Performance of Home Textiles | Subrata Das | Second Edition


Performance of Home Textiles, 2nd Edition
By Subrata Das

Performance of Home Textiles


Foreword ix

Preface xi

1. Introduction 3

1.1 Concept of home textiles 3

1.2 Use of home textiles in hospitality sector 4

1.3 Consumer’s expectation from home textiles 5

1.4 Home textile market scenario 6

1.5 Use of different fibres in home textiles 6

1.6 Labelling of home textiles 6

1.7 Test methods for home textiles 7

1.8 Quality related issues in home textiles 8

1.9 Need for eco-friendly home textiles 9

References 9

2. Key home textiles market 11

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Home textiles in India 12

2.3 Home textiles in China 15

2.4 Home textiles in Pakistan 16

2.5 Home textiles in Bangladesh 16

2.6 Home textiles in Hong Kong 17

2.7 Home textiles in United States 17

2.8 Home textiles in United Kingdom 18

2.9 Home textiles in European Union 19

2.10 Home textiles in Japan 20

2.11 Home textiles in Turkey 22

References 24

3. Fibres and fabrics used in home textiles 25

3.1 Introduction 26

3.2 Application of conventional fibres in home textiles 26

3.3 Application of new and sustainable fibres in home textiles 27

3.4 Areas of application of home textiles 32

3.5 Conclusion 45

References 46

4. Performance specifications of different home textiles 49

4.1 Importance of performance specification 49

4.2 Performance requirements of US market 50

4.3 Performance requirements of Canada market 83

4.4 Performance requirements of UK market 89

4.5 Special performance requirements in home textiles 104

References 107

5. Labelling issues of home textiles 111

5.1 General labelling requirements for home textiles in the US 112

5.2 Labelling requirements for home textiles in EU 115

5.3 Labelling of different home textile products for US 116

5.4 Labelling of different home textile products for Canada 128

5.5 Recommended care for home textile products 129

References 142

6. Flammability of home textiles 145

6.1 Introduction 146

6.2 Flammability regulations for different home textiles 147

6.3 CATB 117 Section A Part 1 – Resilient cellular material 147

6.4 CATB 117 Section A Part 2 – Shredded resilient cellular material 148

6.5 CATB 117 Section A Part 3 – Bean bags 149

6.6 CATB 117 Section B Part 1 – Non-man-made filling materials 150

6.7 CATB 117 Section B Part 2 – Shredded and loose fill materials/feathers and down 150

6.8 CATB 117 Section C – Man-made filling material 151

6.9 CATB 117 Section D Part 1 – Cigarette resistance 152

6.10 CATB 117 Section D Part 2 – Smouldering screening test 152

6.11 CATB 117 Section E Part 1 – Upholstery fabrics 154

6.12 Some important regulatory tests for carpets and rugs 154

6.13 Flammability of blankets 158

6.14 Flammability requirements of towels 160

6.15 16 CFR 1632 mattress and mattress pad test 161

6.16 16 CFR 1633 mattress flammability test 164

6.17 CA TB 604 bed clothing flammability test 165

6.18 EN1021-1/2:1994 165

6.19 BS 5852 Ignitability of upholstered seating 166

6.20 Flammability standards for curtains 168

6.21 Conclusion 169

References 169

7. Evaluation of home textiles 171

7.1 Introduction 172

7.2 Test methods for towels 174

7.3 Test methods for rug 190

7.4 Test method of pot holders and woven mitts 196

7.5 Miscellaneous test methods of home textiles 200

7.6 Restricted substances 208

7.7 Cadmium in coated/plastic items 222

7.8 Evaluation of phthalates 225

7.9 Nickel release test: BS EN 1811& BS EN 12472 230

7.10 Test method for formaldehyde 232

7.11 Test method of azo dyes 233

7.12 Miscellaneous test methods 241

References 243

8. Finishes used in home textiles 247

8.1 Introduction 247

8.2 Thermal draperies 248

8.3 Protection against unpleasant odour 248

8.4 Temperature-regulated beddings 249

8.5 Endure™ textile finish 250

8.6 Anti-microbial finish 250

8.7 Moisture management finish 251

8.8 Flame retardant finish 252

8.9 Mite free mattresses 252

8.10 Water and oil repellent and soil release finishes 253

8.11 Towel finishing 254

8.12 Moisture cross-linking (MXL) of bed linen 254

8.13 Nano-technology based home textile enhancements 255

8.14 Sensory perception technology 255

References 256

9. Eco-friendly aspect in home textiles 259

9.1 Introduction 259

9.2 Trademarks and labels used in environment-friendly home textiles 261

9.3 Different eco-friendly standards in home textiles 266

9.4 Importance of eco-labelling 320

References 320

Index 323


Home textile products play a very important role in any retail company and good quality of home textile products attract consumers to retail. The subject matter of this book has been divided into nine chapters covering the various facets of home textile from concept of home textile, source of home textile products, key performance features and regulatory performance requirements if domestic and/or international retail.

We have seen several books on textile products, process and performance; however, this book is unique as it has outlined all important information, which factory/manufacturer, buying agency and buyers need on day-to-day basis. This book is very unique on its topic selection and reflects the practical working knowledge of the author in the performance of home textiles.

