Handbook of Medical Textiles | V T Bartels

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Handbook of Medical Textiles
Edited by V. T. Bartels
Handbook of Medical Textiles

Contents
Contributor contact details xiii
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xvii
Preface xxiii

Part I Types and properties of medical textiles 1
1 Modern textiles and biomaterials for healthcare 3
S. P ETRULYTE and D. P ETRULIS , Kaunas University of
Technology, Lithuania
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 The role of textile structures and biomaterials in healthcare 4
1.3 Types of textiles and biomaterials for medical applications 5
1.4 Key properties of medical textile products 9
1.5 Contacting behaviour and transmission phenomenon of medical-based textiles 14
1.6 Engineering stability and compactness in medical textile systems 16
1.7 Advanced examples of research and product development 18
1.8 Future of medical textiles and products 22
1.9 Sources of further information and advice 29
1.10 Acknowledgement 29
1.11 References 29
2 Hi-tech textiles for interactive wound therapies 38
S. R AJENDRAN and S. C. A NAND , University of Bolton, UK
2.1 Introduction 38
2.2 Wounds 39
2.3 Wound dressings 43
2.4 Venous leg ulcers and their treatment 52
2.5 Wound dressing structures 67
2.6 Conclusions 74
2.7 References 75
3 Reusable medical textiles 80
H. M. Z INS , Howard M. Zins Associates LLC, USA
3.1 Introduction 80
3.2 The role of reusable medical textiles: a historical perspective 80
3.3 Advantages of reusable textiles 81
3.4 Types of reusable textiles used for medical applications 86
3.5 Processing procedures 94
3.6 Healthcare costs 97
3.7 Future trends 100
3.8 Conclusions 102
3.9 References 102
4 Nonwoven materials and technologies for medical applications 106
J. R. A JMERI and C. J OSHI A JMERI , Sarvajanik College of
Engineering and Technology, India
4.1 Introduction 106
4.2 Key issues of nonwovens 107
4.3 Main types of nonwovens and technologies for medical applications 111
4.4 Strengths and limitations of nonwoven materials
(NMs) for medical applications 116
4.5 Applications of nonwovens in medicine 117
4.6 Future trends 125
4.7 Sources of further information and advice 126
4.8 References 126
5 Textiles for implants and regenerative medicine 132
M. D OSER and H. P LANCK , German Institutes for Textile and
Fiber Research Denkendorf (DITF), Germany
5.1 Introduction 132
5.2 Textiles as implants 133
5.3 Textiles for regenerative medicine 142
5.4 Testing of implants and materials for regenerative medicine 149
5.5 Sources of further information 150
5.6 References 150
6 Textiles with cosmetic effects 153
R. M ATHIS and A. M EHLING , BASF Personal Care and Nutrition GmbH,
Germany
6.1 Introduction 153
6.2 Application and release technologies 154
6.3 Functionalities of cosmetotextiles and performance testing 160
6.4 Safety evaluation and other regulatory aspects 169
6.5 Future trends 170
6.6 References 171
7 Drug-releasing textiles 173
U. S. T OTI , S. G. K UMBAR , C. T. L AURENCIN , R. M ATHEW and
D. B ALASUBRAMANIAM , University of Connecticut Health Center,
USA
7.1 Introduction 173
7.2 Classifi cation of drug-releasing textiles 175
7.3 Fabrication and characterization 176
7.4 Applications of drug-releasing textiles 184
7.5 Conclusions 189
7.6 Future trends 190
7.7 Acknowledgments 191
7.8 Sources of further information and advice 191
7.9 References 191
8 Medical textiles and thermal comfort 198
G. S ONG , University of Alberta, Canada, W. C AO , California
State University, Northridge, USA and R. M. C LOUD , Baylor
University, USA
8.1 Fundamentals of thermal comfort 198
8.2 Healthcare workers and patients in the hospital environment 201
8.3 Thermal comfort of medical textiles: surgical gowns 205
8.4 Evaluation and testing of thermal properties for medical textiles 212
8.5 Future trends 214
8.6 Sources of further information and advice 215
8.7 References 215

