634

1.6 OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH 635

1.7 SENTENCES 637

2.0 Punctuation 640

2.1 PERIODS 640

2.2 QUESTION MARKS 640

2.3 EXCLAMATION POINTS 640

2.4 SEMICOLONS 640

2.5 COLONS 641

2.6 COMMAS 641

2.7 DASHES 643

2.8 HYPHENS 643

2.9 APOSTROPHES 643

2.10 QUOTATION MARKS 644

2.11 PARENTHESES AND BRACKETS 644

2.12 ELLIPSES 644

3.0 Mechanics 645

3.1 CAPITALIZATION 645

3.2 ITALICS AND BOLDFACE 647

3.3 ABBREVIATIONS 647

3.4 NUMBERS 647

3.5 WORD DIVISION 648

4.0 Vocabulary 648

4.1 FREQUENTLY CONFUSED WORDS 648

4.2 FREQUENTLY MISUSED WORDS 650

4.3 FREQUENTLY MISSPELLED WORDS 651

4.4 TRANSITIONAL WORDS AND PHRASES 652

Answer Keys 653

Glossary 657

Brand, Organization, and Name Index 661

Subject Index 663

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