Principles Of Microeconomics, 9th Edition PDF by N Gregory Mankiw


Principles Of Microeconomics, Ninth Edition

By N. Gregory Mankiw

Principles Of Microeconomics, 9th Edition PDF by N Gregory Mankiw


Preface: To the Instructor v

Preface: To the Student xxiii

PART I Introduction 1


Ten Principles of Economics 1

1-1 How People Make Decisions 2

1-1a Principle 1: People Face Trade-Offs 2

1-1b Principle 2: The Cost of Something Is What You Give Up to Get It 3

1-1c Principle 3: Rational People Think at the Margin 4

1-1d Principle 4: People Respond to Incentives 5

1-2 How People Interact 6

1-2a Principle 5: Trade Can Make Everyone Better Off 7

1-2b Principle 6: Markets Are Usually a Good Way to

Organize Economic Activity 7

FYI: Adam Smith and the Invisible Hand 8

CASE STUDY: Adam Smith Would Have Loved Uber 9

1-2c Principle 7: Governments Can Sometimes Improve Market Outcomes 9

1-3 How the Economy as a Whole Works 11

1-3a Principle 8: A Country’s Standard of Living Depends

on Its Ability to Produce Goods and Services 11

1-3b Principle 9: Prices Rise When the Government Prints Too Much Money 11

1-3c Principle 10: Society Faces a Short-Run Trade-Off

between Inflation and Unemployment 12

1-4 Conclusion 13

Chapter in a Nutshell 14

Key Concepts 14

Questions for Review 14

Problems and Applications 14

Quick Quiz Answers 15


Thinking Like an Economist 17

2-1 The Economist as Scientist 18

2-1a The Scientific Method: Observation, Theory, and More Observation 18

2-1b The Role of Assumptions 19

2-1c Economic Models 19

2-1d Our First Model: The Circular-Flow Diagram 20

2-1e Our Second Model: The Production Possibilities Frontier 21

2-1f Microeconomics and Macroeconomics 24

2-2 The Economist as Policy Adviser 25

2-2a Positive versus Normative Analysis 25

IN THE NEWS: Why Tech Companies Hire Economists 26

2-2b Economists in Washington 27

2-2c Why Economists’ Advice Is Not Always Followed 28

2-3 Why Economists Disagree 29

2-3a Differences in Scientific Judgments 29

2-3b Differences in Values 30

2-3c Perception versus Reality 30

ASK THE EXPERTS: Ticket Resale 32

2-4 Let’s Get Going 32

Chapter in a Nutshell 33

Key Concepts 33

Questions for Review 33

Problems and Applications 34

Quick Quiz Answers 34

APPENDIX Graphing: A Brief Review 35

Graphs of a Single Variable 35

Graphs of Two Variables: The Coordinate System 36

Curves in the Coordinate System 37

Slope 39

Cause and Effect 41


Interdependence and the Gains from Trade 45

3-1 A Parable for the Modern Economy 46

3-1a Production Possibilities 46

3-1b Specialization and Trade 48

3-2 Comparative Advantage: The Driving Force of Specialization 50

3-2a Absolute Advantage 50

3-2b Opportunity Cost and Comparative Advantage 50

3-2c Comparative Advantage and Trade 52

3-2d The Price of the Trade 52

FYI: The Legacy of Adam Smith and David Ricardo 53

3-3 Applications of Comparative Advantage 54

3-3a Should LeBron James Mow His Own Lawn? 54

3-3b Should the United States Trade with Other Countries? 54

3-4 Conclusion 55

ASK THE EXPERTS: Trade between China and the United States 55

IN THE NEWS: Economics within a Marriage 56

Chapter in a Nutshell 56

Key Concepts 57

Questions for Review 57

Problems and Applications 58

Quick Quiz Answers 59

PART II How Markets Work 61


The Market Forces of Supply and Demand 61

4-1 Markets and Competition 62

4-1a What Is a Market? 62

4-1b What Is Competition? 62

4-2 Demand 63

4-2a The Demand Curve: The Relationship between

Price and Quantity Demanded 63

4-2b Market Demand versus Individual Demand 64

4-2c Shifts in the Demand Curve 65

CASE STUDY: Two Ways to Reduce Smoking 68

4-3 Supply 69

4-3a The Supply Curve: The Relationship between

Price and Quantity Supplied 69

