Chemical Management in Textiles and Fashion PDF Edited by Subramanian Muthu

By

Chemical Management in Textiles and Fashion

Edited by Dr. Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu

Chemical Management in Textiles

Contents

List of Contributors ix

1 Chemical management system in textiles 1

Jo¨nsson, S. Roos and J. Hildenbrand

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Chemical management system 3

1.3 Restricted substance list and manufacturing restricted substance list 3

1.4 Regulation and labeling schemes 4

1.5 Practical feasibilities and challenges 5

1.6 Knowledge and awareness 5

1.7 Available tools 7

1.8 Implementation of a chemical management system

in textile supply chains: example of a tool development 8

1.9 Tool development 9

1.10 Conclusion 14

1.11 Future trends 15

1.12 Recommendations for further studies 16

References 16

2 Chemical hazards in textiles 19

Parthiban Manickam and Deepthi Vijay

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Hazardous chemicals 19

2.3 Routes of exposure 26

2.4 Human toxicity 35

2.5 Impact of restricted substance list in chemical management 37

2.6 Regulatory aspects 39

2.7 Hazard control through regulatory norms 41

2.8 Hazard control and management 42

2.9 Conclusion 50

References 50

3 Chemical risk assessment in textile and fashion 53

Subhankar Maity, Kunal Singha and Pintu Pandit

3.1 Introduction 53

3.2 Chemical risk analysis 55

3.3 Chemical substances in textiles and garments and their release

and exposure 58

3.4 Release of toxic chemicals from textiles 60

3.5 Hazardous chemical in textile products 65

3.6 Method of assessment of potential risk of hazardous textile chemicals 71

3.7 Conclusion 73

References 74

4 Challenges in dyeing of cellulosics with reactive dyes and practical sustainable feasibilities 79

A.S.M. Raja, A. Arputharaj, G. Krishnaprasad, Sujata Saxena and P.G. Patil

4.1 Introduction 79

4.2 Cellulosic fibers 80

4.3 Cellulosic fiber consumption 80

4.4 Chemistry of cellulose 82

4.5 Chemical processing of cellulosic fibers 83

4.6 History of reactive dyes 84

4.7 Common structure of reactive dyes 84

4.8 Classification of reactive dyes 85

4.9 Mechanism of reactive dyeing of cellulosics 85

4.10 Factors affecting reactive dyeing of cellulosics 86

4.11 Application techniques of reactive dyes to cellulosic fibers 88

4.12 Ecological aspects of reactive dyeing 89

4.13 Ecological problem due to chemicals, auxiliaries, and water 91

4.14 Current technologies for improvement 92

4.15 Unconventional reactive dyeing (ultrasound, microwave, foam, plasma, supercritical) 93

4.16 Conclusion 95

References 96

5 Essentials of chemical management system for textiles 99

Nishita Ivy

5.1 Introduction 99

5.2 Chemical management system 99

5.3 Essential elements of the chemical management system 100

5.4 The implementation process of Chemical Management System in textiles 109

5.5 Tackling challenges on Chemical Management System in textiles 110

5.6 Conclusion and recommendation 111

References 111

6 Hazardous, restricted, and manufacturing restricted substances in textiles and clothing supply chain 113

Gobalakrishnan, Subrata Das and D. Saravanan

6.1 Introduction 113

6.2 Restricted substances 114

6.3 Importance of restricted substances list (RSL) 114

6.4 Criteria for a substance to be included in a restricted substances list 114

6.5 Purpose of brand restricted substances list 115

6.6 Scope of brand restricted substances lists 115

6.7 Contents of a restricted substances list document

(MBDC, 2012; Rev, 2014) 115

6.8 Basic terms in restricted substances list document

(Das, 2015) 116

6.9 Major risk areas for restricted substances 117

6.10 Restricted substances list for Calvin Klein 120

6.11 Introduction to manufacturing restricted substances

list (MRSL) 124

6.12 Difference between manufacturing restricted substances

list (MRSL) and restricted substances list (RSL) 125

6.13 Scope of a manufacturing restricted substances list 125

6.14 Implementation of a manufacturing restricted substances

list in a facility (ZHDC Group, 2015) 125

6.15 Role of MRSL to ensure RSL compliance of a finished

product 126

6.16 Restricted chemical groups mentioned in brand RSL

and MRSL documents 126

6.17 Important terms and definitions used in a typical MRSL

document (ZHDC Group, 2015; ZDHC, 2015) 126

6.18 Structure of a manufacturing restricted substances

list document 127

6.19 Global legislations on harmful chemicals in textiles 129

6.20 Practical challenges in managing RSL and MRSL

in a textile mill 132

6.21 Conclusion 132

References 132

7 Chemical compliance and regulations in textiles and fashion 135

Prasannamedha and P. Senthilkumar

7.1 Introduction to chemical compliance in textile industry 135

7.2 Overview of chemicals used in textile industry 136

7.3 Identification of hazardous chemicals in textiles 137

7.4 Categorization of hazardous chemicals 138

7.5 Need for chemical compliance in textile sector 138

7.6 Compliance requirements 142

7.7 Life cycle of chemicals used in textile and fashion industries 145

7.8 Regulations promoted for hazardous chemicals 145

7.9 Compliance monitoring 150

7.10 Consumer Product Safety Law 151

7.11 Chemical regulations in India 151

7.12 Conclusion 152

7.13 Future scope and needs 153

References 153

8 Life cycle assessment and textile chemicals 155

Roos and C. Jo¨nsson

8.1 Introduction 155

8.2 Life cycle assessment in textile chemicals 158

8.3 Challenges in life cycle assessment studies of textile

chemicals 160

8.4 Case studies 164

8.5 Conclusion 169

8.6 Future trends 170

8.7 Recommendations for further study 171

References 171

9 Green chemistry in textile and fashion 177

Pintu Pandit, Kunal Singha and Subhankar Maity

9.1 Introduction 177

9.2 Application of natural dyeing in textile and fashion 180

9.3 Application of green flame retardants in textile and fashion 182

9.4 Application of antibacterial finishes in textile and fashion 183

9.5 Green chemistry approach for ultraviolet protection in textile

and fashion 184

9.6 Aroma finishing of textile and fashion 185

9.7 Mosquito repellency finish for textile and fashion 186

9.8 Applications of graphene in textile 187

9.9 Application of plasma technology in textile and fashion 189

9.10 Application of green reducing agent for synthesis of nanoparticles 192

9.11 Green synthesis of nanofibers and nanoparticles for textile finishing 193

9.12 Future and challenges of green chemistry in textile and fashion 195

9.13 Conclusion 197

References 198

Index 205

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