Textiles and Environment | N N Mahapatra

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Textiles and Environment
Dr. N N Mahapatra
Textiles and Environment

Contents
Preface xv
1. Role of chemical management services in industries 1
1.1 Introduction to chemical management 1
1.2 Chemical management services (CMS) 6
2. Eco-processing of textiles 7
2.1 Eco-processing 7
2.2 Eco-bleaching 9
2.3 Eco-dyeing 10
2.4 Eco-finishing 11
2.5 Eco-printing 12
3. Ecological dyeing process 13
3.1 Introduction 13
3.2 CO2 dyeing 15
3.3 Polyester CO2 dyeing machine 15
3.4 CO2 dyes 16
4. New concepts in eco-friendly processing 20
4.1 Introduction 20
4.2 Researches for organic processing 21
4.3 Introduction to eco-friendly processes 22
4.4 Serving resources in textiles 23
4.5 Dow Corning and denim processing 27 

5. Environmental impact solutions 29
5.1 Introduction 29
5.2 Protect your data and your planet 30
5.3 A commitment to the environment 31
6. The world of eco-fibres 33
6.1 Introduction 33
6.2 Characteristics of eco-fibres 33
6.3 Classification of eco-fibres 34
6.4 Natural origin eco-fibre 34
6.5 Hemp bio-commodities 36
6.6 Regenerated fibres 38
6.7 Recycled synthetic fibres 39
6.8 Recycled polyester 39
6.9 Recycled nylon 39
6.10 Fibres from waste products 40
6.11 Blends 40
6.12 Drawbacks of using eco-fibre products 40
6.13 Verification 41
6.14 Comparison of fibres 41
7. Hazardous substances in clothing and other textiles 42
7.1 Introduction 42
7.2 Alkylphenols 46
7.3 Phthalates 46
7.4 Brominated and chlorinated flame retardants 46
7.5 Azo dyes 47
7.6 Organotin compounds 47
7.7 Perfluorinated chemicals 47
7.8 Chlorobenzenes 48
7.9 Chlorinated solvents 48
7.10 Chlorophenols 48
7.11 Short-chain chlorinated paraffins 48
7.12 Heavy metals: cadmium, lead, mercury and 49
chromium (VI)
8. Herbal dyeing process 50
8.1 Introduction 50
8.2 Facts of chemical processing 52
8.3 Desizing 52
8.4 Bleaching 52
8.5 Mordanting 53
8.6 Dyeing 53
8.7 Finishing 53
8.8 Recycling plant 53
8.9 Major differences between various dyes 54
8.10 Major herbal dyes available 55
9. Carbon footprint in textile industry 57
9.1 Introduction 57
9.2 Greenhouse gases and global warming 57
9.3 Global warming and the textile industry 58
9.4 Primary and secondary footprint 58
9.5 Carbon footprint and the textile industry 59
9.6 Strategies for reducing carbon footprint 60
9.7 Revolutionary dyeing technologies 61
9.8 Indian textile industry oblivious 61

10. New technologies and in textile dyeing and finishing 65
10.1 Introduction 65
10.2 Requirements 66
10.3 Electrochemical process technology 66
10.4 Supercritical fluid dyeing technology 67
10.5 Plasma treatment technology 68
10.6 AirDye technology 69
11. Dyeing technologies for the future 71
11.1 Introduction 71
11.2 Options to overcome the environmental problems in the future 72
11.3 AirDye technology 75
11.4 Conclusion 78
12. Importance of blue sign in textile industry 80
12.1 Introduction 80
12.2 Blue is for clean 80
12.3 First products in the marketplace 81
12.4 The principles of bluesign 83
12.5 Three steps to achieving bluesign standard 84
12.6 What’s blue and what’s black 85
12.7 Ecology and high-tech go hand-in-hand 86
12.8 Science – A better tailor than nature 87
13. Processing of recycled polyester fiber in textile 88
industries
13.1 Introduction 88
13.2 Manufacturing process 89
13.3 Properties of recycled polyester fiber 89
13.4 Uses 91
14. Waterless dyeing process 92
14.1 Introduction 92
14.2 Supercritical fluid CO2 / supercritical fluid 92
dyeing technology
14.3 Dyeing polyester and other synthetics 94
14.4 Reductions in operating costs 94
14.5 Availability 95