4-3b Market Supply versus Individual Supply 70

4-3c Shifts in the Supply Curve 71

4-4 Supply and Demand Together 73

4-4a Equilibrium 73

4-4b Three Steps to Analyzing Changes in Equilibrium 75

IN THE NEWS: Price Increases after Disasters 80

4-5 Conclusion: How Prices Allocate Resources 81

ASK THE EXPERTS: Price Gouging 82

Chapter in a Nutshell 82

Key Concepts 83

Questions for Review 83

Problems and Applications 84

Quick Quiz Answers 85


Elasticity and Its Application 87

5-1 The Elasticity of Demand 88

5-1a The Price Elasticity of Demand and Its Determinants 88

5-1b Computing the Price Elasticity of Demand 89

5-1c The Midpoint Method: A Better Way to Calculate

Percentage Changes and Elasticities 90

5-1d The Variety of Demand Curves 91

FYI: A Few Elasticities from the Real World 91

5-1e Total Revenue and the Price Elasticity of Demand 93

5-1f Elasticity and Total Revenue along a Linear Demand Curve 94

5-1g Other Demand Elasticities 96

5-2 The Elasticity of Supply 97

5-2a The Price Elasticity of Supply and Its Determinants 97

5-2b Computing the Price Elasticity of Supply 98

5-2c The Variety of Supply Curves 98

5-3 Three Applications of Supply, Demand, and Elasticity 100

5-3a Can Good News for Farming Be Bad News for Farmers? 101

5-3b Why Did OPEC Fail to Keep the Price of Oil High? 103

5-3c Does Drug Interdiction Increase or Decrease

Drug-Related Crime? 104

5-4 Conclusion 106

Chapter in a Nutshell 106

Key Concepts 107

Questions for Review 107

Problems and Applications 107

Quick Quiz Answers 108


Supply, Demand, and Government Policies 109

6-1 Controls on Prices 110

6-1a How Price Ceilings Affect Market Outcomes 110

CASE STUDY: Lines at the Gas Pump 112

CASE STUDY: Rent Control in the Short Run and the Long Run 113

ASK THE EXPERTS: Rent Control 114

6-1b How Price Floors Affect Market Outcomes 114

CASE STUDY: The Minimum Wage 116

ASK THE EXPERTS: The Minimum Wage 117

6-1c Evaluating Price Controls 118

6-2 Taxes 119

6-2a How Taxes on Sellers Affect Market Outcomes 119

IN THE NEWS: Should the Minimum Wage Be $15 an Hour? 120

6-2b How Taxes on Buyers Affect Market Outcomes 122

CASE STUDY: Can Congress Distribute the Burden of a Payroll Tax? 124

6-2c Elasticity and Tax Incidence 125

CASE STUDY: Who Pays the Luxury Tax? 126

6-3 Conclusion 127

Chapter in a Nutshell 127

Key Concepts 128

Questions for Review 128

Problems and Applications 128

Quick Quiz Answers 130

PART III Markets and

Welfare 131


Consumers, Producers, and the Efficiency of Markets 131

7-1 Consumer Surplus 132

7-1a Willingness to Pay 132

7-1b Using the Demand Curve to Measure Consumer Surplus 133

7-1c How a Lower Price Raises Consumer Surplus 134

7-1d What Does Consumer Surplus Measure? 135

7-2 Producer Surplus 137

7-2a Cost and the Willingness to Sell 137

7-2b Using the Supply Curve to Measure Producer Surplus 138

7-2c How a Higher Price Raises Producer Surplus 140

7-3 Market Efficiency 141

7-3a The Benevolent Social Planner 141

7-3b Evaluating the Market Equilibrium 142

CASE STUDY: Should There Be a Market for Organs? 145

ASK THE EXPERTS: Supplying Kidneys 145

IN THE NEWS: How Ticket Resellers Help Allocate Scarce Resources 146

7-4 Conclusion: Market Efficiency and Market Failure 147

Chapter in a Nutshell 148

Key Concepts 148

Questions for Review 149

Problems and Applications 149

Quick Quiz Answers 150


Application: The Costs of Taxation 151

8-1 The Deadweight Loss of Taxation 152

8-1a How a Tax Affects Market Participants 152

8-1b Deadweight Losses and the Gains from Trade 155

8-2 The Determinants of the Deadweight Loss 157

CASE STUDY: The Deadweight Loss Debate 158

8-3 Deadweight Loss and Tax Revenue as Taxes Vary 160