Part II Textiles and the skin 219
9 Contact sensations of medical textiles on the skin 221
V. T. B ARTELS , Bartels Scientifi c Consulting GmbH, Germany
9.1 Introduction 221
9.2 Skin contact sensations 223
9.3 Textile properties infl uencing skin contact sensations 227
9.4 Examples of applications 236
9.5 Future trends 241
9.6 Conclusions 242
9.7 Sources of further information 243
9.8 Acknowledgment 243
9.9 References 244
10 Mechanical skin irritations due to textiles 248
U. W OLLINA , Academic Teaching Hospital
Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Germany
10.1 Introduction 248
10.2 Human skin 248
10.3 Skin irritation 250
10.4 Skin responses to mechanical forces 251
10.5 Measurement of irritating mechanical factors 254
10.6 Factors causing a textile to be mechanically irritating 258
10.7 References 263
11 Allergies caused by textiles 267
R. W ECKMANN , Dr Rainer Weckmann Textile Consulting, Germany
11.1 Introduction 267
11.2 Types of allergies 267
11.3 Main types of allergies caused by textiles 268
11.4 Ways to minimise or avoid allergies caused by textiles 270
11.5 Testing for allergy-causing substances 275
11.6 Medical textile applications 277
11.7 Sources of further information and advice 278
11.8 References 278
12 Biofunctional textiles based on cellulose and their approaches for therapy and prevention of atopic eczema 280
U-C. H IPLER and C. W IEGAND , Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany
12.1 Introduction 280
12.2 The role of microbial infections in atopic dermatitis 281
12.3 Skin barrier function and increased sensitivity to irritants 283
12.4 Lyocell fi bers for antimicrobial therapy 284
12.5 SeaCell ® textiles for antimicrobial therapy 286
12.6 Future trends and conclusions 289
12.7 References 290

Part III Textiles for hygiene 295
13 Infection prevention and control and the role of medical textiles 297
R. J AMES , University of Nottingham, UK
13.1 Introduction 297
13.2 Superbugs and healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) 303
13.3 Principles and practice of infection prevention and control in hospitals 306
13.4 The role of textiles in infection prevention and control 309
13.5 Future challenges 310
13.6 A holistic approach to preventing infections 312
13.7 Sources of further information 313
13.8 References 313
14 Absorbent products for personal health care and hygiene 316
F. W IESEMANN and R. A DAM , Procter & Gamble Service
GmbH, Germany
14.1 Introduction 316
14.2 Different types of absorbent products for personal health and hygiene 316
14.3 Key issues of absorbent hygiene products 319
14.4 Testing of absorbent hygiene products 325
14.5 Application example: diapers – adapting products from premature babies to toilet training 329
14.6 Future trends 330
14.7 Sources of further information and advice 333
14.8 Acknowledgements 333
14.9 References 333
15 Bio-functional textiles 336
S. L IU , University of Manitoba, Canada and G. S UN ,
University of California, Davis, USA
15.1 Introduction 336
15.2 Types of bio-functional textiles 336
15.3 Evaluation of bio-functional effects and safety 343
15.4 Applications of bio-functional textiles 344
15.5 Manufacturing of bio-functional textiles 346
15.6 Future trends 353
15.7 Sources of further information 354
15.8 References 354
16 Hospital laundries and their role in medical textiles 360
J. B ERINGER and J. K URZ , Hohenstein Institutes, Germany
16.1 Introduction 360
16.2 Key issues of hospital laundries 361
16.3 Impact of hospital laundries on the hygiene of medical textiles 369
16.4 Testing and quality control of hygienic properties in hospital laundries 378
16.5 State of the art in hospital laundries 381
16.6 Future trends 382
16.7 Sources of further information and advice 382
16.8 Further reading 382
16.9 Appendix: additional information 383
17 Odour control of medical textiles 387
R. H. M C Q UEEN , University of Alberta, Canada
17.1 Introduction 387
17.2 Measurement of odour 388
17.3 Key issues of odour control in medical applications 396
17.4 Control of odour with textiles 401
17.5 Future trends 410
17.6 Acknowledgement 411
17.7 References 411

