Advanced Characterization and Testing of Textiles

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Advanced Characterization and Testing of Textiles
By Patricia Dolez, Olivier Vermeersch and Valério Izquierdo
Advanced Characterization and Testing of Textiles

Contents
Contributors xi
About the editors xiii 

Part One Principles of textile characterization and testing 1
1 Introduction to advanced characterization and testing of textiles 3
P.I. Dolez, O. Vermeersch
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Importance of textile testing 4
1.3 Variety of textile applications 6
1.4 Objectives of characterization and testing 7
1.5 Introduction to test methods 9
1.6 Testing management and infrastructure 12
1.7 Defective products 15
1.8 Future trends 16
1.9 Sources of further information and advice 18
References 19

Part Two Testing by properties 23
2 Advanced strength testing of textiles 25
D.C. Adolphe, P.I. Dolez
2.1 Introduction 25
2.2 Mechanical behavior of textiles 25
2.3 Textile elasticity 26
2.4 Tensile and multiaxial tensile strength 28
2.5 Compression 34
2.6 Burst strength 36
2.7 Shear properties 38
2.8 Flexion properties 39
2.9 Puncture resistance 40
2.10 Tear resistance measurement 44
2.11 Cut resistance 49
2.12 Impact resistance 52
2.13 Abrasion resistance 53
2.14 Future trends 55
2.15 Conclusion 55
2.16 Sources of further information and advice 56
References 56
3 Comfort testing of textiles 59
E. Classen
3.1 Introduction 59
3.2 Fabric comfort properties 60
3.3 Thermophysiological comfort testing 61
3.4 Skin sensorial wear comfort testing 62
3.5 Ergonomic comfort testing 66
3.6 Psychological comfort testing 67
3.7 Future trends 67
3.8 Conclusion 68
References 68
4 Testing thermal properties of textiles 71
D. Tessier
4.1 Introduction 71
4.2 Thermal properties of textiles 74
4.3 Testing thermal properties 75
4.4 Applications 83
4.5 Future trends 86
4.6 Conclusion 88
4.7 Sources of further information and advice 88
References 89
Further reading 92
5 Tests for evaluating textile aging 93
M. Fulton, M. Rezazadeh, D. Torvi
5.1 Introduction 93
5.2 Textile aging 93
5.3 Tests for textile aging 95
5.4 Nondestructive tests 106
5.5 Methods to predict useful life of textiles 114
5.6 Conclusions and future work 116
5.7 Sources of further information 117
References 118
Further reading 124
6 Advanced chemical testing of textiles 127
Y. Shao, V. Izquierdo, P.I. Dolez
6.1 Introduction 127
6.2 Measurement of extractable content 128
6.3 Analysis of fiber content 129
6.4 Chemical testing of functional finishes 134
6.5 Measurement of the resistance to chemicals 140
6.6 Measurement of the permeability to air, water vapor, solvents, particles, and toxic chemicals 142
6.7 Biodegradability testing 144
6.8 Future trends 145
6.9 Conclusions 146
References 146
Further reading 149
7 Toxicity testing of textiles 151
P.I. Dolez, H. Benaddi
7.1 Introduction 151
7.2 Testing for heavy metals 153
7.3 Testing for VOCs 159
7.4 Testing for toxic dyes 165
7.5 Testing for pesticide residues 168
7.6 Testing for flame retardants 173
7.7 Testing for phthalates 175
7.8 Testing for other toxic chemicals 176
7.9 Eco-textile certifications 177
7.10 Conclusion and future trends 179
7.11 Sources of further information and advice 179
References 180
8 Testing fabrics for flammability and fire safety 189
V. Izquierdo
8.1 Introduction 189
8.2 Flammability properties of fabrics 189
8.3 Testing the flammability of fabrics 192
8.4 Test methods for fire-resistant fabrics 196
8.5 Future trends 205
8.6 Conclusion 205
8.7 Sources of further information and advice 205
References 206
Further reading 209
9 Testing of hot-water and steam protective performanceproperties of fabrics 211
S. Mandal, M. Camenzind, S. Annaheim, R.M. Rossi
9.1 Introduction 211
9.2 Tests for evaluating the hot water and steam protectiveperformance of the clothing used by high-risk sector workers 212
9.3 Characterization of the hot water and steam protective
performances of clothing used by the high-risk sector
workers 225
9.4 Key issues related to the hot water and steam protectiveperformance of clothing 230
9.5 Summary and conclusion 231
9.6 Sources for further information 232
References 232

Part Three Testing by applications 237
10 Specific testing of geotextiles and geosynthetics 239
P.I. Dolez
10.1 Introduction 239
10.2 Geotextiles 240
10.3 Geogrids 264
10.4 Geosynthetic clay liners 270
10.5 Drainage geocomposites 277
10.6 Future trends 285
10.7 Conclusion 287
10.8 Sources of further information and advice 287
Acknowledgments 287
References 287
11 Specific testing of protective clothing 301
P.I. Dolez, V. Izquierdo
11.1 Introduction 301
11.2 Testing of industrial/domestic protective clothing 303
11.3 Testing of law enforcement protective clothing 312
11.4 Testing of first responder protective clothing 316
11.5 Testing of military protective clothing 320
11.6 Testing of medical protective clothing 324
11.7 Testing of electrical protective clothing 326
11.8 Testing of construction protective clothing 329
11.9 Testing of marine protective clothing 330
11.10 Testing of sports protective clothing 333
11.11 Future trends 335
11.12 Conclusions 337
11.13 Sources for further information and advice 337
Acknowledgments 338
References 338
12 Specific testing for smart textiles 351
J. Decaens, O. Vermeersch
12.1 Introduction 351
12.2 Testing conductive textile materials 353
12.3 Testing smart thermoregulating textiles 358
12.4 Testing ECG, EMG, EEG, and other embedded textile sensors 363
12.5 Testing cosmetotextiles and smart dermotextiles 367
12.6 Conclusion 371
References 371
13 Specific testing for filtration 375
N. Petillon
13.1 Structural properties 375
13.2 Hydraulic properties 379
13.3 Separative properties 381
13.4 Physical and physicochemical properties 386
13.5 Existing standards to qualify filter media 389
13.6 Source of further information 394
References 395
14 Specific testing of textiles for transportation 399
M. Richaud, O. Vermeersch, P.I. Dolez
14.1 Introduction 399
14.2 Performance testing related to safety 404
14.3 Testing related to flammability, smoke generation, and toxicity 410
14.4 Testing related to hygiene 414
14.5 Testing of textile-reinforced composites 415
14.6 Durability testing 419
14.7 Future trends 423
14.8 Conclusion 425
14.9 Sources of further information and advice 425
Acknowledgments 426
References 426
15 Specific testing for performance sportswear 433
R.M. Rossi
15.1 Introduction 433
15.2 Heat and moisture transfer through sportswear 433
15.3 Pressure and friction 438
15.4 Aero- and hydrodynamics 440
15.5 Conclusions and future trends 441
15.6 Sources of further information 442
References 443
Index 449

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