CASE STUDY: The Laffer Curve and Supply-Side Economics 161

ASK THE EXPERTS: The Laffer Curve 162

8-4 Conclusion 163

Chapter in a Nutshell 163

Key Concept 164

Questions for Review 164

Problems and Applications 164

Quick Quiz Answers 165


Application: International Trade 167

9-1 The Determinants of Trade 168

9-1a The Equilibrium without Trade 168

9-1b The World Price and Comparative Advantage 169

9-2 The Winners and Losers from Trade 170

9-2a The Gains and Losses of an Exporting Country 170

9-2b The Gains and Losses of an Importing Country 171

9-2c The Effects of a Tariff 173

FYI: Import Quotas: Another Way to Restrict Trade 175

9-2d The Lessons for Trade Policy 175

9-2e Other Benefits of International Trade 176

IN THE NEWS: Trade as a Tool for Economic Development 178

9-3 The Arguments for Restricting Trade 178

9-3a The Jobs Argument 178

9-3b The National-Security Argument 179

9-3c The Infant-Industry Argument 180

9-3d The Unfair-Competition Argument 180

9-3e The Protection-as-a-Bargaining-Chip Argument 180

CASE STUDY: Trade Agreements and the World Trade Organization 181

ASK THE EXPERTS: Tariffs and Trade Deals 181

IN THE NEWS: The Trade Policies of President Trump 182

9-4 Conclusion 183

Chapter in a Nutshell 184

Key Concepts 184

Questions for Review 185

Problems and Applications 185

Quick Quiz Answers 186

PART IV The Economics of the Public Sector 187


Externalities 187

10-1 Externalities and Market Inefficiency 189

10-1a Welfare Economics: A Recap 189

10-1b Negative Externalities 190

10-1c Positive Externalities 191

CASE STUDY: Technology Spillovers, Industrial Policy,

and Patent Protection 192

10-2 Public Policies toward Externalities 193

10-2a Command-and-Control Policies: Regulation 193

ASK THE EXPERTS: Vaccines 194

10-2b Market-Based Policy 1: Corrective Taxes and Subsidies 194

CASE STUDY: Why Is Gasoline Taxed So Heavily? 195

10-2c Market-Based Policy 2: Tradable Pollution Permits 197

IN THE NEWS: What Should We Do about Climate Change? 198

ASK THE EXPERTS: Carbon Taxes 200

10-2d Objections to the Economic Analysis of Pollution 200

10-3 Private Solutions to Externalities 201

10-3a The Types of Private Solutions 201

10-3b The Coase Theorem 202

10-3c Why Private Solutions Do Not Always Work 203

IN THE NEWS: The Coase Theorem in Action 204

10-4 Conclusion 204

Chapter in a Nutshell 205

Key Concepts 206

Questions for Review 206

Problems and Applications 206

Quick Quiz Answers 207


Public Goods and Common Resources 209

11-1 The Different Kinds of Goods 210

11-2 Public Goods 212

11-2a The Free-Rider Problem 212

11-2b Some Important Public Goods 213

CASE STUDY: Are Lighthouses Public Goods? 214

11-2c The Difficult Job of Cost–Benefit Analysis 215

CASE STUDY: How Much Is a Life Worth? 215

11-3 Common Resources 217

11-3a The Tragedy of the Commons 217

11-3b Some Important Common Resources 218

ASK THE EXPERTS: Congestion Pricing 218

CASE STUDY: Why the Cow Is Not Extinct 219

IN THE NEWS: Social Media as a Common Resource 220

11-4 Conclusion: The Importance of Property Rights 221

Chapter in a Nutshell 222

Key Concepts 222

Questions for Review 222

Problems and Applications 223

Quick Quiz Answers 224


The Design of the Tax System 225

12-1 An Overview of U.S. Taxation 226

12-1a Taxes Collected by the Federal Government 227

12-1b Taxes Collected by State and Local Governments 229

12-2 Taxes and Efficiency 230

12-2a Deadweight Losses 231

CASE STUDY: Should Income or Consumption Be Taxed? 231

12-2b Administrative Burden 232

12-2c Marginal Tax Rates versus Average Tax Rates 233

12-2d Lump-Sum Taxes 233

ASK THE EXPERTS: Top Marginal Tax Rates 233

12-3 Taxes and Equity 234

12-3a The Benefits Principle 235

12-3b The Ability-to-Pay Principle 235