This book is very informative and will be very useful for the industry to understand quality related issues in home textile, how the quality challenges and reservations can be avoided and how these issues should be addressed to appropriate person at right time to avoid surprise at finishing stage. Author has also outlined important finishes which is very useful to understand in designing new products to meet regulatory and performance requirement of retailers of any country. Testing methods will help in analysing home textile products and help in understanding inherent characteristics of the products to accept and reject. This book will be very useful for home textile manufacturers, product development personals, technologists, textile chemists and educational cluster of textile / fashion. I am very thankful to author to write a book on this subject that will be very beneficial to home textile industry and help in business.

Home textile industry is an upcoming sector in consumer forum that takes care of essential requirements of living in a house comfortably. Performance of varieties of home textile items is viewed and valued by customers in terms of class, quality, reliability and consistency. A thorough and comprehensive interaction with the different stakeholders of home textile industry reveal that this particular sector is in need of a digestive document that can be able to communicate majority of the requirements of product performance and quality in-line with the value addition and to maintain the basic concept underlying in green consumerism. Thus, this book arose out of a need-based philosophy that caters to the requirement in providing the service as a technical resource to home textile sector wherein all essential elements of product development, industry standards, regulatory aspects, and evaluation systems are built into it.

The book is aimed at industry professionals, domestic and international retailers, factory owners, buying institutions, and students intended to start their career in home textile sector. Thus, the emphasis of the book is how to achieve the commercial success of desired end product through the knowledge of the key markets producing various home textiles, scope of development through sustainable and eco-friendly fibres, various industry specific standards, evaluation systems and above all safety aspects and environmental regulations. It is important to mention that same home textile product can be evaluated against different benchmarks because specification and regulation vary depending upon the country of export. It is always desirable to refer to a latest version of document while applying any tests and regulations, which are difficult to cover in a book of this nature, and more so international standards, and regulations are continuously been updated, owing to the change in expectation of performance and for better consumer interest.

Knowledge and compliance of chemical substances that are either banned from use or restricted to a certain limit in the home product by global laws
and regulations are important and usually monitored starting at the product adoption stage of development. Identifying “high-risk” products and testing for restricted substances where applicable leads to product compliance. Different test methods pertaining to restricted substances which are applicable for home textile industry are added to the second edition to increase awareness of the industry on this topic.

Home textiles products have been diversified over the years in the niche market based on the expectations and need of consumer. Thus, the emphasis
on the performance parameters and their evaluation systems cannot be overlooked. Like all other sectors of technology, when we are moving forward
positively through 21st century, the use of eco-friendly fibres for product development in home textiles is quite expected. High-performance and value addition are no longer treated as attributes in the consumer world but become essential feature of finished home textiles. We often heard about the fire hazards in home textiles, which is a potential safety concern and must be regulated by standard flammability regulations and interestingly, that are not common for every product. It is also important that home textiles should be properly labelled. This is not only to meet the regulatory requirement but also guide the consumer for its proper care. Above all, the environmental aspect of home textiles has attracted attention in recent years and different eco-labels and standards are in place for its regulatory control.

Although topics covered in this book are not uncommon in home textile industry in our general sense of term. I have included those in this book
because very little has been available in published literature. Latest updates on various global regulations for the home textile industry have been incorporated in the second edition of this book. I believe that the subject will be of sufficient interest to textile professionals to warrant its inclusion and so provide a wider circulation of information concerning this development in home textiles.

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