Part IV Medical textile case studies and applications 417
18 Textiles for medical fi lters 419
W. Z HONG , University of Manitoba, Canada
18.1 Introduction 419
18.2 Key issues of medical fi lters 419
18.3 Application of hollow fi ber bioreactors 423
18.4 Evaluation and characterization of medical fi lters 425
18.5 Future trends 430
18.6 References 431
19 Textiles for patient heat preservation during operations 434
U. M ÖHRING , D. S CHWABE and S. H ANUS , Textile Research
Institute Thuringia-Vogtlande. V., Germany
19.1 Key issues and importance of preventing cold stress in patients during operations 434
19.2 Main types of textiles used to maintain patient temperature during operations 435
19.3 Applications of textiles in maintaining patient temperature 435
19.4 Future trends 437
19.5 Sources of further information and advice 440
19.6 References 441
20 Evaluation of occupational clothing for surgeons: achieving comfort and avoiding physiological stress through suitable gowns 443
W. N OCKER , Consultant, Germany
20.1 Historical background 443
20.2 Surgical gowns 444
20.3 Infl uences on wear properties 444
20.4 Elements of comfort 447
20.5 Evaluation of parameters relevant for comfortable textiles 447
20.6 Sweating as an effect of physiological stress 448
20.7 Controlled wear tests 451
20.8 Purchasing criteria 456
20.9 Conclusions and recommendations 458
20.10 References 459
21 Occupational clothing for nurses: combining improved comfort with economic effi ciency 461
M. W ALZ , Eschler Textil GmbH, Germany
21.1 Introduction 461
21.2 Materials and methods 463
21.3 Cleanliness 464
21.4 Improving comfort in nurses’ occupational clothing 464
21.5 Improving durability of nurses’ clothing in industrial laundering processes 468
21.6 Possible savings in resources, washing and drying, durability and nosocomial infections 475
21.7 Applications of knitted microfi bre fabrics 476
21.8 Future trends 477
21.9 Sources of further information and advice 479
21.10 Acknowledgement 479
21.11 References 480
22 Medical bandages and stockings with enhanced patient acceptance 481
C. R OTSCH , H. O SCHATZ , D. S CHWABE , M. W EISER and U. M ÖHRING ,
Textile Research Institute Thuringia-Vogtlande., V. Germany
22.1 Introduction 481
22.2 Key issues and the role of medical bandages and stockings 482
22.3 Improving patient acceptance of medical bandages and stockings 492
22.4 Conclusions 500
22.5 References 501
23 Superabsorbents and their medical applications 505
G. B ARTKOWIAK , Central Institute for Labour Protection – National
Research Institute, Poland and I. F RYDRYCH , Central Institute for
Labour Protection – National Research Institute, Poland and Technical
University of Lodz, Poland
23.1 Introduction 505
23.2 Methods of obtaining superabsorbent polymers and their chemical structure 506
23.3 Forms of superabsorbents and their properties 510
23.4 Development stages of superabsorbent materials according to appropriate patents 516
23.5 Applications of superabsorbents in medicine 518
23.6 Applications of superabsorbents in hygiene products and medical textiles 520
23.7 Applications of superabsorbents for comfort improvement 525
23.8 Ergonomic tests 534
23.9 Application of superabsorbent materials in half masks 542
23.10 Conclusions 543
23.11 References 544
24 Nanofi brous textiles in medical applications 547
L. V AN DER S CHUEREN and K. D E C LERCK , Ghent University, Belgium
24.1 Introduction 547
24.2 Nanofi brous textiles 547
24.3 Applications of nanofi bres in the medical fi eld 551
24.4 Future trends 559
24.5 Sources of further information and advice 560
24.6 References 560
Index 567

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