CASE STUDY: How the Tax Burden Is Distributed 236

12-3c Tax Incidence and Tax Equity 238

CASE STUDY: Who Pays the Corporate Income Tax? 238

12-4 Conclusion: The Trade-Off between Equity and Efficiency 239

Chapter in a Nutshell 240

Key Concepts 240

Questions for Review 240

Problems and Applications 241

Quick Quiz Answers 241

PART V Firm Behavior and

the Organization of

Industry 243


The Costs of Production 243

13-1 What Are Costs? 244

13-1a Total Revenue, Total Cost, and Profit 244

13-1b Costs as Opportunity Costs 244

13-1c The Cost of Capital as an Opportunity Cost 245

13-1d Economic Profit versus Accounting Profit 246

13-2 Production and Costs 247

13-2a The Production Function 247

13-2b From the Production Function to the Total-Cost Curve 249

13-3 The Various Measures of Cost 250

13-3a Fixed and Variable Costs 251

13-3b Average and Marginal Cost 251

13-3c Cost Curves and Their Shapes 252

13-3d Typical Cost Curves 254

13-4 Costs in the Short Run and in the Long Run 256

13-4a The Relationship between Short-Run and Long-Run

Average Total Cost 256

13-4b Economies and Diseconomies of Scale 257

FYI: Lessons from a Pin Factory 258

13-5 Conclusion 258

Chapter in a Nutshell 259

Key Concepts 260

Questions for Review 260

Problems and Applications 260

Quick Quiz Answers 262


Firms in Competitive Markets 263

14-1 What Is a Competitive Market? 264

14-1a The Meaning of Competition 264

14-1b The Revenue of a Competitive Firm 264

14-2 Profit Maximization and the Competitive Firm’s Supply Curve 266

14-2a A Simple Example of Profit Maximization 266

14-2b The Marginal-Cost Curve and the Firm’s Supply Decision 268

14-2c The Firm’s Short-Run Decision to Shut Down 270

14-2d Spilt Milk and Other Sunk Costs 271

CASE STUDY: Near-Empty Restaurants and Off-Season Miniature Golf 272

14-2e The Firm’s Long-Run Decision to Exit or Enter a Market 272

14-2f Measuring Profit in Our Graph for the Competitive Firm 274

14-2g A Brief Recap 275

14-3 The Supply Curve in a Competitive Market 276

14-3a The Short Run: Market Supply with a Fixed Number of Firms 276

14-3b The Long Run: Market Supply with Entry and Exit 276

14-3c Why Do Competitive Firms Stay in Business If They Make Zero Profit? 278

14-3d A Shift in Demand in the Short Run and Long Run 279

14-3e Why the Long-Run Supply Curve Might

Slope Upward 279

14-4 Conclusion: Behind the Supply Curve 281

Chapter in a Nutshell 282

Key Concepts 282

Questions for Review 282

Problems and Applications 283

Quick Quiz Answers 285


Monopoly 287

15-1 Why Monopolies Arise 288

15-1a Monopoly Resources 289

15-1b Government-Created Monopolies 289

15-1c Natural Monopolies 290

15-2 How Monopolies Make Production and Pricing Decisions 291

15-2a Monopoly versus Competition 291

15-2b A Monopoly’s Revenue 292

15-2c Profit Maximization 294

15-2d A Monopoly’s Profit 296

FYI: Why a Monopoly Does Not Have a Supply Curve 297

CASE STUDY: Monopoly Drugs versus Generic Drugs 297

15-3 The Welfare Cost of Monopolies 299

15-3a The Deadweight Loss 299

15-3b The Monopoly’s Profit: A Social Cost? 301

15-4 Price Discrimination 302

15-4a A Parable about Pricing 302

15-4b The Moral of the Story 303

15-4c The Analytics of Price Discrimination 304

15-4d Examples of Price Discrimination 305

IN THE NEWS: Price Discrimination Reaches the Supreme Court 306

15-5 Public Policy toward Monopolies 308

15-5a Increasing Competition with Antitrust Laws 308

15-5b Regulation 309

ASK THE EXPERTS: Mergers 310

15-5c Public Ownership 310

15-5d Doing Nothing 311

15-6 Conclusion: The Prevalence of Monopolies 311

Chapter in a Nutshell 312

Key Concepts 313

Questions for Review 313

Problems and Applications 313

Quick Quiz Answers 316