15. Role of green technologies in industries 96
15.1 Introduction 96
15.2 Goals of green technology 97
15.3 Types of green technology 97
15.4 The future of chemistry 100
16. Salt-free reactive dyeing of cotton 101
16.1 Introduction 101
16.2 Modification of cotton fiber 101
17. Electro-coagulation process for the waste water 106
treatment
17.1 Introduction 106
17.2 What is chemical coagulation? 106
17.3 What is electro-coagulation? 106
17.4 ETP operating for 1000 m3 per day 107
(electro-coagulation plant)
17.5 ETP operating for 1000 m3 per day 108
(physical chemical plant)
17.6 Comparison of chemical coagulation and 108
electro-coagulation
18. AirDye technology 110
18.1 Introduction 110
18.2 How is AirDye different? 111
18.3 Take a very close look 111
18.4 Advantages of AirDye technology 113
18.5 Conclusion 114
19. World of recycled fibres 115
19.1 Recycling processes 115
19.2 Special processes 116
19.3 Recycling facts 116
19.4 Benefits of textile and clothing recycling 117
19.5 Recycled polyester 118
19.6 Recycled nylon/polyamide 118
19.7 Recycled cotton 119
19.8 Recycled wool 119

20. Application of green chemistry in industries 125
20.1 Introduction to green chemistry 125
20.2 Developments in green chemistry 125
20.3 Applications of green chemistry 127
21. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of textiles 129
21.1 Introduction 129
21.2 LCA calculator 130
21.3 Life Cycle Assessment of cotton fibre 132
21.4 LCA: A decision-making tool for recycling processes in textile industry 133
21.5 Life cycle of a T-shirt 134
21.6 The life cycle of making a T-shirt 134
22. What is ZDHC (Zero Discharge Hazardous Chemicals)? 136
22.1 Introduction 136
22.2 Main successes of ZDHC Group 136
22.3 Main challenges to the ZDHC Group 137
22.4 Working with Greenpeace 138
22.5 The Joint Roadmap 139
22.6 Benefits to participation 140
22.7 Governance policies and procedures of the zero discharge programme 141
22.8 Greenpeace slams latest ZDHC Roadmap 142
22.9 ZDHC identifies key transparency tool 142
22.10 ZDHC Group reports latest progress 142
22.11 H&M commitment towards ZDHC 142
22.12 Actions taken so far 143
22.13 PUMA Roadmap towards zero discharge of hazardous chemicals 143 
23. What is Higg Index? 145
23.1 Introduction 145
23.2 Vision 146
23.3 Mission 147
23.4 Current focus 147
23.5 Where we are: the Higg Index 1.0 147
23.6 A new yardstick 147
23.7 Scope 149
23.8 The Higg Index 149
23.9 Higg Scoring 150
23.10 Who’s on Board? 150
23.11 Where we’re headed? 150
23.12 How does the Higg Index work? 151
24. All about Mark and Spencer Plan A 153
24.1 Introduction 153
24.2 Giving back: a charity partnership between M&S and Oxfam 156
24.3 Next phase of Plan A 158

25. Greenpeace and its toxic campaigns 159
25.1 Introduction 159
25.2 Detox campaign 161
25.3 LV, Versace, Dolce&Gabbana fail in Greenpeace’s toxic chemicals test 161
25.4 Gap pledges to eliminate toxic chemicals, but Greenpeace isn’t happy 162
25.5 Heros or zeros? 163
25.6 Different strokes 163
25.7 H&M pledges to eliminate toxic chemicals from supply chain by 2020 164
25.8 Detoxing H&M 164
25.9 Greenpeace targets Zara in global Detox campaign 165
 
26. Restricted substances lists (RSLs) 168
26.1 Introduction 168
26.2 Methodology 170
26.3 Amines 173
26.4 APEO and NPEO 173
26.5 Benzotriazole (MBT) 174
26.6 Chloro-organic carriers 174
26.7 Chrome VI 175
26.8 Flame retardants 175
27. Sustainable fibres 176
27.1 Cotton 176
27.2 HEMP 177
27.3 Bamboo 177
27.4 Soya 178
27.5 Eucalyptus Tencel 178
27.6 Recycled PET 178
27.7 Wool 179
28. Importance of Compliances for brands and retailers 181
28.1 Toxic avengers 181
28.2 Greenpeace study 183
29. The importance of SIN (Substitute It Now!) List 185
29.1 Introduction 185
29.2 Substitute It Now! 185
29.3 What is the SIN List vs. the SVHC List? 188
Index 190

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