Monopolistic Competition 317

16-1 Between Monopoly and Perfect Competition 318

16-2 Competition with Differentiated Products 320

16-2a The Monopolistically Competitive Firm in the Short Run 320

16-2b The Long-Run Equilibrium 322

16-2c Monopolistic versus Perfect Competition 323

16-2d Monopolistic Competition and the

Welfare of Society 324

16-3 Advertising 326

16-3a The Debate over Advertising 326

CASE STUDY: How Advertising Affects Prices 327

16-3b Advertising as a Signal of Quality 328

16-3c Brand Names 329

16-4 Conclusion 331

Chapter in a Nutshell 332

Key Concepts 332

Questions for Review 332

Problems and Applications 332

Quick Quiz Answers 333


Oligopoly 335

17-1 Markets with Only a Few Sellers 336

17-1a A Duopoly Example 336

17-1b Competition, Monopolies, and Cartels 336

17-1c The Equilibrium for an Oligopoly 338

17-1d How the Size of an Oligopoly Affects the Market Outcome 339

ASK THE EXPERTS: Market Share and Market Power 340

17-2 The Economics of Cooperation 341

17-2a The Prisoners’ Dilemma 341

17-2b Oligopolies as a Prisoners’ Dilemma 342

CASE STUDY: OPEC and the World Oil Market 343

17-2c Other Examples of the Prisoners’ Dilemma 344

17-2d The Prisoners’ Dilemma and the Welfare of Society 345

17-2e Why People Sometimes Cooperate 346

CASE STUDY: The Prisoners’ Dilemma Tournament 346

17-3 Public Policy toward Oligopolies 347

17-3a Restraint of Trade and the Antitrust Laws 347

CASE STUDY: An Illegal Phone Call 348

17-3b Controversies over Antitrust Policy 349

CASE STUDY: The Microsoft Case 351

IN THE NEWS: Is Amazon the Next Antitrust Target? 352

17-4 Conclusion 353

Chapter in a Nutshell 354

Key Concepts 354

Questions for Review 354

Problems and Applications 354

Quick Quiz Answers 356

PART VI The Economics of

Labor Markets 357


The Markets for the Factors of Production 357

18-1 The Demand for Labor 358

18-1a The Competitive Profit-Maximizing Firm 358

18-1b The Production Function and the Marginal Product of Labor 359

18-1c The Value of the Marginal Product and the Demand for Labor 361

18-1d What Causes the Labor-Demand Curve to Shift? 362

FYI: Input Demand and Output Supply: Two Sides of the Same Coin 363

18-2 The Supply of Labor 364

18-2a The Trade-Off between Work and Leisure 364

18-2b What Causes the Labor-Supply Curve to Shift? 365

18-3 Equilibrium in the Labor Market 366

ASK THE EXPERTS: Immigration 366

18-3a Shifts in Labor Supply 366

18-3b Shifts in Labor Demand 368

CASE STUDY: Productivity and Wages 369

FYI: Monopsony 370

18-4 The Other Factors of Production: Land and Capital 370

18-4a Equilibrium in the Markets for Land and Capital 371

FYI: What Is Capital Income? 372

18-4b Linkages among the Factors of Production 372

CASE STUDY: The Economics of the Black Death 373

IN THE NEWS: The Winners and Losers from Immigration 374

18-5 Conclusion 374

Chapter in a Nutshell 376

Key Concepts 376

Questions for Review 376

Problems and Applications 376

Quick Quiz Answers 378


Earnings and Discrimination 379

19-1 Some Determinants of Equilibrium Wages 380

19-1a Compensating Differentials 380

19-1b Human Capital 380

CASE STUDY: The Increasing Value of Skills 381

ASK THE EXPERTS: Inequality and Skills 382

19-1c Ability, Effort, and Chance 382

CASE STUDY: The Benefits of Beauty 383

19-1d An Alternative View of Education: Signaling 383

19-1e The Superstar Phenomenon 384

19-1f Above-Equilibrium Wages: Minimum-Wage Laws,

Unions, and Efficiency Wages 385

IN THE NEWS: Schooling as a Public Investment 386

19-2 The Economics of Discrimination 387

19-2a Measuring Labor-Market Discrimination 387

CASE STUDY: Is Emily More Employable than Lakisha? 389

19-2b Discrimination by Employers 389

CASE STUDY: Segregated Streetcars and the Profit Motive 390

19-2c Discrimination by Customers and Governments 391

CASE STUDY: Discrimination in Sports 391

19-2d Statistical Discrimination 392

19-3 Conclusion 393

Chapter in a Nutshell 394

Key Concepts 394

Questions for Review 394

Problems and Applications 395

Quick Quiz Answers 395


Income Inequality and Poverty 397

20-1 Measuring Inequality 398

20-1a U.S. Income Inequality 398

20-1b Inequality Around the World 399

FYI: Incomes of the Super-Rich 400

20-1c The Poverty Rate 400

20-1d Problems in Measuring Inequality 403

IN THE NEWS: Are We Winning the War on Poverty? 404

CASE STUDY: Alternative Measures of Inequality 404

20-1e Economic Mobility 405

20-2 The Political Philosophy of Redistributing Income 406

20-2a Utilitarianism 407

20-2b Liberalism 408

20-2c Libertarianism 409

20-3 Policies to Reduce Poverty 410

20-3a Minimum-Wage Laws 410

20-3b Welfare 411

20-3c Negative Income Tax 411

20-3d In-Kind Transfers 412

20-3e Antipoverty Programs and Work Incentives 413

IN THE NEWS: International Differences in Income Redistribution 414

20-4 Conclusion 416

Chapter in a Nutshell 416

Key Concepts 416

Questions for Review 417

Problems and Applications 417

Quick Quiz Answers 418

PART VII Topics for Further Study 419


The Theory of Consumer Choice 419

21-1 The Budget Constraint: What a Consumer Can Afford 420

21-1a Representing Consumption Opportunities in a Graph 420

21-1b Shifts in the Budget Constraint 421

21-2 Preferences: What a Consumer Wants 423

21-2a Representing Preferences with Indifference Curves 423

21-2b Four Properties of Indifference Curves 424

21-2c Two Extreme Examples of Indifference Curves 426

21-3 Optimization: What a Consumer Chooses 428

21-3a The Consumer’s Optimal Choices 428

21-3b How Changes in Income Affect the Consumer’s Choices 429

FYI: Utility: An Alternative Way to Describe Preferences and Optimization 430

21-3c How Changes in Prices Affect the Consumer’s Choices 430

21-3d Income and Substitution Effects 432

21-3e Deriving the Demand Curve 433

21-4 Three Applications 435

21-4a Do All Demand Curves Slope Downward? 435

CASE STUDY: The Search for Giffen Goods 436

21-4b How Do Wages Affect Labor Supply? 436

CASE STUDY: Income Effects on Labor Supply: Historical

Trends, Lottery Winners, and the Carnegie Conjecture 439

21-4c How Do Interest Rates Affect Household Saving? 440

21-5 Conclusion: Do People Really Think This Way? 443

Chapter in a Nutshell 443

Key Concepts 444

Questions for Review 444

Problems and Applications 444

Quick Quiz Answers 445


Frontiers of Microeconomics 447

22-1 Asymmetric Information 448

22-1a Hidden Actions: Principals, Agents, and Moral Hazard 448

FYI: Corporate Management 449

22-1b Hidden Characteristics: Adverse Selection and the Lemons Problem 450

22-1c Signaling to Convey Private Information 450

CASE STUDY: Gifts as Signals 451

22-1d Screening to Uncover Private Information 452

22-1e Asymmetric Information and Public Policy 452

22-2 Political Economy 453

22-2a The Condorcet Voting Paradox 453

22-2b Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem 454

22-2c The Median Voter Is King 455

22-2d Politicians Are People Too 457

22-3 Behavioral Economics 458

22-3a People Aren’t Always Rational 458

22-3b People Care about Fairness 459

22-3c People Are Inconsistent over Time 460

ASK THE EXPERTS: Behavioral Economics 461

IN THE NEWS: Using Deviations from Rationality 462

22-4 Conclusion 464

Chapter in a Nutshell 464

Key Concepts 464

Questions for Review 465

Problems and Applications 465

Quick Quiz Answers 466

This book is US$10
To get free sample pages OR Buy this book

Share this Book!

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.